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  • Primary Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease in Indonesia

    Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. An increase number in the proportion of elders is accompanied by an increase of degenerative diseases and disabilities, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prevalence of dementia in Indonesia is 1.2 million cases in 2015 and will keep increasing up to 3,980,000 in 2050. This study discusses data on the prevalence of dementia’s risk factors in Indonesia, calculates population-attributable risks (PAR) to identify the number of dementia cases that could be prevented, and determines which intervention strategies will have the most significant effect in reducing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) cases. Prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors for AD such as low education, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and mental disorders are still high. Moreover, the prevalences keep increasing for the last five years. Low education has the highest estimated PAR, which could significantly lower new AD cases if it is being improved. Ten and thirty percent of risk factor reduction can decrease AD cases by 18,000 and 66,000 cases. In addition, reducing physical inactivity by 10% and 30% can reduce 19,000 and 55,000 cases of AD respectively; lowering 10% prevalence of midlife hypertension and diabetes can reduce 2400 and 1600 cases of AD. Decreasing 10% of all risk factors is estimated to reduce 22,000 of new AD cases. By reducing these modifiable risk factors, especially by improving access to education, the incidence of AD could be greatly reduced. This review is expected to give suggestion to the government in determining the priority scale of controlling risk factors for reducing the social and economic burden caused by AD.

  • An Algorithmic Random-Integer Generator based on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

    The prevalencWe talk about random when it is not possible to determine a pattern on the observed out-comes. A computer follows a sequence of fixed instructions to give any of its output, hence the difficulty of choosing numbers randomly from algorithmic approaches. However, some algorithms like the Linear Congruential algorithm and the Lagged Fibonacci generator appear to produce “true” random sequences to anyone who does not know the secret initial input [1]. Up to now, we cannot rigorously answer the question on the randomness of prime numbers [2, page 1] and this highlights a connection between random number generator and the distribution of primes. From [3] and [4] one sees that it is quite naive to expect good random reproduction with prime numbers. We are, however, interested in the properties underlying the distribution of prime numbers, which emerge as sufficient or insufficient arguments to conclude a proof by contradiction which tends to show that prime numbers are not randomly distributed. To achieve this end, we use prime gap sequence variation. Our algorithm makes possible to deduce, in a binary choice case, a uniform behavior in the individual consecutive occurrence of primes, and no uniformity trait when the occurrences are taken collectively.

  • Turning complexity into clarity: polyuria and hypernatremia

    Case history The patient is 65-year old African American male with history of hypertension. He was admitted to hospital with lethargy, disorientation, and confusion. His clinical evaluation and CT of the head revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. He had h/o stroke 5 years ago. The patient didn’t have fever, but did have a diarrhea of 1-day duration. He is receiving parenteral feeding and his urine output is 4L/day. His physical examination revealed blood pressure of 100/70mmHg, with heart rate of 100 BPM. He has dry mucous membranes and the rest of examination was unremarkable. His laboratory investigation showed sodium 159meg/L, K+ 4.6meg/L, chloride 114mEq/L, HCO3 26mEq/L, creatinine 1.9mg/L, Blood urea nitrogen 64mg/L, and glucose 200mg/L His urine sodium 70mEq/L, and urine osmolality 380mOsm/Kg H2O. His volume status is slightly dry, and he weighs 70Kg. Case discussion This case illustrated several information including polyuria with parenteral nutrition, low blood pressure and dry mucous membranes denoting low extracellular fluids volume. High serum sodium, and high urine osmolality in the face of hypovolemia and hypernatremia. As a consequence of his illness he suffered from low perfusion to the kidneys with worsening kidney function. Hypernatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality and defined as a serum sodium >145mEq/L (1,2,3). Hypernatremia is hyperosmolar state caused by a decrease in total body water (TBW), relative to electrolytes content (4). Therefore, hypernatremia is a water problem not sodium problem. It often occurs in elderly and hospitalized patients with restricted access to water and in those with impaired thirst mechanism (hypodipsia/adepsia) or mental status changes. Developing hypernatremia is virtually impossible if the thirst mechanism is intact and water is available. Hyper-osmolality caused by hypernatremia and water loss can lead to neurological cell shrinkage and brain injury. Loss of volume also can leads to circulatory collapse and organ failure. Hypernatremia is considered…

  • Research on the cross boundary Integration of Scientific & Technological Innovation and Artistic Creation

    The art and technology have a natural relationship, it can be said that the history of art is also the history of science and technology. The development of science and technology has expanded the space for the development of art and formed a new interactive relationship between art recipients and art creators. Therefore, in the future social development, the interaction and combination of art and technology will give both sides infinite vitality.

