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  • Anti-bacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Root Extracts of Medicinal Plant Heteropogon contortus

    Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases are very expensive and some of them have become less effective due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Researchers are now focused on natural sources including plants and plant parts for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, this study evaluated in vitro anti-bacterial activity and phytochemical composition of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Sri Lankan medicinal plant Heteropogon contortus against clinically significant pathogens, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Agar well diffusion method and standard chemical tests were performed to evaluate anti-bacterial effect and phytochemical profile of the root extracts, respectively. The results revealed that each crude root extract exhibited anti-bacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The largest zones of inhibition against both E. coli and S. aureus were detected from the methanolic root extract at a concentration of 200 mg/mL and this is a novel finding. Phytochemical analysis of roots revealed the presence of bioactive constituents that account for the anti-bacterial potential, such as alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids. Thereby, root of H. contortus is a reliable source to develop potent, cheap and natural anti-bacterial agents. Future research focusing on high concentrations of different root extracts is recommended to further understand the anti-bacterial capability of H. contortus.

  • The Role of Maternal Stress, Cortisol and Interleukin-12 in Cases of Missed Abortion in the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Saudi Women

    Missed abortion in early pregnancy is a common gynecological condition, and the incidence has been increasing presenting itself as a public health problem. This study aimed to examine stress, cortisol concentration, and altered IL-12 levels in women who experienced missed abortions. Women with missed abortions (n = 40) were matched with control women of the same age in the same stage of pregnancy (n = 30). Participants filled out a survey about common stress factors. Venous blood samples were taken from the patients at 7:00 a.m. ELISA detected IL-12 concentrations, and serum cortisol was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Women with missed abortions reported significantly more common stressors, and their serum cortisol and IL-12 concentrations were significantly higher than those of the women with healthy pregnancies (all P< 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the power of the studied parameters to predict women at risk for missed abortion. IL-12 performed the best in predicting women with missed abortions as it had the highest area under the curve (AUC), followed by cortisol. Stress and changes in the immune system may play a role in the etiology of missed abortion in Saudi women in early pregnancy.

  • The schedule of World Cup and its impact on the team

    This paper discusses the organization of the World Cup competition, in which through the establishment of a number of scheduling model, the use of analytic hierarchy process and stochastic simulation and other methods to solve this problem and obtain a more reasonable arrangement of the competition. For the arrangement of the Order of the game, first of all, the existing competition is studied. On the premise of the increase in the number of teams and the previous arrangement of the group points, it is considered from the appropriateness of the field, whether the schedule is wonderful, whether the arrangement is simple and whether the ranking is reasonable. 3 new competition competitions are proposed for the improvement of the original competition. Then, the analytic hierarchy process is used to compare and analyze the 3 new competition methods, and the optimal competition method is selected. Finally, under the previously established game, FIFA’s integral algorithm formula is used to analyze and calculate the impact of the results produced under the competition on FIFA rankings. In the application of formula calculation, the stochastic factor is introduced, and the results are simulated by computer, which can get the approximate upward trend of the team in different ranking intervals.

  • Study on the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Instability

    In this paper we will discuss the problem on how the regional instability of a country can be affected by the climate change. Based on the data collected about the national vulnerabilities, we select fifteen indicators by the principal component analysis. A new three-level indicator system is then established to assess the country’s vulnerability. To obtain and optimize the weight for each indicator used at different levels, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) are used. Based on this work, a measurement system including the climate, economic, security, politics and human development is set up to measure the vulnerability of the country.

  • Public Health aspects of Cesarean section including overuse and underuse of the procedure

    Caesarean section (CS) is lifesaving medical procedure that is able to avert both maternal and neonatal mortality. However, across the globe an estimated 3.2 million necessary CSs do not happen in low income countries and an estimate of 6.2 million unnecessary CSs happen in middle and high income countries. The overuse and underuse of this procedure driven by both the supply-side (such as resources within the health system, healthcare policy and strategies, health financing systems and perceptions of the healthcare professional) and demand-side (such as socio-economic status, population preference and perceptions and trust in health system) determinants. There are stark inequities in CS rates between and within regions and countries. Many regions across the globe (Eastern Asia, Northern Europe, Central America, Southern America, Northern America and Oceania) have over double recommended optimal rates, whereas several African regions (Eastern, Middle and Western) have dangerously low rates. Both of these have detrimental impacts on maternal and neonatal outcomes. There is a need now for health policy and decision makers at both national and facility level to try and optimize the CS rates through facilitating strategies that promote positive human relations and encourage standardized evidence based care.

  • Article Critique entitled: “The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy”

    The present paper offers a critical review of the article published under the title of “The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy”. The reviewed article aimed at examining the academic leadership practices of the Ethiopian Combined Army Academy’s Dean. Qualitative design was employed to attain its objective. Interview, observation and document review were employed as instruments of data collection. Hence, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and methodological approaches to qualitative research sought to critically appraise the article. Accordingly, albeit the article was written in line with qualitative research approach, it had some limitations that lessen its empirical power. Bibliographic Citation “Tafere, M. (2014). The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 6(5), 70-79.”

