In the developing countries like Ethiopia most of the environmental problems are caused by underdevelopment. Millions continue to live far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence, deprived of adequate food and clothing, shelter and education, health direct their efforts to development, bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. For the same purpose, the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development (Yared, 2017:17).
This paper entitled “History and Theory of Anthropology” deals with the historical background of anthropology from the very beginning up to its establishment as academic discipline. For this paper, I have reviewed some literatures related with history and theory of anthropology. Hence, anthropology’s history from ancient Greek historical and philosophical writings to 21st century and anthropological theories are chronologically included in this paper. Generally, the contribution of different scholars, event (like enlightenment) and colonialism in the emergence of anthropology are encompassed in this paper.
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain can be considered a pathology and not just a symptom, which negatively influences people’s quality of life, leading to a decrease in autonomy, isolation and impact on social life. In this context, considering the pain related to chronic health problems, it can be affirmed that Basic Care represents a strategic service due to its high capillarity and potential to identify health needs of the population by subsidizing the organization of care throughout the network. health services. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of Primary Care in the management of patients with chronic pain. METHOD: This is a descriptive study of a qualitative approach, carried out through literature review. DISCUSSION: Social determinants can be considered to have a strong impact on the prevalence of chronic diseases as well as their reflexes, such as pain. Social inequalities, differences in access to goods and services, low level of schooling and inequalities in access to information generally determine a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and diseases caused by these diseases. In this context, Primary Care plays a fundamental role because it represents a strategic service with high capillarity. CONCLUSION: Primary care has great potential to identify the health needs of the population by subsidizing the organization of care throughout the health services network, contributing to factors that negatively impact the health of the population, causing pain and suffering.
Background: Pain for the loss of health is not easy to be elaborated by the patient, especially when it directly impacts on his quality of life. Group intervention can be a possibility to work on sufferings, because patients share experiences, which favors overcoming difficulties and adaptations. Objective: to report the experience of group psychological intervention, analyzing the role of psychology trainees in group mediation. Methodology: report of experience. Results and discussion: In the group performed by the psychology interns with patients attended at a school hospital in Recife-PE, the group was constituted. The trainees were facilitators under the supervision of the psychologist of the hospital team, sought to preserve individual and group space, managed the speeches, encouraging the silent participants and preventing the predominance of the speakers. At each meeting they used group dynamics, storytelling, poetry readings, collages, favoring speech and peer identification. The trainees made use of careful clinical listening, transfer and group management in the opening, development and closure at each meeting. For each stage of this, supervisor support was essential. Conclusion: By providing speech in the group, the trainees allowed the patients to reflect on themselves and the history of the other, reorganizing their experiences, promoting and preventing health. And this experience for the trainees enabled the development of group management skills, decision making, conflict mediation, communication and clinical listening
Introduction: Somatic Symptom Disorder is characterized, by the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, by distressing somatic symptoms linked to abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviors in response to these symptoms. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder in primary care is quite significant, and new empirical evidence suggests that there is a clinically relevant interaction between anxiety and pain intensity felt by the patient in a context of somatization of symptoms. Objectives: To analyze in the literature the relationship between anxiety disorders and psychosomatic pain. Methodology: The research was carried out in the CAPES Periodic databases, PubMed and Regional Portal of the VHL. The terms “Anxiety Disorders”, “Pain” and “Psychophysiological Disorders” were considered as descriptors. Articles published between 2013 and 2018 were included. Results: Of the 2095 articles found, only seven were included in the review. Evidence has been found that anxiety may stem from social distress or primary pathologies. It can be expressed somatically under different forms of pain, such as: gastrointestinal, precordial, dental or cephalic. Evidence has also been found that anxiety exac-erbates dental and cephalic pain, and it chronicises localized back pain and cephalic pain. Con-clusion: The literature on the interaction between anxiety and psychosomatic pain is still incipient to the detriment of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the phenomenon. We also high-light the need for further research on diagnostic and therapeutic teaching strategies of health professionals in order to reduce the morbidity resulting from these events.
