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  • Ototoxicity and neurotoxicity from exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and noise, a case report

    Background: Neuropsychological alterations and decreased hearing, are related to organic solvents (OS) exposure; and if noise is present it potentiates the hearing damage. Aim: to evaluate neuropsychological performance and hearing of a 50 years old worker, occupationally exposed to OS mixtures for 26 years (toluene, ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol) and noise > 85 dB (A). Design of study: Report of a case assessed by Neuropsychological tests, CT and SPECT studies of hearing and clinic-occupational history. Results: He presented, loss between 35 to > 55 dB HL of his hearing in both ears, both in low frequencies (125 Hz-2 kHz) as well as the treble ones (3-8 kHz), in relation to his age. There was an otoacoustic emissions absence at the same frequencies. He showed cerebellar atrophy, cognitive, motor and emotional disorders. Conclusions: We Integrated diagnosis of: moderate to severe hearing loss, mental and behaviour disorders due to the simultaneous exposure to noise and an OS mixture, mainly toluene. It should fully evaluate workers exposed to noise and OS.

  • Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the Achievement of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers in Mathematics Education

    The role of Mathematics educators in teaching – learning process cannot be exaggerated. This paper presents Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the achievement of pre-service Mathematics teachers in College of Education Mathematics. One hundred and fifty (150) Pre-Service Mathematics teachers in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto – Ijanikin, in Lagos State, Nigeria were chosen for this research. Random Sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample chosen includes second year male and female pre-service mathematics teachers in the Department of Mathematics. Seventy five (75) of them were placed in an Experimental Group and the other seventy five (75) were placed in Control Group without any bias. The experimental group was exposed to the lectures taught with a well-organized TPSACK framework on some selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics while the Control Group was subjected to the traditional lecture method (constructivist instruction mode) on the same selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics. The duration of the pilot test last for ten (10) weeks. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) instrument was used to measure the performance of the students in the two specified groups. 2 tailed t-test statistics was used to analyse the numerical data got from the Mathematics Achievement Test. The result shows that the students in the experimental group taught subject to TPSACK framework outperformed their counterparts in the control group taught with traditional lecture mode. Hence, the adaptation of TPSACK framework in teaching and learning process has significant positive effect on the achievement of Pre-service mathematics teachers in mathematics. It then becomes a key reference for the Mathematics educators to equip themselves with TPSACK framework adaptation to enhance teaching and learning process in Colleges of Education.

  • Independent operation Advantage integration Complementary development—An analysis of the relationship between newspapers and websites

    The rise of online media has left paper media, especially newspapers, in a very awkward position and there is still a debate on the relationship between newspapers and websites, many people in the industry called the two a relationship of “newspapers and the Internet is father and son”, which is a false understanding. This paper holds that in the case of newspapers and networks belonging to the same newspaper office, the two should operate independently, integrate their respective advantages, complement each other, inter-develope, so as to implement a win-win situation for newspapers and websites.

  • The Layer wise Security model in Internet of Things: A Novel Perspective

    IoT security is concerned with safeguarding the associated gadgets and systems in the Internet of things (IoT).The goal of this paper is that the conduct of various security related issues encompassing the internet of things and proposed countermeasure. In the next few years it is expecting that 50 billion of new devices are to be connected to the IoT. Hence the IoT network will face critical security risks because of this continuous growing network. In this work we plan on investigating some of these security issues as well as existing and proposed solutions for dealing with them. Also the various DDOS attacks are modeled in this work which gives the practical perspective of tasks that is implemented on the occurrence of the DDOS assault. The work proposed a new countermeasure called TBC (Threshold Based Countermeasure) for reply attack, which is considered as the most catastrophic attack. The result shows that the proposed mechanism TBC works well in the existence of reply attack with increased malicious node in the environment thereby by increasing the efficiency of energy and time delay.

  • Interactive impacts of stressful factors and adaptive compounds and assessment of the oxidative defense system in multiple-stressed broad bean plants

    Field-grown plants may experience multiple abiotic stresses, rather than a single stress. In this study, interactive impacts of stressful factors and adaptive compounds in NaCl- and Cd-stressed broad bean plants were investigated. Proline as well as H2O2 contents, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage were increased in NaCl- and/or Cd-treated plants, throughout the experiment, whereas sole application of AsA and SA to the unstressed plants led to a decline in the levels of these named parameters. Moreover, a further decline set in upon combination of the adaptive compounds with the stressful factors. Anthocyanin contents fluctuated in different stress levels and single application of AsA or SA reduced anthocyanins; with additional reductions being induced when these compounds were supplemented with NaCl or Cd. Flavonoids and total phenols were increased in response to NaCl and/or Cd treatment; AsA and SA led to a decline or non-significant changes in flavonoids and total phenols, respectively, whereas the treatment of NaCl- and Cd-stressed plants with AsA or SA induced a marked increase, as compared with the stressed plants. In relation to control plants, all treatments adopted elicited significant increases in AsA and GSH contents. All activities of the antioxidant enzymes were variably increased, throughout the experiment, in plants treated with NaCl and/or Cd. Application of adaptive compounds to the unstressed plants also led to significant increases in all the determined activities. On the other hand, addition of these compounds to the stressed plants, in general, significantly decreased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes.

