Analysis of Non-parametric Qualities of Undergraduate Biology Examination Questions in a Nigeria University: Implications for Quality Assurance and Students’ Learning
This study employed ex-post facto research design to ascertain non-parametric qualities of past undergraduate biology examinations questions in a Nigeria university. The study covered a period of five years examination sessions from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018 but excluded 2016/2017.One hundred and seven examination question papers with a total One thousand one hundred and ninety eight mainly essay and sub-essay questions were collected for this study. Using descriptive content analysis method, the study analysed the content validity and the cognitive content of the biology examination papers. Descriptive statistics, mainly percentage was used to determine the proportion of the questions set on the content of each course in context of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Abuja, Nigeria, Benchmark for Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS, 2007) and the in-use university academic prospectus undergraduate biology curriculum. The analysis revealed; i.80% of the content of the biology curriculum was tested and ii.(ii) the examination tested more of lower order cognitive abilities; knowledge and comprehensive (76.11%) with deviation +36.11, application/problem solving (1.83%) and cognitive abilities; analytical, creative and evaluative thinking (22.02%); higher order total 23.85% with deviation -36.15 The implications of the findings to quality of students learning were discussed. Appropriate recommendations that could lead to improvement of the content validity of the examinations questions, increasing proportion of problem solving/application and broad range of higher level analytical, creative and evaluative thinking questions were made. It was concluded that the examination question papers could be considered suitable assessment tool that satisfy content validity but low towards the attainment of cognitive objectives of biology of the undergraduate programme. The overall finding calls for further improvement in the qualities of the examination questions.
A Model of Intelligent Recommender System With Explicit Feedback Mechanism for Performance Improvement
Recommender Systems are intelligent applications designed to assist the user in a decision-making process whereby user wants to choose one item amongst the potentially overwhelming set of alternative products or services. This work focused on using users bank statements that explicitly shows inflow and outflow of funds. The dataset used is real and reliable because the use of non-reliable data in a recommender system causes users lack of trust in the system. However, the data collected were anonymized for privacy reasons. The recommender system was developed as a web application using Java programming language. Unlike other recommender systems, the graph-oriented database management system was used. In Google news, 38% of the total views are the result of recommendations; similarly, 60% of the rented movies from Netflix come from recommendations and more than that Amazon sales percentage due to recommendations are 35%. Successful integration of recommendation system by online companies like Amazon, eBay, Flipkart amongst others impelled the research community to avail similar benefits in financial domain to recommend product and services (Lim, 2015). Therefore, recommendation systems are considered an expedient factor in business nowadays. The aim of all recommender systems is to provide recommendation that will be favourably evaluated and accepted by its users. This work provides detailed descriptions of methods employed to proffer solutions to intelligent recommender system with explicit feedback mechanism. The methodology of this research work refers to the research approach adopted by the researcher to tackle the research problem as stated in earlier chapter. Since the efficiency and maintainability of any application is solely dependent on how the designs are prepared, this chapter describes the various processes, methods and procedures used to achieve set objectives and the conceptual structure within which the research was conducted.
Prediction models are usually built by applying a supervised learning algorithm to historical data. This involves the use of data analytics system that uses real-time integration and dynamic real time responses data to detect churn risks. Subscribe are increasingly terminating their membership agreement with telecommunication companies through mobile number portability (MNP) in order to subscribe to another competitor companies. To model the Customer prediction, a Markov Chain Model will be used. The Markov model allows for more flexibility than most other potential models, and can incorporate variables such as non-constant retention rate, which is not possible in the simpler models. The model allows looking at individual customer relationships as well as averages, and its probabilistic nature makes the uncertainty apprehensible. The Markov Decision Process is also appealing, but since dynamic decisions along the lifetime of the customer will not be evaluated the Markov Chain is the simplest model that still meets the requirements. Each state in the Markov Chain will represent a person being a customer for one month, with an infinite number of states. The transition probability to move from one state to the next is equivalent to a customer retaining with the operator to the next month. A customer that has churned will be considered lost forever. Once the retention and churn rates are determined, the reference churn value for each customer will be computed. The churn rate will be calculated using MATLAB Monte Carlo simulations, running a large number of fictitious customer-company relationship processes, and extracting the results of the average customer. Using simulation approach gives better result than analytical methods, since an indefinite number of states make matrix algebra complicated. It also allows visualizing the distribution of the results more easily than with algebraic calculation easily than with algebraic calculation. To the telecom companies the result…
Autologous Tenocyte Implantation for the Treatment of Chronic Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy
The use of injectable cell therapies to treat tendon pathology has become significantly more popular in recent years. They are appealing treatment modalities as they are minimally invasive, autologous, non-surgical management options which theoretically allow tendon regeneration and return to function. This case report will focus on the use of autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) injection therapy to treat chronic degenerative rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Relevance. The reason for this study was the discovery of patients with clinical and laboratory manifestations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the lumen of the tubules of red blood cells and their decay products during nephrobiopsy1. It is known that the appearance of glucose in urine makes an ideal nutrient base for microorganisms that provoke chronic microbial inflammatory damage to the kidneys. Glycated hemoglobin is included in 5% of red blood cells in healthy adults. Its increase is associated with episodes of glycemia exceeding 6.5 mmol/l. which occuts in diabetes decompensation. Moreover, glycated hemoglobin has toxic properties with respect to the viability of the surrounding cytomembranes. This explains the large number of multiple organ diabetic complications 2,3. At the same time, it was found that the biochemical process of glycation of not only hemoglobin, but also other cellular glucoproteins is accompanied by oxidative damage to cytomembranes leading to their structural and functional failure 4,5. However, the role of glycated hemoglobin and glucose released during the deteriation of erythrocytes in the renal tubules, as one of the possible pathogenetic factors in the occurrence of chronic kidney disease, no one has previously analyzed.
