Background: Depression is a very important part of global mental health concerns. Many of the studies on correlates of depression stopped short of finding the predictors. Predictive models will empower preventative efforts by healthcare providers and policy makers. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting depressive symptoms among a population of older men and women in rural South Africa. Methods: Data were obtained from “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) in the INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site of Agincourt” in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Previously validated short-version Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 8) was used to assess for depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression model with stepwise selection, and receiver operating curve were used to examine the predictors of depression. Results: Of the 4027 participants included in this study, 743 (18.5%) met the criterion for depression (CES-D 8 score ≥3). Older age (OR 1.025, CI 1.016-1.034), diabetes (OR 1.467, CI 1.152-1.868), and alcohol consumption (OR 1.536, CI 1.261-1.872) predicted depression. Being male (OR 0.734, CI 0.588-0.915) and homemaker rather than not working (OR 0.513, CI 0.372-0.707) were protective. Compared to those who were married, depressive symptoms were significantly higher among the separated/divorced (OR 1.372, CI 1.027-1.834) and the widowed (OR 1.468, CI 1.172-1.839). Conclusions: It is possible to predict the development of depression in this community, and findings are generalizable to other communities and countries. Healthcare workers and policy makers should use the findings for preventative care and policies.
Scholars note that failing public schools are the civil rights issue of our day (Frankenberg, 2011; Orfield, 2004). The current discussion about school reform in the U.S. over the past two decades has shifted from one of equity to one based on excellence in the form of student achievement. A primary solution for student achievement has been popularized and made into dominant discourse through legislation such as No Child Left Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009). In this analysis, the author provides a historical context of the charter school movement as a backdrop for charter school enrollment trends and policy in Georgia. As charter schools in Georgia continue to gain popularity as a primary school choice option for African American students, it is essential that policymakers create charter legislation that encourages the creation of socioeconomically and racially diverse schools. Moreover, both policymakers and stakeholders in education need to decide to what end are we expanding choice, and what kinds of choice might get us closer to more integrated, and ultimately, democratic schools?
The concepts of learning and education, even if they have common semantic starting points, are synonymous, and in recent decades, there has been a shift towards the notion of learning as a dominant concept (Jarvis, 1995). Many scholars have tried to define the complex nature of learning. Jarvis (1995) considers that “learning is the process of transforming experience into knowledge, skills, attitude, values, feelings”. According to UNESCO, education is “organized teachings designed to convey a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding, valuable to all activities of life” (Jarvis, 1995). From the above we can conclude that education as a concept and as a process is more structured and more organized than learning, yet the concept of learning is wider and encompasses the concept of education, taking into account the fact that not all forms of learning have an educational character.
Design of reverse logistics network for the end-of-life automobiles based on sustainable development
From the point of view of sustainable development, a multi-objective mixed integer model to solve the problem of location and flow distribution of reverse logistics network of end-of-life automobiles. To reflect the various aspects of sustainable development, not only to minimize the objectives of economic cost and environmental cost, at the same time with the maximization of social benefits as the goal. Combined with the case, using the ideal point method by using lingo, it is concluded that the sustainable of scrapped automobile reverse logistics network optimization scheme. In addition, the impact of government subsidy on the sustainability of reverse logistics network is analyzed. In addition, the uncertainty of product recovery and the influence of government subsidy on the sustainable development of reverse logistics network are analyzed. The results show that end-of-life automobiles with more dismantled products have a greater impact on the sustainability of reverse logistics network, and government subsidies have an ideal interval to make the sustainability of reverse logistics network reach the best state.
Analysis and Impact of Evidence Based Medicine in the Process of Education and Decision Making in Medical Practice
Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is one of the modern systems of collecting, recording and using information and data related to medicine. The research was conducted in 2018 in several health institutions (health centers and hospitals) in Sarajevo Canton. The sample was made up of family doctors and other clinical specialties. The research results suggest the doctors in BiH are familiar with the concept of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and in their everyday work they apply relevant contemporary knowledge, national and international guidelines for the treatment and disease therapy. The most significant obstacle to more efficient management of medical information and the implementation of EBM in practice is the perception it would require additional time and incur significant cash expenditures to the doctors. In the future, doctors will increasingly be demanded to use advanced tools and modern techniques supporting them to make the most effective treatments on the basis of their own experience.
