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  • UTIs in Chronic Health Situations

    UTIs are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. UTIs typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. If left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences. Adult women are 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI, with almost half of them experiencing at least one episode of UTI during their lifetime. Uncomplicated lower UTI remains one of the most commonly treated infections in primary care. A complicated UTI is an infection associated with a condition, such as a structural or functional abnormality of the genitourinary tract, or the presence of an underlying disease. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. The paper reviews several chronic conditions that are risk factors for UTIs in human being.

  • Fast Food: “The Real Costs Never Appear on the Menu”

    Menus, as lists of prepared foods, provides origin of the food items (Thai, Chinese, Continental), restaurant’s mission, chef’s philosophy of cooking, brief idea about food processing, special combo offers along with their cost. The colorful menu or flyers attracts fast food lovers to spend more and more in their favorite restaurants for both its decadent yumminess and its ultra-convenience. Calculation of monetary cost gets more priorities than the actual hidden health costs, as usual. Food that is fried such as in a fast food restaurant is usually cooked in oil that has been heated and used multiple times. One serving in a fast food restaurant may has 100 times the level of aldehydes designated as safe by the WHO. Although there are a growing number of healthier fast food options, most fast food can still be classified as junk food. Eating a poor-quality diet high in junk food is linked to a higher risk of obesity, depression, digestive issues, heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and early death.


    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain can be considered a pathology and not just a symptom, which negatively influences people’s quality of life, causing a decrease in autonomy, isolation and impact on social life. In this context, considering the pain related to chronic health problems, it can be stated that Primary Care represents a strategic service due to its high capillarity and potential to identify health needs of the population, supporting the organization of care throughout the healthcare network. health services. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of primary care in the management of patients with chronic pain. METHOD: This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, conducted through literature review. DISCUSSION: Social determinants can be considered to strongly impact the prevalence of chronic diseases as well as their reflexes such as pain. Social inequalities, differences in access to goods and services, low education, and inequalities in access to information generally determine a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and diseases resulting from the evolution of these diseases. In this context, Primary Care plays a fundamental role as it represents a high capillarity strategic service. CONCLUSION: Primary Care has great potential to identify the health needs of the population, supporting the organization of care throughout the health services network, contributing to factors that negatively impact the health of the population causing pain and psychological distress.

  • A Study on Bird Diversity and Abundance in a Lowland of the Centre Region of Cameroon (Ekoko II village) confirm High Diversity in the Congo Basin Forest and a Greater Dominance in the Distribution of Species in the Lowlands

    Cameroon is one of the six Congo Basin Forest countries. The Centre region of Cameroon (Central Africa) is a relictual site in which several expeditions by naturalist ornithologists have permitted to describe many new birds’ specimens. Only in recent years, very few bird surveys have been conducted in this area to get an idea about the new or old taxa that make up this region. We conducted a bird survey in a locality of the Centre region of Cameroon, Nsimalen district of Mfou (more precisely in the Ekoko II village) to investigate the avifauna as well as to explore the abundance, diversity and distribution and eventually their reasons. To obtain the abundance of bird species, we used the mist-netting method and captured birds during eleven months. In order to analyse diversity and distribution of this avifauna in their life environment, we performed analyses with SAS/STAT and PAST software. We caught 227 individuals belonging to 24 birds’ families. Compared with previous surveys in this region, we newly recorded one family (Phylloscopidae), one genus (Phylloscopus) and two species: Phylloscopus bonelli and Criniger ndussumensis. In the Ekoko II avifauna, many are sedentary but there is also a great mixture of birds described as seasonal migrants, intra-African migrants, residents, etc. Values of the obtained diversity indexes show that the Nsimalen village exhibits a great avifaunistic diversity. Our results show an absence of the supremacy of one species (H’=3.14) and the value of the Equitability index (J’=0.80) supports an equal distribution of the individuals. Then the pattern of distribution of the species also appears to lean on ecological factors and in this case, the vegetation which would have played a main role in their distribution with a mix of specialists and generalists birds or even migratory birds due to the abundant vegetation. Otherwise, our study…

  • Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saccharum Officinarum Linn (Poaceae) Juice in Animal Models

    Saccharum officcinarum (SOC) juice has been used for treatment and management of several conditions including urinary tract infection, diabetes, constipation, tooth decay and bad breath according to folklore. This study was carried out to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of the juice of Saccharum officinarum in doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mL/kg using the following models in rats – carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, formalin-induced paw oedema, and cotton-pellet granuloma. Also employing the following models in mice – castor oil-induced diarrhea and xylene-induced ear oedema. Animals were pretreated with aspirin (100 mg/kg; p.o), cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg; p.o.), atropine (1 mg/kg p.o), dexamethasone (5 mg/kg; p.o.) and celecoxib (20 mg/kg p.o.). Oral administration of SOC juice significantly (p

  • Suspicious Jealousy Is Related to Anxious Attachment and Is Mediated By Fear of Intimacy

    Relationships between insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant), fear of intimacy and romantic jealousy (suspicious and reactive) were explored in this study. The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire, the Fear-of-Intimacy Scale, and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale were administered to a sample of 210 ethnically diverse adults via Qualtrics Panels. Anxious attachment, fear of intimacy, and suspicious jealousy were positively correlated. Conversely, negative associations were noted between avoidant attachment and reactive jealousy, and between fear of intimacy and reactive jealousy. Mediation analysis revealed that fear of intimacy mediated the effect of anxious attachment on suspicious jealousy and marginally mediated the effect of avoidant attachment on suspicious jealousy. These results are consistent with the transactional model of jealousy and they uniquely specify that fear of intimacy is a significant mediator of the relationship between anxious attachment and suspicious jealousy.

