Gender Differentials in Climate Change Adaptive Capabilities Among Small- scale Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
Gender differentials in climate change adaptive capabilities among small- scale farmers in Abia State was assessed using a sample size of 70 male and 70 female respondents generated via a multi- stage method. Data collected from the respondents through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Z – Test analysis. Results showed 46 years and 44 years as the mean ages of male and female respondents respectively. About 29 %, 43 % and 21 % of the male respondents and 50 %, 36 % and 11 % of the female respondents were into farming, trading and other professions respectively. About 86 % of the male respondents and 69 % of the female respondents were literates and had mean monthly income of ₦32,871.143 and ₦28,642. 854. Result equally, shows a mean farm size of 1.7 and 1.3 hectares for the male and female respondents with mean years of farming experience of 11 years and 12 years respectively. About 57 %, 14, 12 and 7 % of male respondents acquired their farm lands through inheritance, lease, communal ownership, and outright purchase respectively as against 7 %, 57 %, 7 % and 29 % for the female respondents. About 90 % of the male respondents had between once every 2 years and once every 6 months of extension contacts as against 82 % of the female respondents. Also 86 % of the male respondents belonged to social associations as against 93 % of the female respondents. Result further shows that a high proportion (X ≥ 50 %) of male and female respondents have high level of awareness on adaptive measures but negative (X< 2.5) and low practice (X< 2.5) level of adaptive measures on climate change. The study equally shows that there is a remarkable difference between...
Assessment of socio-economic factors affecting the utilization of manual screw press for gari production in Kwara state, Nigeria
This study investigated socio-economic determinants of utilization of manual screw press for cassava mash dehydration for gari production in four local government areas across the ADP zones in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using random sampling technique and a semi-structured questionnaire as research instrument, data for the study were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty four (384) gari processors who use the screw press in the state. Multiple regression analysis show that a correlation (R=0.678) exist between utilization of the screw press and the independent variables which include age, household size, level of education, years of processing experience, extension visits, and income from gari processing. R2 value of 0.460 indicates that about 46% of the variation in utilization was explained by socio-economic variables included in the regression model. Three variables significantly influenced the decision of the respondents to utilize the manual screw press: age, level of experience, and income; the most important predicator being income with a Beta value of 0.699. Conclusively, it was recommended among others that research, extension, and policy makers consider the significant determinants identified in the study seriously if increased utilization is to be achieved by gari processors and others similar to them in the study area and the region.
Comparative Effect of Sesasons, Organomineral Fertilizer Ratios and Profitability of Cucumber Production (Cucumis Sativus L.) in Southwest Nigeria
Ensuring an adequate good nutritional supply has been a major concern of mankind over the millennia, and even in today’s modern world of great scientific and technological achievements. Fruits and vegetables are of great nutritional value and they are sources of vitamins and minerals, thus, essential components of human diet. Premise to the above challenge there is the need to evaluate the economics production of cucumber under different agronomic management in order to encourage local production among small holder farmers. Experiment to document the productivity of cucumber was in early and late cropping seasons of 2016 at Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experimental design was a split-plot laid out in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The main plot include; four vine trailing methods (Staked, Trellised, Mulch and control) while sub-plots were six levels of organomineral fertilizers fortified in ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1 of organic with inorganic fertilizer;, 100% NPKha-1, 100% Organic Nha-1 and 0% Nha-1 as a control). The fertilizers were aimed to give 100% kg Nha-1. Data were collected on fruit yield per plot and yield was converted to hectare. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using (SAS, 2003). Means of significant treatments were separated using the Duncan`s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Also, gross margin analysis was carried out to know the profitability of the production seasons of cucumber. The data obtained from the experiments show that type of vine management and fertilizers significantly affected the yield of cucumber. Among the vine trailing methods investigated mulched method significantly enhanced the yield and subsequently produced the higher number of fruits and resulted in higher fruit yield per hectare. Ratio 1:1 combination of inorganic and organic fertilizers resulted in the highest number of cucumber fruits and…
The effect of different animal protein sources in broiler production was investigated. 300 seven-day old broilers of equal average initial weight were randomly allotted into five treatment groups with 3 replications of 20 birds each and at the end of 28 days, birds were weighed again and re-randomized to the five treatment groups with 3 replicates of 16 birds each. The diets consisted of four animal proteins. Treatment 1(Control) had 4% fish meal, while diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had 1% of each of the animal protein source, 4% crayfish waste meal, 4% blood meal and 4% meat meal respectively. The study was conducted for 56 days of 28days starter phase and 28days finisher phase. The results showed blood meal to have the highest (P0.05) depression. The least cost per kg feed and least cost per kg weight gain (N) were observed with birds on crayfish diets. There was better (P
A study aimed at replacing whole maize with maize sievate/palm oil in broiler diets was carried out to evaluate their economic and biological growth performance. Maize Sievate: Palm Oil mixture (40:1) was used to replace whole maize both in the starter and finisher diets at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% whole maize replacement levels. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments; three replicates each comprising of 20 day – old broiler birds at the starter phase. These birds were re-randomized at the finisher phase, with each treatment having 54 birds (18 birds/replicate). The starter and finisher phases lasted 28 days each. The average daily feed intake in both phases were not significantly (P
Effect of Configurations on the Coefficient of Uniformity and Water Distribution Using Single-Nozzle Plastic Sprinkler Heads
This study was conducted during February and March 2014 in the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum at Shambat (longitude 32o32’E, latitude 15o40’N and altitude 380 m amsl), on a total area of 40 m x30 m .The objective of the study was to determine the effect of layout configuration under different operating pressures (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 bar) on the coefficient of uniformity (CU %) and distribution uniformity (DU %). The tested configurations were the square, rectangular and triangular sprinkler patterns by using single- nozzle plastic sprinkler heads (LEGO).For each configuration, a solid-set sprinkler system was designed and installed .Catch cans were placed at centre of grids of 4×4 m. The completely randomized design was used, and treatments were replicated three times. For each treatment the system was run for one hour. The data was analyzed, using Minitab Software Version 16. The triangular configuration recorded the highest uniformity coefficient and uniformity of distribution under 2 bars operating pressure. The mean CU% of value (87%) and DU% of value (80%) at (P≥ 0.05) gave the following descending order: triangular > square > rectangular configuration. All values obtained were within the acceptable range of standards set by Keller and Bliesner 1990. The appropriate operating pressure and sprinkler configuration should be considered when designing and installing a solid-set sprinkler system.
The ability of organic nitrogen fixation (BNF) to supply all the nutrient N in soybeans, considering high productivity, is questioned about the possible need to complement of this nutrient to the culture through other means of supplemental conventional fertilization. In this work the aim was to check the response of soybeans inoculated with bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, conditioned to supplementary nitrogen fertilization in the reproductive phase, in soil and in leaf. The treatments were the witness (without application of N), 30 and 60 kg of N ha-1, via soil and 2% solution of N, R1 and R 5.3 phases, in a randomized block design with 4 replications, using the soybean cv. Desafio, with the seeds inoculated with bacteria of the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii (strains Semia 587 and Semia 5019). The late application of N into R1 and R 5.3 provided increase in grain productivity of 478.6 kg ha-1 and 472.8 kg ha-1, respectively. The application, via soil, N in R1 features better harvest index, when compared to R 5.3. The late application of 2% solution of N, via foliar, provided no increase in productivity of soybean culture.
Levi has hypothesized that witnesses with poor memory discount some lineup members as not fitting their partial memory of the target, thereby picking him often. In a comparison between British 10-person video lineups and 48-person lineups, they did not differ in identifications. Perhaps sequential video lineups prevented witnesses from hitting upon the discounting strategy. Fifty were asked to count the number of lineup members that they could discount, and then were given the lineup. Others were given the lineup first. We expected that the former group would have more identifications No difference was found. Reasons for this were discussed.
Background: Our late modern society has a focus on self-realization, managerialism and instrumental reasoning. A logic of choice dominates the lives of emerging adults. They are focused on “self-managing” their lives. Although many emerging adults can “flourish”, others are “floundering,” struggling with anxiety or lower self-perceptions. Theories on self-realization which focus on a capability or self-determination approach seem inadequate for understanding this reality. Aim: This article critically examines what it means to be an emerging adult in late modern society. It aims to counterbalance the dominant theories of self-realization by exploring a dialogical view on the “self”. It pays attention to the voices of the “selves” of emerging adults, including the internalized voice of society itself. Method: A narrative approach was followed. First, an interpretive narrative study was carried out with female respondents. The study employed in-depth focus group and individual interviews and the transcripts of the interviews were then analyzed thematically. We further analyzed the data according to the Listening Guide Approach. Findings: Self-realization is a dynamic relational and moral process. The findings illustrate the multiple voices and I-positions of emerging adults. In addition, the findings illustrate that in addition to agency, “passive receptivity” also plays an important role in the process of becoming an emerging adult.
Synthesis, Characterization and catalytic activity of Palladium-Based Metallodendrimer with Triazine
A novel Pd-based metallodendrimer has been directly prepared by the reaction of substituted triazine with substituted benzoyl chloride in good yields using (Ph3P)2PdCl2 and DMF at 70 oC. This procedure avoids the use of high temperature and severe reaction conditions. The surface morphology like as entangled nanofibers from SEM image and the presence of Palladium ions of the compound from EDX analysis were obtained in addition TG and DSC showed the good thermal stability of the compound. This white solid compound was found to be an effective homogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of ynones in where the synthetic route was copper and phosphine ligand-free.