Chemo-Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soils Obtained from Recent Polluted Site in Oil Producing Environs in Rivers State Nigeria
The chemo- remediation of crude oil polluted soils from recent pollution sites in oil producing environs in River state was carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods using macro-soil nutrients ( Nitrate, Phosphate and Potassium) as index for remediation. The soil samples were labeled A, B, C, D1 to D6, sample A was obtained from pollution free site used as a control. Sample C was crude oil polluted soil not treated with surfactant, sample B was crude oil polluted soil leached with surfactant and not mineralized. Samples D1-D6 were polluted soil samples, leached with surfactant and mineralized with fertilizer. The samples were leached with linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LABS) and later mineralized with Nitrate, Phosphate and Potassium (N.P.K) fertilizer and returned to the site of excavation to fallow for four months. The samples were later re-excavated and taken to the laboratory for analysis. Nitrate and phosphate contents were obtained with the aid of spectrum lab 725 UV visible spectrophotometer and potassium content was determined by use of a flame photometer. Results showed that sample A had nitrate concentration of 330ppm, sample B had concentration of 21ppm, sample C had a concentration of 54ppm while samples D-D6 had concentrations ranging from300ppm to 420ppm.Similarly, The phosphate concentrations were 68.50ppm, 17.00ppn, 28.00ppm and 48.80-136.40ppm for sample A, B, C.D1-D6 respectively. The potassium concentrations were not different as concentrations of 46ppm, 12ppm, 28ppm and 38ppm-64ppm was recorded for samples A, B, C, and D1-D6 respectively. These results revealed that crude oils not only renders soils unusable but also destroys the nutrient availability in soils. The soils can therefore quickly be reclaimed by leaching them with surfactants and mineralizing them with adequate inorganic fertilizer.
Human mind is a functional capability of the brain, by which information about sensory-motor contacts made through the nervous system are perceived and interpreted by the mind. While the detection and interpretations are subjective and experiential, they are based purely on a cascade of neurocognitive processes that unfold in the brain in response to external events or sequential changes detected over time and space. Experiential or subjective interpretations are generally based on the selected choices, and often depends on the cognitive judgments made by the individual. The cognitive judgments mold the drive present in the individual and it is experienced as positive or negative emotions by the individual. Drive is the fuel or energy present in the system for all responses and actions related to “seeking”, and they are automatically initiated when the drive reaches a Critical Level of Potentiation (Mukundan et al. 1). It is possible for an individual to become aware of the presence of the drive as well as the process of initiation of actions in the attempt to satisfying the drive. Scientific observations of the changes that occur in the physical and social environment, which are normally detected by the sensory-motor systems are repeatable and explain the time-space sequential relationships that exist in the physical universe. The major role of the mind is the experiential detection and interpretations of the sensory-motor events, which are experienced and expressed by the mental processes related to detection and expression. Subjective interpretations are generally based on personal experiences, which are highly suggestable and as per the needs experienced at personal and group levels by the individual minds. Individuals create goals and purposes for all actions, and in the process, the new functional systems of the mind are also created according to neuroscientific principles. The physical world shaped by man scientifically…
Through the investigation and analysis of college students’ self-discipline in the new media environment, this paper summarizes the current situation and puts forward some feasible suggestions.
Deconstructing the employment problem of adult autism spectrum disorders from the Strength Perspective
The data show that the prevalence of autism in China is on the rise. As autistic patients grow up, their employment problems are highlighted. The current employment situation of older autistic groups is not ideal. This paper breaks away from the original “problem perspective” and “defect perspective” and introduces the “ strength perspective “ into the employment problem of adult autism spectrum disorders. After analyzing the contradiction between action and self-awareness in the plan, personal superiority and social discrimination, and the contradiction between membership and social security, from the perspective of superiority, the expectations and suggestions that are conducive to the employment of adult autism spectrum disorders are proposed.
In view of the problem of clogging of ultrafiltration membrane in ultrafiltration process, the contamination mechanism of humic acid solution on ultrafiltration membrane was studied in depth. Through the ultrafiltration test of different concentrations of humic acid solution, it was found that humic acid can cause pollution to the ultrafiltration membrane, and the higher the humic acid concentration, the more serious the membrane contamination. The introduction of calcium carbonate particles can delay the progress of ultrafiltration membrane fouling in the initial stage of ultrafiltration, but as the ultrafiltration time increases, the membrane fouling rate increases rapidly. The kaolin particles can aggravate the contamination of the ultrafiltration membrane by humic acid, and the contamination can be washed away by the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The introduction of calcium ions can significantly aggravate membrane fouling and polymerize humic acid molecular chains. Sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite alkali solution can effectively remove the humic acid pollution on the ultrafiltration membrane, wherein the sodium hydroxide solution has better cleaning effect, and the calcium carbonate-containing pollutant can be washed with a citric acid solution.
The distribution of aftermarket spare parts is an important part of automotive aftermarket parts logistics. The level of distribution efficiency is the key factor affecting customer satisfaction and the economic benefits of accessory companies. The paper uses the theory and modeling method of system dynamics to study the efficiency of the automobile after-sales spare parts distribution system, establishes a dynamic simulation model, and experiments and improves the model based on three important time elements in the system. Experiments show that shortening the delay time between nodes and adjusting the inventory adjustment time properly have positive practical significance for improving the distribution efficiency of aftermarket spare parts.
Analyze the knowledge structure and frontier research hotspots in the field of supply chain risk management research, and study the overall research trends in this field. Using the knowledge mapping software tools VOSviewer and Sci2 Tool, based on the articles published on the WoS core database from 1997 to 2018, systematic analysis of the development trend of supply chain risk management research. Come to the following conclusion: 1.Supply chain risk management research will become more and more “hot”; 2.Supply chain risk management research was mainly distributed in five areas:“quantitative model of supply chain risk management”, “Lean closed-loop supply chain”, “Supply uncertainty”and“Green Supply Chain” and “Equity risk”; 3.The three key words of “Sustainability”, “Emerging Economy”, “Big Data” and “Supply Chain Finance”will evolve into research hotspots in the field of supply chain risk management in the future. The research results reveal the research hotspots and frontier research topics in the field of supply chain risk management.
Comparison Of Uvulo-Glosso-Pharyngeal Dimensions Between Different Vertical Skeletal Facial Patterns
Background: The relationship between pharyngeal airway and dentoskeletal structures have been reported in various studies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the uvuloglossopharyngeal dimensions in various vertical patterns in skeletal class I subjects. Methodology: The study sample consisted of pre-treatment Lateral cephalogram of 135 subjects (63 males and 72 females, aged 14-21 years) with skeletal class I pattern which were divided into three groups of normodivergent, hypodivergent and hyperdivergent facial patterns with 45 subjects in each group. The inter-group statistical comparison across the three study groups was done using Chi-Square test and the inter-group statistical comparison of medians was done using Kruskal-Wallis H test [non-parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Results: The distribution of median for upper airway such as SPAS, MAS, IAS, VAL did not differ significantly across three study groups (P-value>0.05 for all). The vertical position of hyoid bone (HH1) was significantly lower in Group 2 compared to Groups 1 and Group 3 (P-value
Background: The cranial base has pivotal role in development of craniofacial structures. Both anterior and posterior cranial bases and the angle between the two affect the position of maxilla and mandible. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of cranial base angle and posterior cranial base length in various vertical facial types. Methodology: The study sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of 135 subjects (63 males and 72 females, age 14-21 years) with skeletal class I pattern. These were divided into three groups of normodivergent, hypodivergent and hyperdivergent facial types with 45 subjects in each group. Two angular parameters i.e Saddle angle (NSAr) and Articular angle (SArGo) and one linear parameter Posterior cranial base length (SAr) were used in cephalometric analysis. Inter-group comparison of means of all measurements were studied using ANOVA with Bonferroni’s correction for multiple group comparison. Results: Saddle angle and articular angle did not show significant difference across three study groups. Highly significant difference in posterior cranial base length was observed between hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Saddle angle and Posterior Cranial base length showed significant positive correlation in hypodivergent whereas Saddle angle and Articular angle showed significant negative correlation in hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Conclusion: The cranial base angle does not affect the vertical facial patterns but posterior cranial base length does affect the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent facial types. Cranial base angle found to correlate with posterior cranial base in hypodivergent facial pattern whereas Saddle angle correlated negatively with articular angle in both hyperdivergent and hypodivergent facial types.
Prevalence of Polypharmacy and Association to Pharmacotherapy Complexity in Older HIV-Positive Patients. The Sevihlla Study
Background: Increased life expectancy of older HIV-positive patients has been associated to a parallel increase in age-related comorbidities. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence of polypharmacy and its association to pharmacotherapy complexity, as measured by the Medication Regimen Complexity Index, in older HIV-positive patients; to calculate the median value of pharmacotherapy complexity; to identify polypharmacy and multimorbidity patterns; and to address adherence to antiretroviral and concomitant drugs. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in patients over 50 years of age receiving active antiretroviral drugs during 2014 at outpatient pharmacy services of a tertiary hospital in Spain. Data collected from the electronic medical record included demographic, clinical and comorbidity related endpoints. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with polypharmacy and major polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was defined as treatment with six or more drugs (including antiretroviral). Major polypharmacy (more than 11 drugs) was also considered. Patients was categorized according to their polypharmacy pattern. Three patterns were applied based on age of participants: cardiovascular, depression-anxiety, and chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease patterns. A patient was classified into a pattern when at least three drugs of the treatment were in the same pattern. Antiretroviral treatment adherence was measured using the SMAQ questionnaire and hospital dispensing records. Adherence to concomitant medication was measured using the Morisky-Green questionnaire and electronic pharmacy dispensing records. Pharmacotherapy complexity index, as assessed by MRCI, was also considered. Patients were classified as low MRCI (less than 14 points) or high MRCI (more than 14 points). Results: The study sample consisted of 223 patients (86.5% men), with a median age of 53.0 years. More than 80.0% of the patients were viro-inmunological controlled. Prevalence of polypharmacy was 56.1%. The median value of pharmacotherapy complexity was 11.0. The main contribution to this value was from the concomitant medication. The polypharmacy pattern mainly calculated…