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  • Livestock Exports Growth in Sudan and Effect of Transport Section

    This paper presents guidelines to the needs and restrictions that affect the growth of Sudanese livestock exports resulting from the weakness of transportation section. Sudan has a huge livestock population. The livestock has a great contribution in the local economy. The production of livestock in Sudan is increasing effectively in the recent decades. Also, the contribution of livestock to exports has witnessed a gradual growing in the past few decades. The weakness of road and transport infrastructure, however, is affecting the growing of livestock export in Sudan. The livestock production is concentrated in rural areas that far away from the main roads and unconnected to them by paved roads. The road quality, in Sudan, is very poor. The infrastructure does not cover most Sudanese geographical area especially agricultural and livestock areas. Also, the cost of transportation is very high in comparison with international cost. Moreover, road maintenance is very weak and not cover all roads networks. And, there is a lack of finance for new road projects. This study finds out that the roads’ situation in Sudan is not helping the current growing progress of livestock exports and seriously declines that growing.

  • The Applicability of Core Community Ecological Theories in Periodontitis

    The field of ‘microbial ecology’ has gained much attention from the scientific community, especially in the past decade with the fastest improvements in ‘omics’ technologies. There is substantial evidence on commonalities in ‘community ‘in both ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ ecosystems. However, cross system comparisons in research arena needs much efforts ever than before. Periodontitis is a major public health threat, being the commonest ‘poly microbial’ disease across the globe. Here we suggest the possibility of applying six core community ecology theories: succession, community assembly, meta-community dynamics, multi-trophic interactions in initiation and progression of periodontitis from the normal healthy status and restoration. Now the time has come for the collaboration of microbiome researchers and applied scientists to uncover complex species interactions and make the cross-system comparisons. Findings of such research in ‘community ecology’ will shed light into precision periodontal management and optimized treatment outcomes from molecular perspectives through to public health perspectives.

  • Intracanal Cryotherapy and its Effects on the Postoperative Pain in Root Canal Therapy: Systematic Review & Meta-analysis Protocol

    Background: There are many research studies directing in lowering postoperative pain in root canal therapy. The use of intracanal cryotherapy in root canal treatment is recently introduced, and many researchers are inclined towards this techniques. This systematic review will give an insight into its application in endodontic therapy and its effects on postoperative pain. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of intracanal cryotherapy on the postoperative pain in patients with pulp diseases and with or without peri-radicular infection during root canal therapy. This systematic review will include randomized controlled trials only. The studies should encompass patients with pulpal diseases, i.e. irreversible pulpitis and pulp necrosis in teeth. Previously root treated teeth, immature, and teeth with root resorption will not be included. Methods: We will conduct a comprehensive search strategy using electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), Scopus, and Cochrane library. A predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria will be utilized for the selection of studies. The reference list of selected studies will be manually searched. We will extract data from studies on a structured data collection form. At the same time, the risk of bias assessment of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tools will be performed by two reviewers independently. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative data synthesis will be accomplished. The data will be presented in the form of table of summary of findings. Discussion: This systematic review will assess the role of intracanal cryotherapy in the form of cold saline irrigation as a final irrigant during root canal therapy. The quality of evidence will ranked as high, moderate low or very low using GRADE approach. Comprehensive search strategy, risk of bias assessment using Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool by two reviewers are the strength of this systematic review. Systematic review registration number: The…

  • Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review

    Rubella infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile rash illnesses and its becoming more prevalent in countries yet to include Rubella containing vaccines into their routine immunization. It teratogenic effect in the first trimester of pregnancy is of public Health concern, hence this study aims to investigate the trend of Rubella infection in a Southwestern State of Nigeria over a ten-year period. A community based cross sectional retrospective study was conducted in all the 16 Local Government Areas and 177 wards of Ekiti state, using available records for Measles surveillance in the state. A review of the laboratory results of blood samples collected from all cases presenting with fever and maculopapular rashes in the state between 2010 and 2019 was done. Descriptive analysis of the data collected was done using SPSS version 22 and the results were presented in tables and charts. Level of statistical significance was set at p

  • Experimental Study on Natural and Force Convection Hybrid Active Greenhouse Solar Drying of Mushroom

    This manuscript deals with drying of food to avoid losses between accumulation and consumption of edible material (food), as higher moisture content is one of the reasons for its spoilage during the storage period at time of accumulation (harvesting) .High moisture content in crops leads to fungus infection, attacked by insects, pests and the increased respiration of agriculture produce, which further all threat to food productivity and food security. In order to ensure this concern Solar drying of Mushroom is conducted to investigate the performance of the hybrid active greenhouse for drying mushroom and also study the drying behavior of mushroom (Pleurotus Florida) in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db). The green house consists of a transparent UV stabilized plastic covered and wire & tube type heat exchanger and drying chamber unit. Various experiments are conducted during the course of winter season, in months November and December 2017 and also January 2018 at Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior campus (26ᵒ.2183N and 78ᵒ.1828E), India. Experimental set up is situated on the open floor to have a good exposure to the solar radiation. Experimental data are used to calculate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. The products (mushroom) to be dried are placed on a single layer wire mesh in the drying chamber to receive energy from hot water obtained from the evacuated tube solar collector (ETSC) and the incident solar radiation on products. During the experimental procedure minimum and maximum solar radiations are 243 W/m² and 925 W/m² respectively. The generated voltages for the 40 W solar modules are 4.5. V to 14.8 V and temperatures in the drying chamber varied from 37.0°C to 72.5° C. Moisture content of mushrooms are decreasing from about 89.41% to 5.94% in 5 hours….

