Air pollution in cities and urban sectors are increasing significantly on a time scale at global level. This alarming fact is substantiated with its gravity in the sense that more than 80% of people living in urban areas are exposed to air quality levels that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) limits. The situation world over is more critical to populations in low – income cities which are most impacted. According to the urban air quality database, 98% of cities in low – and middle income countries with more than 100 000 inhabitants do not meet WHO air quality guidelines. However, the cities in high – income countries this percentage decreases to 56%. The WHO reveals the fact that around 3000 cities in 103 countries have started measuring air pollution levels and recognizing the associated health impacts. With declines of urban air quality, the risk of stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma, increases for the people who live in these cities. An effort has therefore been made by the authors in this paper to explain briefly some of the relevant factors responsible for urban air pollution such as heat island effect, albedo effect, urban planning with environmental inputs, climate change, urban environment policy parameters, sustainable urban transport, environmental sustainability etc. These issues need to be addressed globally on high scientific scale for effective reduction of urban air pollution.
The influence of biofertilizer effect on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) crop yield under greenhouse and field conditions in Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of biofertilizers on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) yields compared to inorganic fertilizer and a zero-control. In the greenhouse, Variovorax paradoxus JM63, JumpStart® (Penicillium bilaii), inorganic fertilizer and control treatments resulted in significantly higher per L pot biomass yields compared to the control treatment; 2.74 (±0.24), 2.55 (±0.10), 2.52 (±0.24) and 1.34 (±0.09) g L-1, respectively. As JumpStart® is a commercially available biofertilizer, it was used in the field experiment along with inorganic and control treatments. All three treatments were applied to established (2014) switchgrass plots. Significantly (p
Paper describes the design of an improved voltage multiplier for Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting circuits using a generic doubler circuit and the Dickson’s charge pump, all these utilize the BAT63-02V Schottky diode. The design is based on using four narrow band antennas operating at 800MHz, 1800MHz 2100MHz and 2400MHz, the designs and simulations are performed by Keysight’s ADS 2019 simulation software, the outputs observed show improved voltage levels that can be used to operate ultra-low powered devices such as sensor nodes and remotes.
Comparative analyses of plantain vivoplants responses to different clam shells and Tithonia diversifolia treatments in terms of growth promotion and induced resistance against Mycosphaerella fijiensis
The seeds availability and quality are the main constraints for agricultural explosion of plantain productivity in sub-Saharan Africa countries. Plantain vivoplants were generated and submitted to different treatments in the nursery, the plant responses were analysed and compared in other to determine the best treatment influencing the growth promotion and induced resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Plantain explants and vivoplants were treated with five different treatments: clam shells powder (T1), clam shells and Tithonia diversifolia powder (T2), Tithonia diversifolia flakes (T3), Tithonia diversifolia mulch (T4), Tithonia diversifolia liquid extract (T5). The treatments were applied by their incorporation in the substrate (T1, T2, T3 and T4) or by watering of the whole plant (T5). The germination rate was evaluated and recorded in the greenhouse at the germination and pre-emergence stage, followed by the agromorphological measurements on the vivoplants and their inoculation with Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the shade at the vegetative growth stage. Biochemical analysis was done on the vivoplants leaves tissues. The vivoplants respond positively to all the treatments by a quick germination and emergence, coupled with an important biomarker’s accumulation (total proteins and phenolics). It turns out that the best treatment was T5 (T. diversifolia liquid extract), followed by T4 (T. diversifolia mulch). However, depending on the expected response in the vivoplants, all these treatments have proven to be impactful. Therefore, a combination of Tithonia diversifolia liquid extract (T5) with clams’ shells (T1) could be useful to boost the production at low cost and without chemical inputs of large amount of improved vigorous (clean and less susceptible) planting material, impacting thus the food security and poverty alleviation.
Social science believes that religion is a cultural phenomenon that has emerged in the development of human society to a certain historical stage, an illusory reflection of the objective world, and a social ideology. Primitive religions, also known as tribal religions, refers to the religions of the ancient times and the religions of uncivilized society, such as nature worship, elf worship, totem worship, witch cult, etc. Art refers to a social ideology that uses images to reflect reality but is more typical than reality, including literature, calligraphy, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, drama, film, and Chinese Quyi. There is a close relationship between art and religion, and their production and development are closely linked.
