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  • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction assay in pleural effusion

    SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) is a novel coronavirus identified for the first time in Wuhan (China) in 2019, responsible of the current pandemic infection known as Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). Wide range of clinical presentation of COVD -19 has been observed, from asymptomatic carriers to ARDS. The common signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection include fever, fatigue, dry cough, and dyspnoea; the severity of the disease is due to the impairment of the respiratory function. The radiological findings include a large variety of lesions; bilateral interstitial pneumonia is the most concerning presentation of COVID-19. Pleural involvement has been described in a minority of cases: pleural thickening had been observed in 32% of cases whereas pleural effusion is uncommon being described in only 5%. Furthermore, pleural involvement has been significantly associated with a worse prognosis. Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), beyond the nasopharyngeal swab, has been detected in other samples; up to now, data about RT-PCR specific results in the pleural fluid of patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 5 (COVID-19) are very limited. The current gold standard for diagnosis is nucleic acid detection by real time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in nasopharyngeal swab. In this report, a case of a positive RT-PCR for Sars-Cov-2 in the pleura fluid and in the naso- pharyngeal swab of a patient affected by bilateral interstitial pneumonia and severe respiratory failure is described. As the presence of SARS-Cov-2 in the pleural fluid seems to be associated to a poor prognosis, physicians should carry out the specific RT-PCR assay both in the nasopharyngeal swab and in the pleural sample also when the fluid amount is very scarce and not recognizable in the chest X ray. Furthermore, the analysis of multiple samples allows to increase the test reliability.

  • BEYOND PSEUDO-ACCOMODATIVE CORNEA LASIK (PAC LASIK). A PERSONAL INSIGHT

    Laser in-situ keratomieleusis (LASIK) is a common intervention for young, active, ametropic individuals to improve their visual acuity. pseudo-accommodative cornea (PAC), a variant of LASIK, to correct ametropia among presbyopic patients is proven in maintaining good distant vision; yet, the satisfactory spectacle free reading vision is limited to the ageing progression. However, successful treatments do not guarantee patient’s satisfaction. Assesment of the objective topographic indicators, visual acuity, higher order abrasion, and contrast sensitivity; revealed the clarification of a mild headache as a personal subjective experience after the treatment. The role of the persistent, dominant eye, the brain perception, seems to be critical factor to a patient’s satisfaction. To a certain degree, the interplay amongst the optical part and it’s supporting tissue, within and between the eyeballs, as well as its relationship to the neurosensory parts of the visual systems after Lasik surgery have not yet been assessed and reported elsewhere.

  • The Oklo spontaneous nuclear reactor case: a fireball startup creating the South Atlantic

    There is a need to clarify continental formation processes and the Oklo natural nuclear reactor happens to be in the exact position where such a natural phenomena needs to be to explain continental separation. New research points of the author are shown to fit with findings of the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique here.

  • “Organic food” – makes pharmaceutical industries work against insects – a danger for society in general

    The author’s works have shown in various ways the absence of dangerosity of pesticides for human health, as all the studies claiming to find effects forget the side contamination with alpha-emitting nanoparticulates (from radon, phosphated fertilizers, car fumes, coal ashes for instance) that interacts with the samples and destroys the scientific validity of the results. This paper looks at the issue of organic food in a different way, because organic food also thrives on the sheer claim that it benefits to insects, and the author’s results here show that this is not the case too.

  • CHALLENGES IN PURSUING NURSING EDUCATION AT THE GRADUATE LEVEL: MOTIVATORS, BARRIERS, AND PERSISTENCE

    As the United States [U.S.] nursing shortage continues, the need for a highly educated work force grows. Although, the Carnegie Report [1] advocated for a Bachelor of Science in Nursing [BSN] degree as entry into practice with a required Master of Science in Nursing [MSN] earned within 10 years, the necessity to pursue a graduate degree in nursing has not been as widely encouraged as the baccalaureate degree. Master’s prepared nurses are essential across a variety of health care settings to serve in leadership, management, and advanced primary provider positions, as well as in academic settings as faculty members and researchers. In 2017, approximately 17% of the nursing workforce held a master’s degree. This was up from 13.8% in 2013 [2]. While the percentage of nurses earning a master’s degree has risen gradually, the need for additional highly educated nurses persists as rapid advancements in health care technology, including telehealth and informatics, occur. During 2016 and 2017, the nursing program at the authors’ institution tasked the recruitment and retention committee with increasing enrollment in the graduate nursing program. The committees stated goal was increasing enrollment in all role specializations (nurse practitioner, education, and management). The committee identified two areas of particular concern: the need for family nurse practitioners in the nearby rural communities and a shortage of nursing faculty in the area as these areas had become challenging. Although the nursing program had been successful at retaining a majority of its students, recruitment of new students was challenging and thus became the key focus.