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM RS4919510 (C>G) IN MIRNA-608 AND BREAST CANCER IN VIETNAMESE POPULATION
Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease throughout the world and it is one of the most common cancer among women both in developed and developing countries. To enhance the survival of BC patients, genetic factors are used for early diagnosis because they are non-changed factors and present ability of cells to proliferate and metastasize. MiR-608 targets many genes which are vital for development, differentiation, motility, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The SNP rs4919510 (C/G) affects the processing of the pre-miRNA to its mature form and the ability to regulate target genes. This SNP has been demonstrated to relate to breast cancer in Chinese and Iranian population. Our study aimed to investigate the association between the SNP rs4919510 and BC in Vietnamese population. 106 cases and 101 controls were genotyped using optimized tetra-ARMs-PCR method, then statistical analysis was applied to examine the correlation of the SNP. The results show that this SNP is high polymorphism with the frequencies of minor allele C is 24.8% and major allele G is 75.2% in Vietnamese population. Statistic result revealed an obvious increased risk of BC among Vietnamese women when compared of heterozygote model and dominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.45, p= 0.02; CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.05-3.17, p=0.03). Our study suggested that the polymorphism of rs4919510 may be associated with BC risk in Vietnamese individuals.
During routine educational dissection of the upper part of the abdominal cavity in a female cadaver (67 years old, Netherlands) a unique association of two rare biliary and vascular patterns was discovered. The gastroduodenal artery originated from the celiac trunk along with the right hepatic, gastric and splenic arteries, and gave origin to the accessory right and left hepatic vessels. The right hepatic artery took the course typical for the common hepatic artery; however, as a component of the portal triad, the artery was located behind the bile duct and portal vein. Next to the hilum of the liver, it branched off the cystic artery to the gallbladder and bifurcated into two segmental hepatic branches. The described hepatic vascular pattern was associated with the presence of an accessory aberrant cystic duct connecting the body of the gallbladder with the right anterior inferior segmental bile duct. The case is reported to emphasize the importance of a detailed preoperative investigation of the patients considered for open and laparoscopic procedures on the liver and gallbladder documenting the variability of both the biliary and vascular patterns.
Fracture of the penis is a misnomer, the cause being rupture of one or both of the tunica albuginea that covers the corpora cavernosa. It usually occurs following sexual intercourse or masturbation. Here we report 2 cases of penile fracture in our institution. Ultrasonography was done which confirmed the diagnosis. In both the cases, the urethra was intact. Exploration with evacuation of the hematoma and repair of the tunica albuginea was done.
During routine educational dissection of a cadaver (63-year-old, male, USA), an atypical course of the left inferior suprarenal vessels via the posterior pararenal space was discovered. Detailed analysis of the abdominal vascular pattern showed that the atypical inferior suprarenal artery represented a terminal branch of the left inferior phrenic artery. The last one branched off from the very beginning of the left renal artery, ascended between the fibers of the left crus of the diaphragm, then ran laterally giving off muscular branches and, finally, descended along the costal part of the diaphragm to the left posterior pararenal space. The terminal branch of the inferior phrenic artery pierced the retrorenal fascia and entered the perirenal space as an atypical left inferior suprarenal artery. It ran upward and medially crossing the anterior surface of the kidney to reach and supply the lower pole of the left suprarenal gland. The left inferior phrenic vein accompanied the artery taking a similar course. It received numerous tributaries passing via the posterior pararenal space, drained the inferior suprarenal vein, and opened into the left renal vein. Such anomalous pararenal vascular pattern is a challenge for surgeons performing open procedures on retroperitoneal organs, not to mention specialists employing minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques. The anatomical variation reported in this paper requires urgent attention of the related specialists.
Research on waste frying oil based lubricant base stocks production and trimethylolpropane (TMP) was investigated. Quality parameters were tested for the waste frying oil. The hydrolysis process was conducted to extract the free fatty acid from waste frying oil. TMP ester was produced via reaction between free fatty acids of waste frying oil and TMP at 130-140°C, for 5 hours with acid-catalyzed condition. Modification of TMP ester by epoxidation reaction followed by ring-opening reaction using a medium branch chain alcohol; 2-ethylhexanol. The TMP ester was reacted with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid at 45-55°C for 2½ hours during epoxidation process. Epoxidized TMP ester was reacted with 2-ethylhexanol in mol ratio of 1:2 to produce ether ester TMP. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used as a catalyst during ring opening and esterification processes. Ether ester TMP functional groups and chemical structure were identified using FTIR and NMR, respectively. Confirmation with FTIR has indicated sharp peak at 1742 cm-¹, proved the existence of ester group which confirmed the TMP ester formation during esterification and broad peak of 3456 cm-1 during ring opening indicated the formation of ether ester TMP. In ¹H NMR analysis, the signal of methylene proton in which the carbon attached to ether esters TMP existed at 4.0-4.1 ppm and for 13C NMR, the carbonyl ester signals existed in the range of 174.1 ppm. Several analyses were conducted on the ether ester TMP base stock such as hydroxyl value, viscosity value, pour point and flash point. It showed good low temperature behaviour with pour point at -40ºC and high thermal stability, flash point value exceeding 250ºC and viscosity value of 75 cP. The ether ester TMP produced is comparable with a commercial biolubricant in the market respectively.