With the rapid development of social economy, the number of family cars has entered a period of rapid growth and the consequent urban parking problem has become increasingly prominent, gradually becoming one of the problems facing cities in China. The regional planning of parking spaces can expand the number of parking spaces within a unit area. Therefore, considering safety, convenience, efficiency and other factors, how to maximize the number of parking spaces is the key to solve the parking problem. Based on the triangle division of Abdelfattah model and the analysis of PSU planning theory, the planning of mall parking lot is more realistic. This kind of planning maximizes the number of parking spaces on the basis of greatly increasing the flexibility of vehicle entry and exit, which is more conducive to our life.
Primary malignant melanomas of the genitourinary tract are rare, representing < 1% of all cases of melanoma1,2. We report a case of a 68-year-old female patient with primary malignant melanoma of the urethra with morphology mimicking that of high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. The patient presented following a workup with an outside urologist that revealed a urethral mass. The patient complained of urinary incontinence and pelvic pain at initial presentation. A CT scan of the abdomen & pelvis revealed a soft tissue density within the vaginal vault, consistent with urethral cancer. A cystoscopy and urethral excisional biopsy was performed. Histologic examination of the specimen revealed an invasive tumor composed of epithelioid cells with prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm forming papillary structures. However, the tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, GATA 3 and Pancytokeratin and positive for S-100, SOX 10 and Melan A. The case was ultimately diagnosed as malignant melanoma.
This paper mainly solved the problem of predicting the time required for vehicles to pass through congested roads. In order to obtain more accurate prediction time, a Kalman prediction model based on multiple linear regression was established in this paper. Taking the 2008 Yanan elevated road in Shanghai as an example, the measured data in this section was collected from the traffic measured data sharing network, and the above model was used to obtain good prediction results. As an improvement, we used BP neural network instead of multiple linear regression to make the prediction result more in line with the actual situation.
Rhabdomyolysis requiring emergency dialysis as a consequence of simultaneous administration of simvastatin and clarithromycin
Iatrogenic complications from polypharmacy have significantly increased over the past decade and clinicians and pharmacists must remain aware of potentially dangerous drug interactions 1–3. Our case is a reminder of the potential for significant patient harm from drug interactions when additional medication that is seemingly innocuous is prescribed in addition to a patient’s regular long-term medications. Our case also highlights the diagnosis and management of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. A 75-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency department with nausea, bilateral calf tenderness and a reduced urine output. Creatinine Kinase (CK) levels demonstrated severe rhabdomyolysis and the patient’s creatinine was significantly elevated with a concurrent metabolic acidosis requiring urgent renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). He was recently prescribed clarithromycin 500mg twice daily as part of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in addition to his regular combination therapy of simvastatin 80 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily dose. Statins may cause dose dependent Statin Associated Myopathies (SAMs) such as myositis and rhabdomyolysis and are metabolised by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 3A4 enzyme4,5. Clarithromycin is a potent CYP450 3A4 hepatic enzyme inhibitor that leads to significantly elevated plasma levels of statin medications, increasing the risk of SAMs4,6–8. Our patient responded to the cessation of the offending medications and initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy. This case demonstrates the dangerous side effects and interactions of commonly prescribed medications.
The objective of this study was to assess the causes and consequences of begging in Dessie city. To achieve the purpose of this research, a mixed research design was employed. The respondents were selected through convenience and purposive sampling techniques. The data were collected through survey, in-depth interview and key informant interview data collection methods. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used in a concurrent manner. The researchers used descriptive statistical tools to analyze the quantitative data. Descriptive tools such as frequency, percentages, and tables are employed to present the results. On the other hand, the qualitative data was analyzed by using thematic analysis methods. As the findings indicated that leading causes that force individuals to begging is the wide spread poverty and economic problems of families, health problems (illness), physical disability, homelessness, loss of property and lack of caring relatives. Moreover, death of parents (orphanage), lack of old age security and divorce were factors contributing to begging life. There are also negative consequences of begging including lack of shelter and food, harsh weather conditions (sun and cold), verbal abuse posed by the public, car accident and harassments from fellow beggars. Harassment by municipal officials and by police, discrimination and stigma were the other common problems associated with begging. It can conclude that beggar’s are faced a wider range of socio economic challenges, immeasurable exploitations and sufferings while they were begging and living on the street, public places and churchyards. Therefore, government and non government organization need to resolve the major causes of begging as well as it needs to strengthen the social protection system to protect vulnerable groups including beggars.