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  • Mineralization of phosphorous by phosphate solubilising bacteria isolated from a vertisol

    The current experiment unravels P solubilisation potential of soil under long term fertilizer application. Soil samples collected from a 20 years old long term experimental field. Treatments included fallow (no fertilizer, no crop), control (no fertilizer, with crop), 100% N, 100% NP, 100% NPK, and 100% NPK+FYM. P solubilisation potential of soils determined using Ca3(PO4)2 as inorganic insoluble P source. Abundance of total bacteria, phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) estimated along with the efficient PSB isolated to evaluate P solubilisation potential using Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate and sodium phytate as P sources. P solubilisation rate was highest in 100% NP and lowest in fallow. Abundance of total eubacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) was high in 100% NP and low in fallow. The 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates were homologues to Paraburkholderia sp. The efficient PSB isolate solubilised Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate as well as sodium phytate. Acid phosphatise activity was highest in Ca3(PO4)2 and lowest in sodium phytate. Study concludes that P solubilisation in vertisol under long term fertilizer application is regulated by nutrients, particularly P fractions and abundance of PSB. The PSB solubilise different P sources by reducing pH of medium as well as through acid phosphatase attributes.

  • The Role of Property Rights to Grazing Lands in Small-Scale Farmers Development in Taung, Maralleng in Mohale’s Hoek

    Property rights are social institutions that define and delimit the range of privileges granted to individuals of specific resources, such as land and water. They are the authority to determine different forms of control over resources thus determining the use, benefits and costs resulting from resource use. The paper has attempted to determine how the situation of property rights to grazing lands affects the grazing lands’ use and development of smallholders in the Taung Maralleng area. Data was collected from 43 households who were selected using random sampling. To capture data, a questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Institutional analysis and ANOVA were used for descriptive analysis to describe the property rights situation, security of property rights and the impact of property rights on the grazing lands’ use and management. The results show that some rights holders have secure rights to grazing land resources while other farmers have insecure rights to grazing land resources. The results from institutional analysis show that the situation of property rights negatively affects resource use and management in the Taung Maralleng area. There are various institutional factors that negatively affect development of smallholder farmers and grazing lands’ use and management in the Taung Maralleng area.


    The study was undertaken with the purpose of investigating institutional factors influencing participation in milk markets in Maseru urban. Out of 30 dairy farmers, 30 were selected using a survey method and data was collected using a structured questionnaires. The data generated was analysed using both descriptive statistics and logit model. Descriptive results show that dairy farmers use formal market channels more than informal market channels. Empirical results show that market information, membership in organization and collective action, government support and contractual agreements influence participation in formal markets while social capital, path dependency, delayed payments and distance to milk collection centres influence participation in the informal markets.

  • Modelling of unsteady spatially distributed drying parameters assessed non-destructively in a small industrial food dryer

    Modelling of unsteady moisture diffusion in relation of product temperature become complex due to complexity involve in solving complex numerical equations. In this study, a simplified methodology (determination of drying parameters: lag factor and drying constant) used to model change in food quality with its temperature in an industrial dryer using potato slices (6mm thick, 60°C). A shiftable real time data acquisition box was developed. Linear and exponential models were developed to estimate product quality as a function of dimensionless moisture ratio, linked with change in product temperature. The experimental and models predicted color kinetics using variable values of lag factor and drying constant revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P ˂ 0.0001). The change in spatially distributed quality parameter with product weight loss was successfully assessed and modelled unsteadily, providing a better way to optimize the design process as a function of food physiognomies in an industrial dryer.

  • Estimation of Yield Advantage and Competitiveness of Onion-Rosemary Intercropping over Sole Cropping at Wondo Genet

    Different cropping system and planting patterns of onion and rosemary evaluated to estimate yield advantage and their competitiveness during 2013-14 and 2014-15 growing seasons under irrigated condition at wondo genet Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. The experiment comprised of six treatments: sole Onion (250,000 plants ha-1), sole Rosemary (83,333plants ha-1) and four onion-rosemary intercropping mix proportion: 100 onion: 80 rosemary, 100 onion: 60 rosemary, 100 onion: 40 rosemary and 100 onion: 20 rosemary, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed that; intercropping of onion with different population densities of rosemary significantly affected dry bulb yield; highest dry bulb yield was recorded at solitary cropping than that of intercropped. Similarly; essential oil yield of rosemary significantly influenced by cropping system; highest essential oil yield obtained in sole planted than intercropped. The highest value of land equivalent ratio (1.52), land equivalent coefficient (0.57) and relative crowding coefficient (6.07) obtained when onion intercropped with 80 % rosemary population density. However, positive values of actual yield loss and maximum intercropping advantage obtained in treatments where onion intercropped with rosemary at 20 and 40 % population density. Generally, these finding suggest that intercropping of onion with rosemary at 80 % population density enhanced yield advantage and Competitiveness as indicated by higher land equivalent ratio and relative crowding coefficient. Therefore, the inclusion of onion with 80% a rosemary population density elevated yield advantage and competitiveness over sole planted crop per unit area as indicated by higher LER and relative crowding coefficient.


