Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male neonates, with an incidence of one case per 8,000 to 25,000 live births1. The diagnosis is usually made prenatally or at birth, when male newborns are evaluated for prenatal hydronephrosis, or during early childhood, but rarely during adolescence or adulthood. Late presentation of PUV is rare and it has been estimated to account for 10% of cases2. Presentation in adulthood may occur due to the presence of a mild form of the disease devoid of the life threatening complications seen in children with the severe form3. A rare case of PUV which manifested in adulthood with lower urinary symptoms is presented to create awareness of the likelihood of the disease outside the paediatric age group.
As the knowledge of wireless technology keeps growing exponentially in the field of telecommunication, new ideas spring up over time to address and proffer solutions to generational wireless communication issues. In this term paper, the reasons for wireless technology growth was explained, and a detailed information on emerging wireless technology was highlighted. The paper highlights the idealistic of heterogeneous networks, how security and short range within the network can be solved through a suggested solution of hybridizing RF and OW.
Research has over time played a pivotal role in mankind’s quest for knowledge and technological advancement. In all spheres of human existence, research and its further application have over time been able to show the obvious, and yet sometimes hidden unity of science and the philosophical and sociological settings in which everything operates. Essentially, research has helped man to explore once thought of as bizarre phenomena and afforded man the opportunity to draw a fine line between opinions and facts towards gaining maximum benefits from the research’s orientation (Williams, 2007). Too frequently, research is viewed as a formalized process of applying a rigid sequence of steps to the solution to a problem but in actual fact, research in itself entails flexibility in order to maximize scientific methods. This paper explains the concept of literature review in research and how a literature review is done in other to enhance the quality of the research work produced.
This work is motivated by the critical role that sediment yield prediction plays in preventing natural and economic disasters. Methods based on regression techniques have been used to solve the problem but they are generally inadequate in predicting river sediment yield because of the inherent complexity of the problem. This work uses the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to solve the problem. The ANFIS model accepts four input data namely temperature, rainfall, water stage and water discharge and gives on output data that represents the sediment yield. The ANFIS model was developed and simulated with MATLAB 7.0 using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method and trained with a maximum of 1500 epochs at a learning rate of 0.5. the results obtained was compared with the ones obtained with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and it was found that the ANFIS model performs better than the ANN model.
Micronutrient Composition and its Bio-availability in Complementary Foods Developed From Cereal (Millet/Maize), Soybean and Monkey kola Flours
The micronutrient composition of complementary foods produced from blends of cereal (millet/maize), soybean and monkey kola flours were evaluated. Seven millet-based blends (A1 to G1) and maizebased blends (A2 to G2) were analyzed for total carotene content. Thereafter, 100% millet, 100% maize, the two millet and maize based blends that had the highest carotene content were analyzed for total minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, and Zn) and their bio-availability comparing with a commercially available complementary product (cerelac maize) which served as control. The total carotene content of the test samples ranged from 27.69 to 164.58μg/100g in the milletbased blends and from 233.61 to 464.48μg/100g in the maize-based blends. Sample G1 and all the maize-based blends were found to be higher in total carotene when compared to the control. Total mineral content result showed that calcium ranged from 91.09 to 121.59mg/100g and their bioavailability ranged from 44.14 to 67.96% while the control had a total calcium content of 337.15mg/100g and a bio-availability of 58.92%. Magnesium in the test samples ranged from 10.44 to 12.29mg/100g and bio-availability of 82.56 to 99.33% while the control was found to be 11.18mg/100g and a bioavailability of 87.65%. Phosphorous was from 7.32 to 17.12mg/100g and bio-availability was from 54.48 to 81.43% but the control had 17.12mg/100g and a bio-availability of 61.35%. Iron had a range of 9.31 to 26.27mg/100g and bio-availability from 8.19 to 64.81%, whereas the control had 27.74mg/100g and a bio-availability of 51.47%. Zinc from 1.85 to 6.27mg/100g and bio-availability of 51.62 to 74.71% while C3 had 3.93mg/100g and a bio-availability of 42.86%. This means that complementary foods from blends of cereal, soybean and monkey kola flours compared with commercially available complementary products and are suitable to improve the micronutrient intake of infant and young children in developing countries.
Large urinary bladder leiomyoma causing right hydronephrosis, a rare case report: diagnosis and management
Background Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor despite the routine use of ultrasonography. These tumors are typically asymptomatic, sometimes present with hematuria, dysuria, and bladder outlet obstruction. Leiomyoma is a benign tumor which is detected incidentally and rarely causes upper urinary tract changes. (1, 2) We present an extremely rare case of leiomyoma in urinary bladder causing right hydronephrosis and presenting with flank pain. Case summary A 42 years female presented with flank pain in the emergency room as result of hydronephrosis in the right kidney. Imaging of urinary tract revealed 6 x 6.5 cm, a well-circumscribed tumor with right hydroureteronephrosis suggestive of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. Excision of leiomyoma was done intravesically with preservation of bilateral ureteral orifices’. Conclusion Our case highlights despite being a large tumor there was no ureteral involvement. The hydronephrosis was the result of compression from large sized leiomyoma which was successfully managed by excision of leiomyoma.