  • Impacts of Climate Change on Fish Production and Its Implications on Food Security in Developing Countries

    Fish plays a great role on nutritional status by providing essential amino acids, vitamin and nutrients that are deficient in staple foods. The review was conducted to review the potential physical and biological impacts of climate change on fisheries and to highlights some mitigation and adaptation measures to promote fish production. The impacts of climatic change on fisheries in developing countries classified as physical and biological changes. Physical changes including water surface temperature rise, ocean acidification, sea level rise, salinity, flooding and change in harvesting sector. Biological changes including changes in primary production change in fish distribution and fish diseases. Elevated water temperatures affect fish physiological processes, there by affecting reproduction and survival of the fish larvae. The impacts of increased flooding of the freshwater bodies will be negative through destruction of fish feeding and breeding habitats, or positive in expansion of aquatic habitats for primary production. Rise in the sea level lead to intrusion of more salty water into the river areas thus affecting distribution of fish and high wind can interfere catching and trade activities. These climatic factors interferes food security directly through limiting the availability of fishes to human diet and indirectly by reducing cash revenue obtaining from fish trade to purchase other food items. Therefore, implementing adaptation and mitigation pathways safeguard this sector and improve food security.

  • Optimization of Local Wort and Fermented Beer from Barley as Substitute Raw Material for Ethanol Production Using Response Surface Methodology

    The research work was aimed to find the exact optimized operating temperature, time, pH and substrate which is important for the production of wort and fermented beer in both mashing and fermentation processes. Here, the barley was used as a basic source of substrate and enzymes. To determine the optimum operating temperature, pH, time and substrate under mashing and fermentation processes, Central Composite Experimental Design (CCD) was used. The results showed that, the maximum % malt extracts (92.36 %), fermentable sugar (10.53 oBx) were observed at 70oC, 120 min., pH value of 4.5 and 30 gm substrate source addition. After optimizing the wort, the fermentation experiment was conducted accordingly the combination which was given by design expert software. The maximum degree of attenuation value (86 %) was observed at 20oC, 96 hr, and pH value of 4.4 and 75 gm substrate source added. Therefore, good barley type and optimum condition for mashing and fermentation process were found to be significant effect for high wort, and distillery beer.

  • Magnitude and associated factors of goiter, and iodized salt utilization among adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorder is a common and preventable global public health problem that causes irreversible mental retardation. IDD is more prevalent in developing countries, especially in mountain areas. Therefore this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of goiter among adolescent girls. The knowledge and utilization of iodine-rich foods and iodized salt of adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia was also assessed. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 5, 2018, to December 30, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 477 adolescent girls from 12 schools. A pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measure and thyroid gland examination were used for data collection. The collected data were entered into Epi Data 3.1 software and analyzed using Anthro plus and SPSS version 21 software. Results: The overall prevalence of goiter was 50.4% of which 35.4% were palpable and 15.0% were visible goiter. Being post-menarche (AOR=3.241, 95% CI= (1.288-8.152)) and thin (AOR=1.124, 95% CI= (1.068-14.680)) adolescent girl increased the risk goiter. Two hundred seventy (60.8%) adolescent girls had awareness about salt iodization and 54.5% girls said it is important to prevent goiter. Though packed salt was used by 58.2% only 30.6% of households of adolescent girls add salt immediately before the end of cooking or after cooking. Conclusions: Goiter is a serious health problem that affects about half of adolescent girls in the study area. The risk of developing goiter was higher among girls who initiated menstruation and suffered from thinness. There is low awareness about iodized salt and packed salt utilization. In addition to universal salt iodization as a strategy to eliminate IDD, emphasis to awareness creation on salt iodization and its proper utilization is required.


    Introduction: Historically, women were given birth in the home by the help of midwives, but they heard changes from the increase in the performance of professionals with interventional practices, especially in the hospital environment. Today, even in the hospital setting, the humanized care in childbirth remit the values of a natural childbirth as something physiological. Objective: To describe the experience lived as a nursing student about the role of the nurse in humanized childbirth care in a Maternity Hospital in the city of Rio Largo. Method: This is a descriptive study of the experience of the Nursing Work Placement in the city of Rio Largo in the period from 11 to September 29, 2017. Results: It was possible to observe how the humanized care at birth changes the behavior and perception of pain in the parturient. During labor, women were encouraged to use non-pharmacological methods among these methods; the use of the Swiss ball, stool, lumbosacral massage and the calm environment. Assistance was provided in a humane way. Conclusion: It is necessary that nurses take care, so that they have a humanized care focused on childbirth care to minimize the perception of painful stimuli in women, using non-pharmacological methods, without interventional practices allowing women to be protagonists of their childbirth.