    INTRODUCTION-Cancer’ is not directly mentioned in Ayurvedic text as one disease. Many diseases, which are described in Ayurvedic text, show similarities with Cancer. Also etiology (Nidan), pathogenesis (Samprapti), treatment(Chikitsa) of cancer can be described by considering the basic principles of Ayurved. Granthi is a term for a tumour, lump or nodule. Granthi may be benign or malignant. In Ayurvedic literature, a detailed description is given of various types of tumors. Terms such as gulma, granthi, utseda and arbuda are used for specific tumor conditions. AIMS & OBJECTIVES-1.Conceptual and clinical studies on Granthi. 2.To evaluate safety and efficacy of Sahadevi Panchang Kshara in management of Granthi. MATERIALS & METHODS-The study was conducted on 30 clinically diagnosed and confirmed patients of Granthi from OPD/IPD of Rajvaidhya Premshankar Sharma Govt. Ayurvedic Hospital, Udaipur. Group A- 15 Patients of simple granthi (Benign tumour) were treated by 500mg capsule Sahadevi kshara two times a day with normal water for 60 days. Group B- 15 Patients of malignant granthi were treated by 500mg capsule Sahadevi kshara two times a day with normal water for 60 days. The patients will be diagnosed with the help of various subjective parameters. RESULT-Pain, tenderness, fatigue, size of lump symptoms were significant In Group A and Pain, Tenderness, Size of lump, Nausea, fatigue,, Constipation, Gas in Abdomen, Heaviness in Chest symptoms were significant in group B. Pain was improved in both groups. CONCLUSION-Sahadevi Kshara proved to be an effective, safe, promising and cost effective in the management of cancer.

  • Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng against Periodontal pathogens: An invitro study

    The present experimental study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng on the most common periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng was prepared using maceration technique. Thus obtained extract was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy against 4 periodontal pathogens by means of evaluating the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time kill curve analysis. MIC was carried out by using serial dilution method. MBC was assessed by incubating the cultures of microorganisms with the same drug concentrations as MIC. Time kill curve (TKC) was analysed by incubating the organisms in anaerobic chamber, to evaluate the timely declination of growth rate. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng was both bacteriostatic and bactericidal for Pg and Pi at 0.8 µg/ml and for Fn at 50 µg/ml. But for Aa, it was only bacteriostatic at 25 µg/ml but not bactericidal in nature. Also, Pg showed no growth after 10 minutes, but the growth of Pi, Fn and Aa was not inhibited even after incubation for 2 hours. From this in-vitro study we conclude that the ethanolic extract of panax ginseng showed antimicrobial efficacy against all the test microorganisms, such as Pg, Fn, Pi and Aa. Thus these results can be used to continue with further invitro, invivo research and in day to day clinical treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  • A study of “Micro STEM” Physics Classroom Teaching

    This paper explores the “Micro STEM” physics classroom teaching from the two aspects of pre-class design ideas and teaching links, and conducts an investigation on the teaching effect of students after class. The study finds that “Micro STEM” classroom enables students to understand and use the target knowledge better than traditional classroom, and students’interest in learning and classroom participation are higher. It is helpful to cultivate students’ability to discover and solve problems and sense of teamwork, and to improve students’ core scientific literacy.

  • Expressed Beliefs Concerning the Demographic Characteristics of Various Types of Criminal Offenders

    People often think of certain demographic characteristics when they are asked about particular kinds of criminal offenders and behaviors. Having set beliefs and attitudes about particular kinds of social groups often comes with negative labeling, stereotyping, and unfavorable treatment. This study examined what came into the minds of 573 people when they were asked about specific kinds of criminal groups or offenders. The findings from this study confirmed that there are clear patterns in the ways that people tend to think when they are asked about the demographics of criminal offenders. Research participants from all demographic backgrounds generally displayed common thoughts and beliefs about which types of people fall into specific offending categories, such as serial killers being White, gang members being Hispanic, prison inmates being Black, drug addicts being White, and outlaw bikers being White. Across all categories it was found that most people think of males when it comes to criminal offending. Other clear patterns revealed included thoughts about offenders typically being young and from the lower class; although there were some deviations from this for certain types of offenders and groups (e.g., outlaw bikers). The findings from this study should be useful across a number of fields such as psychology, criminology, sociology, social work, and corrections.


    In recent times, osteoporosis has taken epidemic proportions. It is a disorder that in time of industrialization and application of new technologies is starting to impact even the younger population. The use of modern devices in everyday life is resulting in a reduce level of human physical activity, consequently leading to inactive way of life and increase in number of people suffering from osteoporosis. Going beyond its educational character, this dissertation also has an aim to point out potential positive aspects of Tae Bo exercises on people with osteoporosis and potential positive effect on bone mass, lowering of FRAX score and better quality of life. The study included 92 patients with osteoporosis diagnosis, who at the beginning and at the end of the study carried out laboratory blood, urine, densitometry tests and filled out questionnaires of the ten-year risk of fracture (FRAX) and Quality Questionnaire QUALEFFO 31. The study was prospective, randomized controlled study conducted on a group of women between 55 and 65 years age during the period from 01.07.2018. to 01.07.2019. Research has shown that programs Tae Bo exercise can positively impact the greater bone mass and quality of life of people with osteoporosis. Considering the social and economic magnitude and the breath of osteoporosis as a global and widespread problem, the main contribution of this study was to find new ways in mitigating the effects.