Dance provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional wellbeing. Dance therapy is based on the idea that body and mind are co-relational. The therapeutic approaches with various forms of Indian dances are a new entrant to dance literature. Ayurveda held dance as a power of healing (therapy) and inner awareness (psychology). Indian philosophy also supports the facts of Sangeet (song, dance and music) for benefit of human health physically as well as mentally. The powerful dance form of Bhangra (Punjab), Karagam (Tamilnadu), Chou, Rayabese, Dhali (West Bengal) gives good health and strength. The fast footwork of Kathak dance helps to release anger and tension. Manipuri dancers make rounded movements and avoid any jerks, sharp edges or straight lines. It gives them undulating and soft appearance, proper body control and peace of mind. All these body movements, body balancing, expression, muscle movement, muscle constriction and relaxation have a strong effect on therapeutic movements. In India today the dance therapists are conscious about this matter and in therapeutic sessions they actually improvise different dance movements according to the need.
Mineral-Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: Dakar Experience (Senegal West Africa)
Introduction: Mineral bone disorders (BMD) are almost constant complications in chronic hemodialysis patients. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and profiles of BMD in chronic hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This is a six-year descriptive and analytical retrospective study from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015, at the hemodialysis department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) Aristide Le Dantec. Were also included patients on chronic hemodialysis for at least 3 months, with at least one prescribed amount of parathyroid (PTH). For each included patient, the epidemiological, dialytic, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: Over 86 patients, 71 (82.5%) had BMD. The average age was 48.92 ± 15.5 years old, with a sex ratio of 0, 65. Nephroangiosclerosis was the most frequent initial nephropathy (56.3%). The dialysis seniority was 5.2 ± 2.9 years old and 93% of patients profited from 3 sessions of 4 hours per week. Eleven patients (15.5%) had previous aluminum intoxication. Fifty-eight patients (81.6%) had secondary hyperparathyroidism, 12.6% had adynamic osteopathy (OA), and 1.4% had osteomalacia. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the average age was 48.6 ± 15 years old. 37.9% of these patients had articular pains, 22.4% had bone pains and 13.8% had spontaneous fractures. Eleven patients had hypocalcemia and only one patient had mild hypercalcemia. 46.5% of patients had normal phosphatemia; 29.3% had hypophosphatemia and 24.13% had hyperphosphatemia. Average PTH was 913.85 ± 331.65 ng/ml. 73% of patients had 25-OH-Vit D insufficiency; 72.7% of patients had high total PAL. Therapeutically, 91.4% of patients had been treated with calcium carbonate; 25.9% with a treatment based on non-calcium phosphorus chelators; 69% of patients received vitamin D and 15.5%, calcimimetic treatment. 22% of patients under medical treatment normalized their PTH. Parathyroidectomy was performed in 6.9% of patients. The average age in…
Farmer involvement in the development of cowpea varieties for cultivation is an integral component for crop improvement in Northern Ghana where the bulk of cowpea is produced. The objective of this study was to assess farmers’ perception about the effect of drought on cowpea production, identify production constraints and determine farmer preferred traits using Participatory Rural Appraisal. Five cowpea producing districts were selected across the three Northern regions. Fifty cowpea producers, consumers and traders were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance statistical procedure was used to identify and rank farmers’s constraints and preferences, and to measure the degree of agreement among the respondents. Ninety three percent of the farmers reported that, the number of hot days has increased over the past ten years. Farmers across all the three regions linked the effect of drought to the stages of cowpea growth with podding stage seen as the worst affected. About 70% of the farmers preferred varieties with large grain size, smooth or rough textured seeds with white coats. About 84 % of farmers preferred varieties that were early and drought tolerant.
Cultivated areas of soybean in Brazil have been increasing with each harvest and the seed market is moving in the same direction, launching new varieties every year. To increase not only planted area but also productivity, it is necessary to use technologies and use integration systems. In this study, the effect of pollination by honeybees on two soybean varieties in two consecutive years was evaluated. Three treatments were established: cages with Apis mellifera honeybees, cages without bees and free areas for insect visitation. The results showed an increase 6.45% of soybean yield in areas with free access to insect visitation. While in the cages with the introduction of Africanized honeybee colonies the increase was 13.64%. These results indicate that even in the most recent cultivars, cross pollination can show productivity gains even in an autogamous species.