Objective: In order to provide an effective method for the comprehensive and scientific evaluation of respiratory rehabilitation nursing, a nursing quality evaluation index system for respiratory rehabilitation was constructed. Methods: Based on the theory of structure-process-outcome three-dimensional quality model, indexes and weights of respiratory rehabilitation nursing quality evaluation at all levels were determined by using literature review, semi-structured interviews, Delphi method, and Analytic Hierarchy Process. Results: The response rates of the two rounds consultation were 100% and 93% respectively, and the authority coefficients of experts are 0.872 and 0.922. The coordination coefficients of expert opinions were 0.583, 0.498, 0.407 for the first, second and third-level respectively. The significance test value P was less than 0.01. The final indicator system is constructed with 3 first-level indicators, 9 second-level indicators, and 46 third-level indicators. Conclusion: The constructed respiratory rehabilitation nursing quality evaluation index system is not only reliable, scientific, comprehensive, and but also with outstanding specialty characteristics. It provides an effective strategy to improve respiratory rehabilitation nursing quality.
Effect of Ricinodendron heudelotii seed extract on the oxidative stress biomarkers of Diabetic albino rats
This study evaluated the potentials of the seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii on the oxidative stress biomarkers of diabetic albino rats of the wistar strain. Diabetes mellitus was induced via intraperitoneal administration of 160 mg/ kg bodyweight Alloxan monohydrate in normal saline and confirmed after 120 hours of blood glucose level above 300mg/dl. Blood samples were collected from the animals and analyzed for Malondialdehyde, Catalase, Reduced Glutathione, Glutathione-S-transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, and Superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The result revealed a significant decrease at P≤0.05 in blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats with increase in the seed extract concentration, Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly in the diabetic rats while Catalase increased significantly at P≤0.05 as the extract concentration increased. Variations in Glutathione-S-transferase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase and Reduced Glutathione in comparison with control was observed. The results therefore suggests that the aqueous seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii has the potency to reduce glucose level and act as antioxidants against oxidative stress, hence its use therapeutically.
This study is on issues and Challenges facing intellectual Property right in Nigeria. Although intellectual Property right laws exist in Nigeria, it is observable that the enforcement of this aspect of law is not taken seriously compared to that of real property. This problem has caused a decrease in the economic value of the productive sector, especially the creative industry, in Nigeria, and a corresponding decrease in our Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In view of this problem, the study aims at investigating the issues and challenges affecting intellectual property right in Nigeria, with a view to enlightening the public on the availability and role of intellectual property laws in our Jurisdiction and to proffer solutions on how to achieve more effective enforcement. The study employs a qualitative research approach, while information was sourced primarily through oral source mainly interviews with learned Jurists and practitioners in the creative industry. Secondary sources of information used comprise written sources which include decided cases, Books, Journals, Newspapers and dissertations/project. The study revealed that if intellectual properties are properly protected and the applicable laws enforced, Nigeria will witness a phenomenal rise in the economic value of most productive sector in Nigeria and a corresponding increase in Gross Domestic Product. The study will recommend among others, to improve on legal education in Nigeria by generating best practices and approaches that can be employed to redesign legal education to make it responsive to contemporary realities and needs of the society.
Health seeking behaviour for Buruli Ulcer disease in the Obom sub-district of the Ga south Municipality of Ghana
The current biomedical Buruli ulcer case management strategies emphasise the importance of early reporting and appropriate medical treatment of nodules before they ulcerate and give rise to deformities and disabilities. However, there are a wide range of factors that influence health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer case management. The purpose of the study was to determine health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer by affected persons and their families. This was a descriptive study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Thirty (30) in-depth interviews were conducted for Buruli ulcer patients and their corresponding caregivers on barriers and facilitators to health seeking. Three (3) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted among elderly community members. Survey questionnaire interviews were conducted with 300 community respondents in Ga, Akan and Ewe languages in the study area. Systematic sampling was used to select 300 respondents for the survey. The study revealed that most respondents (41.0%) would resort to self-medication as their first treatment option when infected with Buruli ulcer. However, the health seeking of self-medication before seeking biomedical treatment was alarming since it leads to delays in reporting. This is a serious public health concern since delay in reporting could lead to category three lesions.
Malaria is an infectious disease that spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. The degree of malaria case in Indonesia, particularly in Papua shows that malaria is still the highest disease which even kills the patient. Patient’s knowledge and attitude are two factors of obstacles for malaria elimination program which one of the SDGs goal. The purpose of this research was to identify the correlation between patient knowledge and attitude with adherence level of malaria treatment in one of the private hospital in Papua. This research used the quantitative approach with the Cross Sectional design. The samples were 169 respondents determined by purposive sampling. The data collection had been used by questionnaire. The data analysis used Kendal’s Tau B formula. The univariate analysis result showed 63,9% of the respondent’s knowledge were in a low level, 71,8 % respondent’s had a negative attitude and 55,3% of the respondents were not obedient to their malaria medical treatment. The bivariate analysis showed, there was a significant relationship between the knowledge and adherence level of patients to malaria treatment (P value 0,000; α