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    Introduction. The world population is aging and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing rapidly, however, as life expectancy increases, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia may appear, such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a progressive and fatal disorder resulting from the death of hippocampal and cholinergic neurons that are responsible for the functions of memory, learning, emotional control, reasoning and behavior. These changes are characterized by loss of subcortical and cortical neurons, and marked atrophy of the local cerebral cortex where nerve cells in the brain control memory, reasoning, and judgment. Moreover, it is believed that this pathology has a multifactorial etiology, which can be determined by risk factors such as gender, age, environmental and genetic factors, low educational level and inflammatory reactions. Goal. To verify the prevalence of deaths in Brazil from Alzheimer’s Disease in the period from 2010 to 2017. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out by surveying the numbers of cases of death caused by Alzheimer’s disease in the regions of Brazil from 2010 to 2017, available in the DATASUS / TABNET database, using the following variables for the research: region, gender, age group and ethnicity. Results. During the period from 2010 to 2017, a total of 121,232 numbers of cases of deaths from Alzheimer’s Disease were recorded throughout Brazil. The Southeast region had a higher prevalence with 55.85% in relation to the number of deaths in the other regions. It was observed that the female gender was predominant in relation to the male gender with 64.58% of cases, while in the age group 74.31% had its prevalence at the age of 80 years or older, and finally in the ethnicity, there was a predominance. 74.36% in white people. Conclusion. The increase in life expectancy, is one…

  • Study of Variables Involved in Male Infertility Identified in the Spermograms Assessed in Assisted Human Reproduction

    Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, about 8 to 10% of couples worldwide have infertility problems and male internal aspects are the main reasons for half of occurrences of human sterility. Through the spermogram, it is possible to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze semen, contributing to the diagnosis of male fertile state. Objective: To study the relationship among sperm viscosity, concentration, motility and volume parameters and male infertility factors and to show the influence of the subject age on these seminal parameters. Methodology: A survey was conducted in the male infertility database of the Nascer Clinic (Recife / Pernambuco) of men aged 27 to 61 years, with a history of marital infertility, from 2018 to 2019. The subjects studied were grouped into categories according to the classification of the seminal parameters analyzed (volume, concentration, motility and viscosity) in their sperm. Student’s t-test was used for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney test for non-normal using the GraphPad Prism 8 program. Results: Among the studied individuals, there was a significant difference (p

  • The Analysis of the Prevalence of Diabetes in the Third Age in a Northeast State Between the Years From 2002 To 2013

    Diabetes potentiates when the body can not control the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This disease develops when the body does not produce enough amounts of the hormone called insulin. The elderly are more fragile in not producing adequate insulin for their proper functioning, since the prevalence is related to aging, sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and these last two factors, in turn, intensify with the advancing age. The decompensated glycemia accentuates frequent difficulties in this phase of life. It can incapacitate the elderly because it increases the risk of dementias such as Alzheimer’s, in addition to diabetic neuropathy, which causes the elderly to lose firmness on the floor, the use of many medications and other problems that impact the quality of life and increase the risk of death.

  • Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Ogurugu Community Southeast Nigeria for the Treatment of Malaria

    Malaria is described as a disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted to humans through the bites of an infected vector the female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are about 100 million estimated cases of malaria resulting in more than 300,000 deaths annually in Nigeria. This figure is high when compared to deaths from infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Maternal mortality from malaria fever alone is estimated at 11%. Despite preventive measures to avoid mosquito bites by use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), and chemotherapy such as the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), very little results were achieved, as the parasite seems to have developed resistance to these measures. This study was aimed at surveying medicinal plants used in folk medicine by the Ogurugu community Southeast Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. Traditional medicine practitioners, native herbalists, traditional healers, and product marketers were interviewed orally and the use of 200 structured questionnaires on the plants used to treat malaria as well as medicinal plants used for the treatment. Morphological parts of fifty-four (54) plant species from thirty-two (33) families were collected in the survey. Only 30 % of the plants surveyed were reported to have antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei. Family Asteraceae have the highest number of species diversity with 11.54 % (6), followed by Family Annonaceae with 9.62% (5) and Family Euphorbiaceae with 5.77% (3), whereas Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Humiriaceae and Sterculiaceae Families have each 3.85 % (2) species diversity. Other Families have 1.92 % (1) species distribution. A decoction of the leaves was the popular way of using plant parts in malaria treatment. The study revealed that people in this community believe strongly on the efficacies of these medicinal plants than orthodox drugs in treating malaria, with no serious side effects. Despite these…

  • Proximate Analysis, Phtochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity Of Different Strains of Auricularia auricula-judae (Ear Mushroom)

    In this study, proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of two strains of ear mushroom Auricularia auricula (arbitrarily named strain 3 and 5) and their mix, cultivated in Bangladesh National Mushroom Development Institute, have been determined. Protein content per 100 gm of strain 5, 7 and mix had been found to be 298.69mg, 278.85mg and 286.19mg, respectively. Lipid content estimated were 2.43gm, 1.96 gm and 2.4gm, respectively, while that of ash were 4.42 gm, 6.11gm and 3.93gm, respectively. A. auricula strain 7 contained highest amounts of total phenol, total flavonoid, ascorbic acid and reducing sugar than the others. Among the three strains evaluated in the present study, A. auricula 7 contained highest nutritional and medicinal components. Thus, A. auricula 7 might be an ideal food supplement to the consumers.