  • Development of Light Sensors to Measure Defoliation

    Sensors have become valuable tools in agriculture when decisions regarding inputs require precision and speed. For example, factors in estimating defoliation in row crops, such as intensive labor and, in particular, subjectivity, are greatly reduced with the use of sensors that can remove these limitations and biases. Estimates of defoliation are almost always overestimated due to human error and biased, unconscious efforts to locate injury. To address these issues, the accuracy and preciseness of a light-based sensor to detect defoliation was tested by measuring simulated levels of defoliation (0-100%) on paper “leaves” at seven light intensities. Results indicated that higher lux values were detected through thinner paper (filter paper) than through thicker paper (cardstock), demonstrating that leaf thickness could potentially affect accuracy of the light-sensor system. Despite some light penetrating the thinner paper with simulated defoliation levels, the two light sensors tested yielded accurate and precise predictions of defoliation (R2 > 0.95). This light-sensor approach could potentially be used in the field to report real-time measurements of defoliation in row crops, such as soybeans, or in other plant-based systems where losses of leaf area require monitoring in order to prevent economic injury.

  • Tattoos, is it the new form of rebellion in China?

    When I first came to China, one thing tattoos were equated to: the mark of criminals, ‘loose women’ and gangsters. In other words, tattoos equated with rebellion or bad boy/girl behavior. The stereotypes which go with it! This was back in 2009, as time transpired [at least a decade], it actually became a symbol of defiance within the young-College educated and professional generation; whether it was covered or not. This form of rebellion was a stand-up against everything which had been forced into them, since their childhood. Like the period of the 1960s in American counterculture, China in theory is going through the same thing: whether it’s sexual exploration, homosexuality and now, tattoos. These are considered outside the norms and therefore, counterculture. It’s my point to prove that the ink on the body is the new symbolism of rebellion. Spreading like literal wildfire throughout Mainland China. In a still conservative society, the young-College students and professionals of today are coming at odds with their parents and older generation. In this investigative paper, I aim to show the reader why! Therefore, taking people back in history, with examples like: Yueh Fei, when the tattoo was accepted and hopefully demonstrating with interviews/opinions that this trend continues to grow in China.

  • Marginal and internal fit of fixed prosthodontic constructions: a literature review

    Gender discrimination is the important aspect of the human identification procedures that help in the establishment of biological profile from the skeletal and dental remains and also help in the facial reconstruction of unidentified bodies. Age, race, sex and stature determination along with dental evidence collection and facial reconstruction over the skeletal remnants are the important specialties of the forensic dentistry. The present study evaluates and compare the impact of mandibular canines in gender identification and also to determine any discrimination in the canine index among the different races (Malay, Chinese and Indian) of the Malaysian population.

  • From Colonoscope to Microscope: The Diagnosis of Trichuris Trichiura

    Soil Transmitted Helmenthiasis (STH) is a major public health problem in the developing countries. Trichuriasis is one of the common prevalent parasitic infestations in the tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe incuding India. However, there has been a steady decline of STH in the last five years where there has been success of albendazole with Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in National Filariasis Control Program and Kerala state has been one of them. We report a case of whipworm infection that was incidentally diagnosed by colonoscopy where repeated stool microscopy was uncontributory. The worm can be overlooked, particularly if colon preparation is not good.

  • Acute Coronary syndrome in a patient newly diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy: a review of cardiovascular disease in this inherited neuropathy

    Whilst we suspect that there is no clear association between the two major diagnoses we made in this patient during this hospitalisation (i.e. coronary artery disease and CMT neuropathy), the literature from a series of published case reports does perhaps show an association between CMT and abnormalities of cardiac conduction. Brief Summary: This case reports follows the occurrence of an antero-lateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a 34-year-old male newly diagnosed with an inherited neuropathy in the form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A.

  • Two Options the sweetest among them is bitter: Fournier-gangrene associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2-inhibitors

    The authors discuss a case of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor associated with Fournier-gangrene in a patient with type-2 diabetes millets. The patient had extensive surgical intervention and skin graft but succumbed to her disease.