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  • Positive Effect of Injectable Platelet Rich Fibrin (i-PRF) on Vital Bone Formation in Graft Reconstruction of the Mandible: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Study

    In this clinical case series, relative centrifugation force (RCF) and centrifugation time (CT) were reduced to produce the liquid form of platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF). The goal of this study is to histologically evaluate if the liquid form of PRF has a positive effect on vital bone formation in the grafted mandible using mineralized freeze-dried allogeneic bone. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients completed immediate bone grafting after a non-restorable endodontically treated molar tooth was extracted in preparation for future implant surgery. Each bone graft was augmented with i-PRF. To process i-PRF, relative centrifugation force (RCF) was reduced from 2,700 RPM to 700 RPM (60g). Centrifugation time was reduced from 12 minutes to 3 minutes. After an average bone graft healing time of 8 to 12 weeks, bone core samples were obtained at the time of implant surgery for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Forty-two bone cores were harvested at the time of implant surgery for histological and histomorphometric analysis. The liquid form of PRF resulted in greater percentages of vital bone formation (average 87.4 %) compared to the existing published literature. Conclusion: i-PRF resulted in greater percentages of new vital bone formation compared to the published literature. This could be due to the continuous slow release and delivery of growth factors in i-PRF. Further clinical use of iPRF is needed to evaluate the full potential of bone regeneration.

  • In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends

    African walnut and moringa seed were procured and processed into flours. Biscuits were thus produced from different blends of wheat flour (WHF), African walnut flour (AWF) and moringa seed flour (MSF) in the ratios of (WHT:AWF:MSF) 100:0:0, 77.5:20:2.5, 75:20:5, 72.5:20:7.5, 70:20:10, 90:0:10, 80:20:0 and labelled from A to G, respectively. The produced biscuits were evaluated for dietary fibre content, in-vitro starch hydrolysis and predicted glycaemic indices. The results of dietary fibre content of the biscuits revealed that sample E was significantly higher with a value of 0.72g compare to other samples. Dietary fibre content of the biscuits increased as the level of substitution with moringa seed flour increased. Results of the in-vitro starch hydrolysis of the biscuits showed that the percentage starch hydrolysed reached its peak at 120 min of digestion and after which, a reduction steps in as digestion time increases. Equilibrium concentration, hydrolysis index and predicted glycaemic indices of the biscuits reduced as the level of substitution of moringa seed flour increased. It revealed sample E with Equilibrium concentration value of 48.06, hydrolysis index of 51.66% and predicted glycaemic index of 68.07. Thus, the blends of 70:20:10 (WHT:AWF:MSF) which represented sample E could be used as medium glycaemic index food.

  • A Patient with ACHOO – The Autosomal Dominant Compelling Helio-Ophthalmic Outburst syndrome

    Case report: The patient is a 36-year-old woman who was referred to our allergy-immunology clinic by her primary care physician to be assessed for a possible allergic disorder. The patient states that since early teenage she has had frequent bouts of sneezing generally preceded by nasal itching and often occurring when she first goes outdoors. She denies having a chronic cough or wheezing and has no symptoms suggestive of allergic conjunctivitis or sinusitis. She has not had urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. Her mother and 29-year-old sister have similar complaints but have never been assessed for possible allergies. The patient’s medical history is otherwise unremarkable. On physical examination her vital signs were within normal limits. Her conjunctivae were not inflamed or edematous and she had no edema or pallor of her nasal mucosa and no tenderness of her paranasal sinuses. Her lungs were clear to auscultation and free of wheezes on deep breathing. The remainder of her exam was unremarkable. Laboratory assessment revealed a normal complete blood count and metabolic panel. Skin testing to 66 regional allergens was negative, and her serum IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE levels were within normal limits. Because she was suspected as having ACHOO, she was dark adapted and then exposed to a bright light which instantaneously precipitated her nasal itching and sneezing, confirming the diagnosis.