  • An Experimental Investigation on Use of Bitumen Emulsion in the Construction of Gravel Road

    The base soil is one of the nature’s most common construction materials. Almost all types of construction are built with or upon the soil since centuries till today. The most important and effective part of a road pavement is sub grade soil, its strength and stability. If strength of soil is poor, then stabilization is normally needed. Sub grade is sometimes stabilized or replaced with stronger soil material so as to improve the strength. Such stabilization is also suitable when the available subgrade is made up of weak soil and hence has poor stability. Increase in the sub grade soil, strength may lead to economy in the structural thicknesses of a pavement. The most commonly used materials for soil stabilization are Cement, fly ash, lime, fibers, polymers etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the properties of the gravel soil by adding bitumen emulsion. An attempt has been made to use the emulsion for improving the strength of gravel soil expressed in terms of CBR values which may prove to be economical and give better results. In this study, the whole laboratory work revolves around the basic properties of soil and its strength in terms of CBR. A little cement added to provide better soil strength. It is observed that excellent soil strength results have been achieved by using cationic bitumen emulsion (CMS) with little quantity of cement used as filler. The appropriate mixing conditions for gravelly soil with CMS bitumen emulsion are being first attempted. This is followed by deciding four particular material conditions to show the variation in dry density and CBR value to achieve the best possible strength properties of gravel soil.

  • Should We Build Our School Here? Children’s Level of Fitness, School Site-Typology and the Built Environment

    Background: No prior studies have assessed the relationship of school-sites with children’s fitness, nor evaluated how it is influenced by types of built environments surrounding school-sites. Purpose: To create a typology of school-sites and assess their associations, with school-level cardiorespiratory fitness (PACER score), as well as 34 environmental measures, reflecting food retailers and parks. Methods: PACER scores (#laps) were obtained on 20,900 children, 5-18 years-old, attending 103 rural and urban public schools in Wisconsin 2009-2010. Scores were aggregated at the school-level (mean 25.2±10.5). School-site typology reflects walkability context and parcel size. Schools were classified as: Neighborhood-School, Neighborhood-Campus, Neighborhood-Suburban, or Campus-School. Geospatial and linear regression were performed , overall and by sex and age strata, using a 1600-meter circular buffer around each school. Associations with school-level-PACER score were assessed for school types; density of unhealthy and healthier food retailers; and types of parks. Results: Campus-Schools predict a school average-PACER 7 laps significantly higher than Neighborhood-schools. ‘Neighborhood-Campus’ showed the lowest PACER for males and 11-13 years-old (10 and 12 laps lower). Negatively correlated with average-PACER were, unhealthy convenience stores for both sex, large parks for females. More fast-casual restaurants predict higher average-PACER. Schools with more students predict higher average-PACER for males and 6-10 years-old. Conclusion: Among Wisconsin schools, school-site and its context are associated with children’s physical fitness, suggesting that school-siting should include a health benefit analyses in the process. This study demonstrates the utility of school-level PACER scores and suggests further study of the mechanisms by which children’s fitness is influenced by food retailers around school zones.


    Objective: The objective of this article is to make an analysis of the anthropic impact on the lo-cal species of Barra de Catuama beach, which is located in the Southeast of the municipality of Goiana, Pernambuco. Methods: For this purpose, we used the methodology of analysis of pho-tos, reading articles published about the subject, and the tools found on the internet, such as news and videos. Results: Through analysis of photos and bibliography, it was possible the perception of the anthropic impact relactive to social, environmental and economic’s quality, in Barra de Catuama beach, since the presence of solid waste and domestic sewage accounted in the decrease of species of the region and of tourists. Conclusion: The conclusion of this ana-lyzes is that the ecological and public damage, prevent the recreation of the bathers and have a direct influence on the fishing and catching crabs, those are one of the main sources of income in the region, stressing that this anthropic impact resulted in the decrease of the population of the species, and a deviation of the local income.


    This study aims to determine the LC50 for Artemia salina Leach and perform a microbial screening two C. taxifolia extracts. In these biological assays have been used larvae of A. salina Leach ob-tained from the incubation of about 20 mg of A. salina cysts, under artificial light for 48 hours. Where groups of 10 metanauplius were exposed to different concentrations (50 mg / mL to 1000 ug / ml) of methanol extract and hydroalcoholic C. taxifolia . The antimicrobial activity of extracts of C. taxifolia was evaluated by diffusion method in paper disc. The percentage mortality deter-mined after 24 hours of contact. Through the data was calculated LC50. Behavioral analysis of Artemia salina Leach showed a decrease in handling compared to those observed in the control groups. The microbial activity of the extracts were evaluated by measuring the halo of inhibition for two species of gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. The extracts showed signifi-cant results for S. aureus and S. spp. This study demonstrates that C. taxifolia has a high cyto-toxicity suggested that its use in cell culture as a molluscicide and can be used in the production of production of antimicrobial drugs.