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    PURPOSE: To report case of isolated orbital cysticercosis METHODS: Patients with drooping of eyelid were referred to our hospital. Patients were evaluated and investigated to find the cause of ptosis. RESULTS: Two patients with acute unilateral ptosis were referred to our hospital. Patients were investigated, blood test, stool tests and MRI were done to rule out the causes. In both the patients ptosis was due to involvement of LPS muscle by cysticercus larva. All the patients gave history of excessive consumption of cabbage and pork. The mainstay of treatment included oral albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) and oral prednisolone (1mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, oral albendazole was stopped and oral prednisolone was slowly tapered over the next one month. The effect of above treatment was seen after few days with regression of swelling and improvement of signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: Orbital cysticercus stands as one of the major causes of ptosis in the lower socioeconomic status people who are consuming mainly unhygienic leafy vegetables such as cabbage, burgers and undercooked pork. Therefore, these patients should be vigorously evaluated on scans (MRI and CT) so that early diagnosis can be made and treatment can be given to prevent the permanent visual loss or dissemination to brain.

  • The intriguing post –caesarean sinus : A case report

    The post caesarean fistula and sinus can take place due to tuberculosis , Crohn’s disease , deep pelvic infections or non absorbable sutures and even gauzes. A thirty year old woman ( P1 ,L1 ) who presented with multiple discharging sinuses at left lower abdomen since five months . She underwent lower segment caesarean section 10 months ago. On local examination , there were three linear scars two cm below the previous horizontal scar . The Ultrasound of local site revealed irregular loculated collections of size 3 × 2 cm in subcutaneous plane. We excised the sinus tracts ,but after two month came with reccurence . We did re- exploration and the sinus tract of size 9 cm was excised. Sinuses reccur even without retained foreign body or chronic disease. The management does not differ with the size of sinus.

  • Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective

    Patient’s satisfaction is a useful measure to provide an indicator of quality in healthcare services. Concern over the quality of healthcare services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in healthcare providers, low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to hospitals in abroad. The main barriers to accessing health services are inadequate services and poor quality of existing facilities, shortage of medicine supplies, busyness of doctors due to high patient load, long travel distance to facilities, and long waiting times once facilities were reached, very short consultation time, lack of empathy of the health professionals, their generally callous and casual attitude, aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, poor levels of competence and, occasionally, disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concerns—all of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patients’ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with healthcare service providers and healthcare itself.

  • Impact of a school-based intervention to address iodine deficiency disorder in adolescent girls in Gilgit, Pakistan

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in the high mountain population of Gilgit Baltistan province of Pakistan. In this study we evaluated the impact of iodine supplementation coupled with iodine nutrition education on IDD in adolescent girls. We conducted a pre- and post intervention study in a stratified random sample of 152 girls aged 10 to 19 years from four schools of Gilgit town in 2011. IDD was defined as having a goiter, and urinary iodine deficiency (

  • Validation of Ewé’fá as Herbal Recipes for Reproductive Health Problems (RHPs) among the Yorùbá of South-western Nigeria

    Ifá scriptural verses contain a number of herbs for healing different ailments among the Yorùbá of Nigeria. Thus, Ifá is one of the epistemologies of Yorùbá herbal healing system. Considering religious sentiments and secrecy arising from patenting, hermeneutic analysis and validation of Ifá-based herbs (Ewé’fá) is yet to be scientifically engaged. This paper analyses some Ifá verses and identifies Ewe’ fa mentioned in them for validation, focussing reproductive health problems (RHPs). Thirty medicinal plants mentioned in six selected Ifá verses (Èjìogbè, Ògúndábède, Òyèkú-Méjì, Ogbè- Túrúpòn, Ìwòrì- Òfún, and Òtúrá-Méjì) for the treatment and management of RHPs were identified. Ethnographic and ethno-botanical surveys of those herbs were conducted in Bode herbs market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Key informants’ interviews, observation, and semi-structured ethno-botanical questionnaire were used. Interviews focused on sources of Ewé’fá and mode of treatment in RHPs, botanical information on Ewé’fá, knowledge value of identified Ewé’fá, and uses and validation of Ewé’fá in the treatment of RHPs. Nineteen respondents, mainly herb sellers (78.9%) and some traditional medical practitioners (21.1%) were involved in the survey. All the respondents were females, aged 41-60 years (52.6%) and 78.9% of them were Muslims. Herbal preparations are infusion, decoction, tincture, charring, squeezing, concoction, herbal soap and powder. Herb administrations are oral, topical and as baths. Oral therapies are administered mostly three times daily. Most of the herbs are sourced from the tropical rainforest region of south-western Nigeria. Ewe’fa are valuable as blood tonic, anti-infection, fertility herbs, aphrodisiac, womb cleanser, worm expeller and in the treatment of frigidity. Traditional use of most of the Ewé’fá for RHPs is validated. Hermeneutically, curative meaning given to a plant and beliefs associated with their healing potentials as contained in Ifá verses play a significant role in the use and potency of Ewe’fa. The findings provide a good starting point in…

  • Medicinal Plants Used for the Management of Asthma in Ethiopia – A Review

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in contemporary society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in Traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesize hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including protection against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals etc. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassisted by exact scientific research to define efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to give an on the way into some of the most commonly used medicinal plants, phytochemical information of plants and their method of preparation for the management of asthma. METHOD: In these review assembly information of the medicinal plants used to management of asthma from publication journals, thesis, literature searching. In addition to these some of literature qualitative and quantities determination of the phytochemical screen and bioactivity. RESULT: In the review a total of 23 medicinal plants collect from different literature. This finding is a good indicator for the presence of considerable diversity of plant species for the management of Asthma. The most common medicinal plants that used in the society are Papilionaceae, Caricaceae, Moringaceae, Liliaceae, Asteraceae etc. The society used all parts of medicinal plants like stem, root, bark, leafs, fruit, flowers, seed etc. CONCLUSION: In these review a good number of contemporary medicines have evolved from traditional medicines thus in the present circumstances, our traditional system must be given an objective and critical examination. Further research must be carried out to determine the fraction(s)/compounds that are mostly responsible for the observed anti-asthmatic activity as this will lead to drug development. As well, the potency of plants used in combination as beside being…

  • Clean Water Standards, Environmental Hygiene Sanitation, and Vector Control in Prevention of Disease Transmission in Disaster in Lombok, Indonesia: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Natural disasters are events that cannot be avoided and desired by everyone. Water and hygiene are important determinants of survival at the beginning of post-disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is needed to prevent deaths from dehydration, therefore in the event of a disaster there is a need for standards to reduce the risk of water-related diseases, sanitation hygiene and vector control. This study aims to explain the concept of water standards, sanitation cleanliness and vector control as humanitarian steps in the event of a disaster. This study shows that the application of these concepts is useful for reducing disease transmission from environmental factors and disease vector exposure. The method in this study uses the epidemiological triangle model approach. Using this method, we set basic standards in humanitarian action at the disaster in Lombok to control the risk of environmental-based diseases. Details of this method are shown in the following which includes the Environment, Agent, and Host. Adjudication is mainly achieved through promoting good hygiene practices, providing safe water, reducing environmental health risks, and controlling infectious disease vectors. This condition will allow people to live healthy with dignity, comfort, and security.

  • Chronic disease profile, health utilization and self-reported financial situation of older people in rural South Africa

    Background: Chronic diseases are more prevalent among older people. These illnesses require seeking continuous medical services which oftentimes have spill-over effects on the financial situation of individuals and households. Objective: To describe the chronic disease profile, health utilization and self-reported financial situation of older people in a rural population. Methods: Cross-sectional data from South Africa Wellbeing and Older People Study (WOPS)-wave 2 was utilized for this study. The survey included 519 respondents and was carried out between April 2013 and August 2013. Descriptive statistics was used to report respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, chronic disease profile, health utilization patterns, hospitalizations and access to medical and non-medical financial aid. Chi square test was conducted to examine the factors associated with chronic diseases and self-reported financial situation at 5% level of confidence. Results: The mean age of respondents was 62 years. Of the respondents, 259 (50%) had hypertension and 122 (24%) had arthritis, twenty-two (4%) had stroke, 43 (8%) had diabetes, 25 (5%) hade asthma, 10 (2%) had heart disease and 6 (1%) had cancer. Following the experience of a health problem, 119 (46.67%) adopted self-medication and 36 (14.12%) consulted traditional healer. Four hundred and fifty-four (97.63%) respondents received no financial aid for buying drugs and paid out-of-pocket. Also, 452 (97.41%) had no access to financial aid to pay for hospital bills. Risk factors like tobacco use (χ2 =6.77, p=0.009) and alcohol consumption (χ2 = 8.90, p= 0.003) were also associated with hypertension. Also, being hospitalized in the last 1 year (χ2 = 8.15, p=0.017) was associated with whether households’ financial condition got better, remained the same or got worse. Having chronic disease (χ2 = 7.68, p= 0.022) was similarly significantly associated with self-reported financial situation. Conclusions: The burden of chronic disease was high among older persons in this study. The study provided evidence…

  • Estimation of Risk Factors for Cardio vascular Diseases in urban & semi-urban population: A prospective Observational Study

    Cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that 60–80% of patients with diabetes die of cardiovascular events. Hypertension and Diabetes are the major causes for the cardio vascular diseases across the world particularly in India. In present study, in our study population, we found that males are more prone to CVD. Hypertension and Alcohol intake are the leading causes of Cardiovascular Diseases .

  • Testing weak form informational efficiency on the Tunisian stock market using long memory models

    The purpose of this paper is to test the weak-form market efficiency of the Tunisian stock market using recent developments in time series econometrics. The efficiency hypothesis was tested by using the class of long memory models namely ARFIMA-FIGARCH. For this, we will attempt to examine the long memory behavior in the returns and the volatility series of the Tunisian stock market index namely Tunindex. Our empirical study covers a sample covering the Tunindex during the period: 02/01/1998 to 16/03/2018. Our results show the presence of the long memory property in the return and volatility specified respectively by an ARFIMA and FIGARCH process. This result implies that it is possible to predict future stock prices and an extraordinary gain could be obtained when trading in this market, which displays that the Tunisian stock market is not efficient in its weak-form.