  • Advancing Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth in India: An impact assessment of Policy Measures

    Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth are indispensable for the economic growth of a nation. Financial resources need to be distributed equitably to the unreached and poor sections of the society who have limited access to banking facilities. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is a policy initiative of the Government of India in this direction. In this study an attempt is made to understand the extent of financial inclusion through banking activities in India post implementation of PMJDY considering banking growth and resultant financial inclusion by means of major banking variables such as Deposits and Credits of banks in India before 2014 and after 2014 (the year of implementation of PMJDY)

  • Seeing is Believing: The Effects of Word of Mouth on Homestay Tourists’ Behaviour Intention

    This study employs structural equation model that establishes the effect of face-to-face word of mouth and electronic word of mouth directly on homestay tourists’ behaviour intention or through homestay image and attitude. Total 521 valid questionnaires are collected both online and offline. Analysis was performed using SPSS and Mplus7.0. The results illustrate that face-to-face word of mouth has no significant influence on homestay image, attitude and tourists’ behaviour intention while electronic word of mouth has a great effect on them. The homestay image and attitude which play mediating roles in the model also have significant impact on behaviour intention. Further practical implications of the study are discussed along with recommendations for future development of the homestay word of mouth management and marketing.


    Relying on the adaptive expectations Augmented Phillips Curve approach, the study estimated the sacrifice ratio for inflation that is conducive for growth in Nigeria and found the ratios for the constructed models I and II to be positive. The sacrifice ratio measures how much output is lost in the country when inflation is reduced by 1 percentage point through monetary policy action. The outcome of our study suggests that a 1 percent disinflation accomplishment leads to an output loss of 0.07%. Also, for a given period, power of persistence effect coefficient is 0.71 on the average, suggesting that, disinflation policy has a more robust and long-lasting impact on the country’s real GDP.


    This paper takes the form of a Brown Paper on the Coronavirus epidemic regarding the observed absence of Black and Latinx Doctors as media commentators, the disproportionately high death rates among members of these groups, and societal calls to address the cause of these enduring problems. This work attempts to explain the discrepancy involved through a hyper-quizzical and culturally sensitive exploration of anthropological, cultural, historical, societal, and other factors by using a multipronged and nonconventional approach. By exploring the manner in which racism possibly informs the problem, various mechanisms that inform success or failure in different Black and Latinx sub-groups were explored. They include (e.g., acting White or Black, individuals’ attitudes and perceptions, deficit thinking, child-rearing style, honorary Whites, immigration effect, model minority, parental involvement, racial grammar, and White privilege). The looming ascendancy of both groups to majority-minority population informs the urgency to confront the problem. Determination emerged that as the rising tides will lift all Americans’ boats, raising Blacks and Latinxs’ academic and technical competency will boost the nation’s capacity to compete in an increasingly globalized and high-tech world. It challenges the paradox related to Blacks and Latinxs’ boat of educational achievement remaining stationary, despite the many rising tides of educational reforms, laws, and massive expenditures. A “NEW NORMAL” fostering collaboration between Asians, Blacks from the diaspora, Latinxs, and progressive Whites is recommended to address the problem. Critically, the need to elevate medical professionals as STEM role models for Black and Latinx children, as opposed to current Black and Latino thespians (entertainment figures, sports stars, and rap artists) or gangsters, is also recommended.

  • Improving Learning Effectiveness- Some Aspects Shouldn’t Be Ignored in Mathematics Teaching

    There are abundant educational resources in the USA, but the performance of math education in primary and secondary schools is not so well, and has lagged behind some Asian countries including developing countries. Among many reasons, the crucial reasons are how teachers teach, how students learn, and the level of school teaching management. This paper focuses on how teachers teach in five aspects, particularly emphasizes on how to improve students’ retention and understanding of knowledge, and to enhance learning and thinking abilities. It points out that teachers should constantly remind students to maintain basic facts, create assignments for students by combining regular methods with the strategies of interleaved and spaced practice, build connections among knowledge, pay attention to improve students’ ability of problem-solving, and use some complementary approaches to generate students’ interest, participation, memory and concentration in math. And also it mentions that self-discipline, persistence and confidence are significant in prompting learning efficiency. In addition, some suggestions are put forward for school education management in supporting teaching and learning.


    Introduction: We studied the incidence of surgical admissions in our hospital and the presentation of COVID patients Results: Of the 190 patients who were admitted during the lockdown period, 5 patients were COVID positive. Soft tissue infections especially diabetic foot and appendicitis were the common presentations Conclusion: The theory of obliterative emboli could account for the overall surgical presentations seen due to COVID 19.

  • Paratesticular Ewing’s sarcoma: A case report

    Introduction: Ewing extra bone sarcoma is a rare entity accounting for 4% of soft tissue tumors1 and 1.5 to 4% of sarcomas2,3. It usually occurs in the extremities or soft tissues deep, cutaneous and subcutaneous. Paratesticular localization is exceptional4. We are reporting a case of paratesticular Ewing’s sarcoma in a 19-year-old patient by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery.