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  • The shuriken effect of fertile alpha emitters : a physical process behind findings of chemical toxicity of depleted uranium

    This letter is a contribution on the study of nanoparticles for in situ observation and general understanding of nanoparticle physics. The positing that “chemical” effects from alpha emitters found by researchers actually come from the particular physical effect demonstrated with firmness here is not always possible (as alpha decay also interferes) but a case where this is definitive is given.


    Lablab purpureus is an important pulse crop in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia but has largely remained underutilized. Understanding the genetic diversity is prerequisite for genetic improvement and utilization of this leguminous crop. The relationships of the local lablab genotypes and those collected from other diverse geographic origins including the wild accessions remain unknown in Kenya. The study was undertaken to determine genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm accessions collected from Kenya and other global regions. Eight simple sequence repeat primer pairs were used to genotype the 189 lablab accessions. A total of 39 alleles were revealed by eight SSR with an average of 4.88 alleles per polymorphic loci. The average PIC was 0.42. The gene diversity among the accessions ranged from 0.26 to 0.52 with an average of 0.38, indicating moderate genetic diversity. Germplasm collected from Kenya showed a moderate genetic diversity of 0.36. Higher genetic diversity (He

  • Delayed traumatic cardiac tamponade: An extremely rare sequela of blunt trauma

    To our knowledge, there have been minimal information on the delayed traumatic cardiac tamponade, which is an extremely rare but a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly. We present a 25-year-old female who had cardiac tamponade of delayed onset after a motor vehicle crash. It was found on a computed tomography scan of the chest, and confirmed on subsequent echocardiography. Urgent operation of creation of pericardial window was performed. She made a good recovery after the operative intervention. The current report emphasises the importance of having high index of suspicion in patients with non-penetrating multi-trauma with careful observation and appropriate investigations.

  • Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Epilepsy in Childhood: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study from Sudan

    Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting around 1% of children. The incidence in Sudan is likely to be higher given the high rate of genetic disorders related to consanguity and acquired disorders caused by CNS infection and birth injury. Epilepsy can be idiopathic or non-idiopathic, symptomatic epilepsy indicates a known cause while cryptogenic epilepsy implies a presumed unknown cause. Objective: To understand the demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy in children in the setting of a tertiary epilepsy clinic in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross sectional study recruiting patients with epilepsy attending a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic. All patients attending the clinic in the 6 month period were included. Data was collected by medical students and was analyzed on IBM SPSS Version 20.0 in a descriptive fashion. Results: 284 Children were recruited. The mean age for children with epilepsy was 5.74 (range 0-12 Years). Females constituted 59.9%; while 94.7% of patients were of low socioeconomic status. The most common type of seizures found were generalized tonic clinic at 51.8% (147/284), followed by focal seizures at 21.1% (60/284). 71% of our patients (201/284) had no identifiable cause (idiopathic), while 29% were non-idiopathic. Of the non-idiopathic group; 41% were due to congenital anomalies, followed by HIE at 24.1%, infections at 16.9% trauma at 10.8% and tumors at 7.2%. Only 18.3% (52/284) had a positive family history of epilepsy. Conclusions: There appears to be a higher incidence of epilepsy in Children with low socio – economic status with a slight female predominance. The incidence of idiopathic epilepsy appears to be similar to inter-national figures. We recommend broader community based and long-term studies for better understanding of epilepsy in Sudan.

  • A challenging diagnosis in a patient with Odynophagia

    Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscesses are rare but potentially life-threatening manifestations of tuberculosis. We present herein a case of an 18-year-old male patient, a migrant from Somalia, accusing fever, odynophagia and neck pain. CT scan and MRI study of the neck showed a retropharyngeal and prevertebral abscess from C1 to D1 with the involvement of epidural space and spondylitis. Resolution of the abscess with few signs of residual spondylitis was achieved after surgical evacuation and antitubercular treatment.

  • Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following rabies vaccination

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Its diagnosis can be challenging due to having varied clinical presentations, including a range of motor, speech, cognitive, and behavioral changes that can vary in frequency and intensity, and there being no strictly defined diagnostic criteria for it in adults. Here we present a 58-year-old White male who developed ADEM following an uncommon cause (i.e., rabies vaccination), which was difficult to diagnose due to atypical manifestations.

  • Fibromyalgia as A Sole First Presentation of Recurring Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a child. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) with no evidence of brain pathology, also known as pseudo tumor cerebri. Headache and visual obscuration are the most common presenting symptoms for IIH with a frequency of (68-84%) respectively. Other symptoms of IIH include neck pain, back pain, and radicular pain in the arms and legs resulting from increased spinal pressure and forced filling of the spinal nerves with CSF. Case summary: We present an 11-year-old boy known to have chronic kidney disease stage II, due to obstructive uropathy. He had a history of Idiopathic intracranial hypertension that was treated completely and condition resolved, then presented with generalized pains and aches without headaches or visual symptoms and found to have IIH for the second time, the symptoms resolved with appropriate treatment. Conclusion: Widespread pain and several other characteristics of IIH share similarities with characteristics of fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), two overlapping chronic pain conditions.

  • Development and Test of Grain Mass Flow Monitoring System Based on Pressure Sensor

    In view of the technical development requirements of digital agriculture and the requirement of operation parameter regulation in the operation process of grain harvester. An on-board grain mass flow monitoring system based on pressure sensor was developed. The mathematical model of grain mass and grain flow pressure was established, which realized the real-time measurement, display, and storage of grain dry/wet quality information during the operation of grain harvester. An indoor bench test was carried out with the independently developed grain flow monitoring test bench. The results showed that the output error of the grain mass flow monitoring system was less than 4.25% under the conditions of indoor bench test, which meets the accuracy requirements of grain flow monitoring and provides the decision basis for variable seeding and variable fertilization.

  • Effect of adding graded levels of lablab forages on fermentation characteristics of Brachiaria silage

    Ensiling as a method of forage feed conservation is the most appropriate in conserving of crude protein (CP) enhanced forages for sustainable dairy production. This is attributed to the fact that with this method, protein dependent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) hydrolyze water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which are precursors for milk synthesis while the proteins buffers the excessive organic acids to produce more acetate and propionate. The study therefore aimed at assessing the quality of Brachiaria silage which was protein supplemented with graded levels of lablab forage. To achieve this objective, wilted Brachiaria forage (Brachiaria hybrid cv Mulato II) was collected, wilted and ensiled with and Lablab purpureus forages at inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% Lablab purpureus forage. The resultant 4 treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design in 3 replicates. All silages were prepared using plastic jar mini-silos to laboratory scale and then incubated at room temperature (±30°C) for 45 days. After the 45 days, chemical analysis for quantification of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), none protein nitrogen (NH3-N), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), pH, in-vitro organic matter digestibility (INVOMD), acetic acid, lactic acid and propionic acid composition were conducted. The results indicated that; none protein nitrogen, acetic acid and propionic acid composition decreased in quadratic trends with increasing legume forage inclusion to minimum values of 5.8, 48.0 and 0.7g/kg at 14.7, 1.8 and 6.0% inclusion levels of lablab forage, respectively. On the other hand, following a quadratic trend, WSC composition decreased with increase in lablab forage, with a maximum of 28.9g/kg obtained at 7.6% inclusion level of lablab forage. Generally, CP, dry matter, INVOMD and metabolizable energy of the silage increased with increase in the inclusion levels of lablab silage. Using regression equations of the response curves,…

  • Terpenoids and steroids isolated from Calophyllum polyanthum

    Three triterpenoids, one diterpenoid and two steroids were isolated from the aerial parts of Calophyllum polyathum. The structure-s of these compounds were determined by 1D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 4 was obtained for the first time from Calophyllum polyathum.