  • Evaluation of undergraduate Logistics & Transportation Management curriculum change from traditional lecturing to student-centered Problem-Based Learning (PBL) active learning environment

    Problem This paper presents the outcomes of the Problem Based Learning (PBL) methodology implementation in the undergraduate Logistics & Transportation (L&T) Management course at the Federal University of Itajubá (UNIFEI), Brazil. The research explores a curriculum change evaluation by using Survey data from two stages, in two semesters of the L&T course, with different PBL scenarios and students. L&T course addressed several concepts of Logistics Management and the PBL approach enpowered students to self-learning, citical thinking, social and process skills. It was demonstrated that the majority of the students, over 91%, appreciated the benefits of PBL based curriculum in both semesters, with positive evaluation in all course dimensions. To support the conclusions of the study, special attention was given to the development of the questionnaires. The first stage, the pilot questionnaire, had a set of 21 scaled and structured questions, covering the course concepts and learning objectives. The second stage questionnaire was redesigned to a new set of 15 questions, modeled to three constructs by Factor Analysis, keeping up with the reliability and validity requirements.


    Introduction: CKD is also called Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and, when installed, compromises renal functions in a slow, progressive and irreversible manner. Therefore, in some cases, renal replacement therapy treatments are necessary, including hemodialysis (HD). The family, in turn, also experiences changes in their roles and dynamics of functioning that influence the act of taking care of themselves and others. Objective: To promote reflections on the life projects of family members/caregivers of Pediatric Nephrology Hemodialysis patients at a reference hospital in Integral Medicine in the Northeast. Methods: Experience report through a group meeting with host intervention, listening directed to life projects aimed at family members and or companions of hemodialysis patients. Results: It was perceived from the reports that the task of caring is complex and permeated by diverse and contradictory feelings, but that many of the people who experience this experience felt emotionally weakened. We also verified that responsibility is transferred as an additional action to the family, which in its daily life is obliged to accumulate the function of “living for” the patient’s dialysis treatment. Surrounded by fears and uncertainties, they “abdicated” from work, studies, friends, leisure, personal care, despite nurturing a common feeling, present in all expressions: faith. Considerations: With this intervention, although brief, one can understand the importance of providing the family member or companion with a moment of reflection and exchange of experiences.

  • Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security

    Agriculture sector is the backbone of developing countries for their economy. Growing world’s population is putting more pressure on agriculture sector to address the crises of food security. Today, nanotechnology is working as technological advancement to solve problems related to food security and agriculture. Nanotechnology is providing efficient alternatives to increase the crop production by managing the insect/pests in agriculture in an eco-friendly manner. It also promotes plant efficiency to absorb nutrients. Nanotechnology in conjunction with genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas, has been used as delivery tool for template DNA and proteins. In addition, nano-formulations based pesticides and insecticides are being used in agriculture to increase solubility, mobility and durability. Moreover, food processing, packing and storage has also been improved through nanomaterials applications. Although, nanotechnology applications are advancing in almost all fields, health and environmental safety concerns do exist. In this review we summarized exciting applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector along with its prospective merits and associated risks.

  • By using low-cost Adsorbents process elimination of heavy metals from wastewater

    The beginning of industrialization human being has observed a variety of environmental concerns on the earth. The industrialization has not simply carried growth and affluence but finally troubled the environment. One of the crashes is noticeable, in form of water pollution. Now the present study of heavy metal pollution of water body has been talk over. Effluents from an unlimited amount of industries viz., textile, tannery, dyes, pigment, paint, wood processing, electroplating, leather, petroleum refining etc., have a key amount of heavy metal in their wastewater. The conventional technique of treatment heavy metal contamination contains chemical precipitation, membrane separation, chemical oxidation, ion exchange, electro dialysis, reverse osmosis, etc. These procedures are costly, energy intensive and often linked with creation of toxic by-product. Hence, the adsorption has been experimental as a cost-efficient method for treatment of heavy metals removal from wastewater. In the existing study numerous inexpensive adsorbent has been an analysis as a reduction of heavy metal effluence from wastewater. These adsorbent include resources of natural origin similar to zeolites, peat moss, peat moss, chitin, clay are find to be a real agent for elimination of lethal heavy metal like Cu, Ni, Hg, Zn, Cr , Pb, Cd, etc. Distinctly from these, a range of farming wastes like waste tea, rice husk, black gram neem bark, walnut shell, etc. Also known to be an influential adsorbent for the eliminating heavy metal from wastewater. at the side of that inexpensive or low-cost manufacturing byproduct like lignin, fly ash, iron (III) red mud, hydroxide and coffee husks, tea factory waste, Areca waste, sugar beet battery industry waste, pulp, waste slurry, blast furnace sludge, grape stalk wastes, sea nodule residues have been found for their methodological option for removal toxic metal from waste water.

  • Realism in Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange

    The imaginative writer always aims at presenting a story to the audience (readers) that is not only interesting but appears to be true so as to keep them in love with his work. The literary creative writer skillfully mixes his imagination with the material obtained from the society to produce a piece that is a reflection of the realities of his environment. This pa-per therefore, examines Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange from a realist perspective. The pa-per reveals that the themes and literary techniques the author has adopted deepen our knowledge of the Caribbean Islands, particularly Jamaica whose socio-economic realities are sampled by the author. Through realism, as a literary theory, racism and sexuality among other thematic preoccupations and literary techniques like satire and the use of a creolised English, this paper appreciates Smile Orange as a piece that brings us face to face with the real experiences of the Caribbean. The history of the Caribbean has been captured in the paper to give the reader an insight into what the literature of the people may contain if it is realistic. The author is able to give us another dimension of the eco-nomic and social problems of Jamaica using the tourist industry as an example.By present-ing those issues without making any revolutionary move makes the playwright a critical realist.