Objetives: This work aims to discuss the importance of the hospital toy library as a place of humanization in pediatrics. Methodology: This discussion was constructed from a reported experience in the toy library of a general hospital in Recife/PE. Results: Through the practice in the hospital toy library, it could be noticed that the companions are agents who also need to be taken care during the process of hospitalization in pediatrics. In this context, the toy library is a place that can favor the integral care of hospitalized children and their companions, through playful, musical, theatrical, sharing experiences. Final considerations: The toy library can be a humanized care environment not only for the children, but also for their companions, because, through various possibilities of play, it is a place that facilitates the social interactions between these individuals, as well as their autonomy and creativity, which are so important in the process of seeking the reestablishment of patients’ health as biopsychosocial subjects.
Introduction: Cancer is currently considered a worldwide public health problem. In addition, studies have shown that it is one of the most prevalent diseases in children, and its impact on children and their families. To take care of this scenario, the interdisciplinarity that is character-ized by the exchange of knowledges among the professionals in search of a common objective stands out. General objective: To report the experience of nursing students during the care giv-en to children with cancer with an interdisciplinary team in a hospital unit. Methodology: This is an experience report that emerged from participation in a social project that provides assistance to children with cancer and degenerative diseases in a hospital unit. Results: Attendance initially occurred with the presentation of the subjects with the perspective of favoring the formation of bond, where dialogue and listening were the instrument of this reception. The activities, later, were composed of consultations and the development of play activities from the interdisciplinary context. Conclusion: In view of the impact that cancer causes in children and in the family, such as psychological and physical, it is believed that the resources of interdisciplinary work can con-tribute to the improvement of physical, social and mental condition in the search for adaptation to treatment and conditions.
Introduction: The sense of hearing is very important for human communication. Hearing loss makes the individual limited or incapacitated to play his role in society. One of the instruments used for auditory rehabilitation is the individual sound amplification apparatus (ISAA). Objectives: To investigate the deaf patients’ conception of the benefits of the individual sound amplification device (ISAA), in addition to identifying the information they have about ISAA.Methods: Field research of the descriptive type in which a structured questionnaire was applied with seven objective questions and a subjective one according to all the ethical aspects provided by Resolution No. 466/12 of the CNS / MS. The same was addressed to four (4) persons responsible for deaf patients who use ISAA in their daily lives and who follow up at the Clinical School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology at Centro Universitário de João Pessoa-PB. Results: According to the research participants, it was observed that the hearing aid provided benefits to the deaf in terms of improved sound perception, oral language development, socialization of the deaf with the listening society, improvement in socialization of the deaf with another deaf and in the ability of the deaf to read. Conclusion: The use of ISAA together with speech and language therapy favors the sound perception of the deaf, as well as the development of oral language, promoting a better interaction with the hearing society.
There are many conflict theories. Each of them has its own perspective that shapes the theme of its respective disciplinary approach. Despite their significant differences in treating conflicts, they may share common concerns, interests and focus on similar points that could attract their attentions. Theories of conflict are the explanations put forward to explain causes of conflict. The causes of conflict are numerous and complex, thus creating problem of analysis of specific conflict situations. The theories are advanced to simplify the causes by looking at them in categories. Hence, this term paper entitled “Conflict theories” encompasses conflict theories like Structural Conflict Theory, Realist Theory, Biological Theory, Physiological Theory, Economic Theory, Psycho-Cultural Conflict Theory, Human Needs Theory, Relational Theory, Systemic Theory, Marxist Theory of conflict, International Capitalism Theory of conflict, Game Theory. All these above mentioned theories are elucidated accordingly with their basic ideas.
This term paper entitled “Gender and Conflict responds to the need for deeper understanding of how gender and conflict interrelate. It incorporates the role of gender in conflict resolution, participation of women and conflict management policies, the basic assumption of feminist conflict resolution theory, impacts of conflict on gender and how gender is important in society Conflicts have different impacts on men and women, and on gender relations, like gender based violence, sexual harassment and so on. Conflict may also bring changes to women’s economic roles and changes in the sexual division of labour. Conflict impacts on the distribution of power and its gender dimensions in many different ways. Women are rarely in a position to make direct decisions about the waging of conflict. However, in some cases, power structures may be broken up and decentralized and there may be opportunities for women to gain access to decision-making bodies, at least at a local level. Or women who have access to power may, like their male counterparts, be able to wield it more forcefully. Generally, this paper addressed the ways in which conflict affects men and women differently and their relative positions prior to conflict.