  • The Role of Community on Forest Management in Ethiopia: The case of Yotyet/Yewezera Community Forest

    This independent study assessed how forest management is a matter of local community governance and management by showing best cultural management practices in Ethiopia with special reference to Yotyet/Yewezera Community forest which is located in Eza Wereda, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. Forests are essential for human survival and well-being. They harbor two thirds of all terrestrial animal and plant species. They provide us with food, oxygen, shelter, recreation, and spiritual sustenance, and they are the source for over 5,000 commercially-traded products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to timber and clothing. Due to lack of evidence in Ethiopia and more broadly in Africa, Community Based Forest Management approaches have been underestimated. The study area, Yotyet/Yewezera natural forest has four adjacent villages with 3421 population number. These four villages were purposefully selected. In-depth semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), direct field observations and questionnaires were the main sources of the primary data in this research. In all the four villages eight community elders whose age are above 70 years were selected purposefully. After giving enough awareness about the research objective and they were interviewed separately and finally they involved in to Focus Group Discussion. Qualitative historical analysis is employed to understand and interpret the forest governance and management. Three time periods were considered. The forests’ protection status was assessed during the feudal period (before 1974), during the Derg regime (1974–1991) and after 1991. The three time periods were characterized by major changes that affected the management role of the local community. From the beginning the forest was protected/governed/managed by representatives of the surrounding community which were known as local chiefs. These local chiefs were well respected by the community and their order towards forest management issue had been accepted and practiced accordingly. Apart from local chiefs there was also one strong traditional belief that was…

  • Role of Women in Tulama Oromo Gada System: The Case of Ilu, South-West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State

    This study deals with the role of women in Gada system in Tulama Oromo of Ilu. Gada is an indigenous institution that incorporates political, social and economic issues of the Oromo. In this institution, Women have their own role and status in the political, social and economic affairs of the Oromo society. The objective of this study is to examine the role of women among Tulama Oromo of Ilu Gada system. To achieve this objective, both primary and secondary data was used. Accordingly, interview, focus group discussion and participant observation were employed to collect data. For this purpose, informants were selected from Abba Gada (father of Gada), Luba, Jaartii Cifree (wife of Yuba (retired Gada elder)), Haadha Siiqqee (wife of Abba Gada, Luba), community elders and culture and tourism office from government officials. These informants were participated in interview, focus group discussion. In such way, 36 informants were directly involved in the study. In anthropological studies, analysis is an instrument to extract meanings and interpretation from the data obtained during fieldwork. In such manner, data were presented in a qualitative type. The findings of the study show that women have tremendous role in gada system. In this case, no event or no ceremonies take place without the full participation of women. Women were basically represented and/or play a significant role through different institutions such as Siiqqee and other ritual ceremonies and institutions working as check and balances for protecting women’s right in general. Hence, without participation of women, the Oromoo socio-political practices could be meaningless. That is to say, any social, political and economic practice irrespective of women may not be fruitful. Based on the research findings, some recommendations were forwarded that strengthen understanding of Gada system.

  • Design and realization of fault simulation software for cooling water system of marine diesel engine

    Aiming at the problems of high training cost and high safety risk in the training of marine diesel engine cooling water system operators, a mathematical model is established based on the technical parameters, working conditions and measured data of MTU20V956TB92 marine diesel engine cooling water system. The simulation software of diesel engine cooling water system faults is developed by using Visual Studio 2012 platform, which realizes from mathematical model to code. Conversion to simulate the working state of ship cooling water system in normal operation and failure. The results show that the system can accurately simulate the normal operation and fault state of the cooling water system, and improve the actual ability of the trainers to respond to the fault of the ship cooling water system.

  • Systematic Review of Attention Testing in Allegedly “Untestable” Populations

    Test use is extremely important, not only for clinical practice, but also for scientific research. Nonetheless, some populations have been considered “untestable”. Among the different cognitive abilities assessed using tests, attention is a fundamental one. The present study presents a systematic review of the literature on attention testing in people with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder, in order to identify: (1) if there are any tests that are fit to assess these populations; (2) which adaptations would be necessary for such tests to become fit; and (3) what limits and needs are involved. Our literature review identified 39 studies (review papers and empirical studies), all of which concern the administration of attention tests for people with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder. The selected papers are presented and discussed from two analysis categories: (a) tests, attention abilities, and populations under study; (b) procedures and adaptations made to the testing settings. We identified 72 attention tests, where the majority of the groups of participants in the studies that were analyzed presented mild symptoms. The main adaptations done to the tests refer to strategies used to assist the comprehension of tasks, to communicate instructions, to assure engagement during the procedure, and ways to emit answers. The implications of our results are discussed.

  • The Pharmacists in Ambulatory/Outpatient Care

    Ambulatory care pharmacy practice is defined as the provision of integrated, accessible healthcare services by pharmacists who are accountable for addressing medication needs, developing sustained partnerships with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. This is accomplished through direct patient care and medication management for ambulatory patients, long-term relationships, coordination of care, patient advocacy, wellness and health promotion, triage and referral, and patient education and self-management. The ambulatory care pharmacists may work in both an institutional and community-based clinic involved in direct care of a diverse patient population. A variety of specialty clinics are available for allergy and immunology, pulmonology, endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, neurology, behavioral health, and infectious disease. Such services for this population may exist as a primary care clinic or an independent specialty clinic, typically in a PCMH, which is instrumental in coordinating care between various providers. Once a practice site is identified, it is important to establish a strong, trusting, and mutually beneficial relationship with the various decision-makers (e.g., administrators, providers) involved with the clinic. If pharmacy services are currently in existence, the pharmacy director may be able to identify and initially contact the appropriate person. If another pharmacist is providing clinical services, this person would be a resource to help determine areas for expansion of patient care and to whom to direct the proposed business plan. Additional individuals to consider as an initial point of contact include the clinic manager, clinic medical director, or administrative assistant to either of these persons. If the clinic setting is affiliated with a medical school, it may be necessary to contact the Department of Family Medicine head.