  • On the Nature of the French Verbal Forms in the Code-Switching of Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah Speakers of French

    Code-Switching is a process of bilingualism that involves the alternation of two languages in the course of a single conversation as a result of language contact phenomenon. This paper is about the conjugation of the verbal forms in the switches of bilingual Songhay-French, Bamanankan-French and Fulfulde-French speakers as pointed out in several studies by I. Abdoulaye (2013, 2016), M. Minkailou and I. Abdoulaye (2016, 2018), I. Abdoulaye and M. Minkailou (2017, 2019). The main objective of the present paper is to describe the verbal paradigm in the switches of these three different groups of francophone speakers according to the existing theories and models on Code-Switching and Code-Mixing constraints. Based on the Matrix Language Frame Model of C. Myers-Scotton (1993a, b), the paper aims at proposing and analysing a francophone alternative of grammatical constraint in code switching. The study uses secondary data collected from the research works cited above in which spontaneous and fresh conversations have been recorded, transcribed and translated into English in an oral corpus. The population of these three different investigations is heterogeneous consisting of bilingual Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah civil servants and university students. Examining the nature of the switches, the study purposely focuses on the intra-sentential code-switching, in which the participants alternate the two codes, inserting words from French into their respective native languages. Analysing the inflected forms of the French verbs embedded in Songhay, Bamanankan or Fulfulde codes, the study has revealed that all the switched verbs belong to the same verb form, the French past participle of the three verb groups (first, second and third). So, the study has concluded that this way of conjugating verbs in Code-Switching is typical to francophone second language leaners. This approach in Code-Switching that the authors are proposing as the Francophone Model of Switching Verbs is a result…

  • Improved soil plug height calculation formula

    This paper analyzes the soil plugging effect of the open pipe pile during the pile sinking process. The soil in the pipe pile is regarded as a continuous and uninterrupted multiple units, and the force analysis is carried out in the vertical direction, and the vertical balance equation of the soil in the pile is obtained. By establishing an equation, the expression of the plug height of the pipe pile during the pile sinking process is obtained. Comparing the theoretical calculation results with the actual project, it is concluded that the theoretical calculation results can reflect the overall change in the height of the soil plug. Therefore, the pile plug height obtained by calculation has certain guiding significance for the project.

  • Mitochondrial Metabolism, Dysfunctions in Senescence Cell and the Possible Interventions through Herbal Medicines

    The mitochondria are the cell`s powerhouse. They are considered ubiquitous organelles of all eukaryotic cells, being responsible for the cell’s life and death cycle. Through stimuli in the environment in which they live, mitochondria can modulate their own biogenesis as well as signal retrograde to the nucleus to modify the structure of their proteins. Since the mitochondrial genome contains only 37 genes, much of the encoding of its proteins depends on the nuclear genome. Thus, the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus seems to be a target of science in understanding the pathologies associated with this organelle. Some medicinal herbs have been shown to influence mitochondrial biogenesis, such as Gynostemma pentaphyllun (GP) and berberine, which increase the phosphorylation of proteins AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK). Just as GP and berberine phosphorylate AMPK in signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis, the sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene (BCP) demonstrated positive results in reorganizing mitochondrial transcription factors, being an agonist of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated alpha receptor (PPAR-α). Another plant derivative, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid known as cannabidiol (CBD), has been showing control in the metabolism of calcium in the mitochondrial matrix. In this review, we seek to get a closer look at the biochemical mechanisms of action of some of these plants, as well as their synergies in the results of different treatments. In the view of oriental medicines, the use of associated medicinal herbs has always been part of their treatment protocols. However, the effectiveness of these treatments in relation to plant synergy can be observed in future clinical trials for better understanding.

  • “Spitting as traditional medicine” – why alpha-emitting nanoparticul- ates make spitting an unfortunate but significant contribution to health

    Spitting is a human reflex as old as civilization, related, mainly, as is shown, to the evacuation of internal contamination with alpha-emitting nanoparticulates, a contamination with many causes, from car fumes and industrial smokes, coal ashes and cement, radon, phosphated fertilizers, to depleted uranium weapons and natural dust and tap water in areas of high natural radioactivity, as well as cigarettes, for the main sources. Strong levels of coal ash pollution together with high natural radioactivity explain for instance the spitting “custom” in Chinese streets, together with long distances between workplace and home, widespread cigarette use, and lack of public toilets. Alphaemitting nanoparticulates become a part of the digestion cycle in meat-eaters, but not without collateral damage.

  • LOWER LIMB MUSCLE ACTIVITY ADJUSTMENT AND LACTATE VARIATION IN RESPONSE TO INCREASED SPEED WITH PROPORTIONAL RESISTANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Background: Various pathologies require physiotherapists to adjust therapy interventions, some of which are to reducing joint loads while strengthening the lower extremity musculature. Tools such as a sled can be used to accomplish a small load with high-repetition-resistance exercises. Purpose: This study examined the impact of pushing a sled with regulated resistance on lower limb muscle activation and fatigue while walking and running. Methods: The neuromuscular activity of the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of thirty-six young adults were recorded using surface electromyography (EMG) and lactate data from a Nova Biomedical Lactate Plus meter. The sled used was the XPO Trainer, which maintains a steady resistance proportional to the user regardless of the forces applied to accelerate the sled. Baseline lactate was collected and followed by one of three protocols: run, run-push (RP), or walk-push (WP). Each included three trials over a 40 ft distance, during which EMG data were collected per trial, whereas lactate was collected following the completion of the appointed task. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed, showing a considerable increase (P