  • Remediation for oligospermia in males using the extract of traditional herbs Withania somnifera and Emila sanchifolia

    Due to life style changes, climatic changes, occupational problems and Food, air and water pollutants, the present generation of human beings are affected much of the different health issues, sterile marriage is a matter of great concern. The infertility rate is increasing at an alarming rate. In the infertility marriage, the male factor is more responsible for sterility. To improve male semen quality traditional plant remedy were tried for 3 treatment duration of each 40 days. Aqueous extracts of two medicinal plants Withania somnifera and Emila sanchifolia were given to chronic cases of infertile males with oligospermia. The results obtained for the plant extract treated and untreated groups showed a remarkable difference in the semen parameters .In the plant drug treated males, the total sperm count, motility, pH, and non -deformed sperms are above the optimum levels prescribed for normal fertility .The present study clearly indicates that the mixture of plant extracts exerted a good improvement in semen characteristics.

  • Standardization and HPTLC, Fingerprinting study of Poly Herbal Formulation-Habb-e-Falij, traditionally used in the treatment of Paralysis and Facial Paisy treatment

    Standardization is used to describe all measures under taken during the manufacturing process and quality control of drug assuring its reproducible quality. Most of the traditional medicines are effective but still they lack in their standard parameters. Therefore, we need to develop standard techniques to standardize and validate herbal formulations. The drug Habb-e-Falij is therapeutically useful in the treatment of Falij or Laqwa (Paralysis and Facial Paisy) and as a Nervine stimulant. The drug Habb-e-Falij was prepared in three different batches as per the guidelines of National Formulary of Unani Medicine (Part-I), Present study is aimed to evaluate the pharmacopoeial standards using physico-chemical parameters; HPTLC fingerprints, quality control and assurance parameters, using WHO guideline to ascertain the quality of drug. The physico-chemical data showed that the drug contain moisture(1.42%), total ash (75.0%), acid in-soluble (68.02%), alcohol and water soluble extractive matter (9.52%) and (11.47%), pH(1% solution) (5.30),pH(10% solution)(5.78) and the TLC / HPTLC finger prints showed various spots at 254nm, 366nm and visible light (V-S reagent). The quality control study revealed the absence of microbial load, aflatoxins, heavy metals and pesticide residues, The evaluated standards will be very much useful for laying the phamacopoeial standards of Habb-e-Falij and also in providing the quality medicine to needful human beings.

  • Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of University of Gondar

    Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge, provide the right kind of leadership and strive to promote equality and social justice. The general objective of the analysis is to investigate the satisfaction level of undergraduate level students enrolled in regular program of University of Gondar and there by understand Gondar University’s level of service quality perceived by the students. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on students of the university selected using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was anchored on the model developed by Parasuraman et al. (1988) known as SERVQUAL. Results revealed that the satisfaction level of students in the overall service of the university is 65.4%. Additionally there is significant variation in students’ satisfaction across sex regarding student-instructor interaction, administrative student support service and facility supervision whereas no significant variation was seen regarding satisfaction due to undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Therefore it could be possible to conclude that majority of the students are satisfied with the service that the university offers. However it was also found that the number of the dissatisfied group was not insignificant and therefore more effort should be made to make the satisfaction level of the students much better than the current level.

  • Article Critique: “The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction”

    This paper provides a critical review of the article published under the title of “The relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction”. The reviewed article intended to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of government secondary school principals and teachers’ job satisfaction. Though not mentioned in the reviewed article, a descriptive survey research design was employed to attain its objective. The transformational leadership questionnaire and the teachers’ job satisfaction questionnaire were employed as instruments of data collection. Therefore, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and statistical assumptions of quantitative research while critically review the article. Accordingly, despite some flaws existed in the study that might lessen its empirical power and reputation, the study was worthwhile in examining the transformational theoretical leadership paradigm in the Ethiopian context. It was suggested that audiences need to consider its shortfalls while using the study findings and future studies need to consider such inaccuracies.

  • Teachers’ Perception and Implementation of Constructivist Learning

    A special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design, Bahir Dar University after Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) was developed and implemented. Initially, before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the slogans in education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates the teachers’ perception and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods in Ethiopia specifically in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design Technology, Bahia Dar University. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Design Technology (EiTEX). The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. The researcher investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Navistar, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. To examine teachers’ use and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods, the questionnaire was employed. The findings showed that around half of the teachers have positively perceived and implemented the mentioned methods in line with constructivism, while remaining teachers still implement these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated…