Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: highlights about biochemical agents that subscribe its physiopathological mechanism during gestational trimesters
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a common complication in which hyperglycemia goes by physiological state, beneficial to the embryo, to metabolic condition that causes damage to both mother and child. Placental hormones, insulin resistance, visceral fat tissue, dyslipidemia, and other biochemical agentes, subscribe the physiopathological mechanisms that lead to GDM. Nowadays, there are mRNAs, proteins, and even vitamins being associated with GDM risk and its pathophysiology. These new pathways usher a new horizon to discover and describe other important parts of metabolism that play a key role to GDM. With a larger picture of pregnant women metabolism prior and after GDM, better predictors and efficient treatment can be managed.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by the WHO as a condition of hyperglycemia detected for the first time during pregnancy, with blood glucose levels that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for DM. There are some hormones produced by the placenta and increased by pregnancy, such as placental lactogen, cortisol, and prolactin. In which, they can reduce the performance of insulin at its receptors and, consequently, increase insulin production in healthy pregnant women. Prenatal care is essential to prevent complications for women and children. Thus, an individualized diet should be indicated, exercise during pregnancy, and delivery should be monitored. If the recommendations do not normalize the condition of GDM, spontaneous abortions, the formation of excess amniotic fluid, congenital malformations, restricted fetal growth, and even the death of the mother and fetus may occur.
Although there is medical care focused on obstetric and neonatal care, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (MDG) is still considered one of the main gestational complications, due to numerous metabolic, hematological and anatomical risks for pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. In this chapter, the symptoms and clinical manifestations of pregnant women diagnosed with MDG and their offspring during and after pregnancy will be addressed, presenting the probable sequelae, in addition to the pathogenesis of the main clinical complications.
Treatment for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus comprises a series of Clinical-therapeutic protocols, which are necessary for proper attention to the patient with this pathology. In this sense, this chapter will address treatment care and postpartum care for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, taking into account pharmacotherapeutic protocols and adverse effects of non-recommended treatments.
Anxiety and Depression Throughout history, humans have created various “instruments” for the survival of their species, including a need for socialization. These social relationships do not always occur successfully and when they do, there are behavioral changes, such as anxiety disorder, depression and even risk of suicide (SAVALLI; ADES, 2016; SOUSA; OLIVEIRA; CALOUI, 2018). Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) presents as main resources exacerbated fear or anxiety in social situations. Also called Social Phobia, SAD usually manifests itself before or during moments of interaction, as well as in situations where the individual feels observed or exposed to the approval of others (APA, 2013). This disorder is a consequence of one or several factors, whether psychological, biological or arising from lived situations (GOMES, 2014). Those who suffer from SAD tend to exhibit more reclusive habits, reducing their social circle to only their family members and to avoid situations in which they need to speak or even eat in the public. Physically, anxiety disorder usually manifests as hand tremors, flushing, nausea, frequent urination and/or panic attacks, signs that negatively influence the behavior of the affected individual and may cause a more intense degree of social isolation. Social Phobia physiologically impairs the functionality of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands, producing changes in production and releasing of several important hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. This physiological change implies the maintenance of alertness, increases heart rate, alter body blood flow, and digestive processes and pupil dilation, these signals being the preparation of the body for situations of fight or escape. From the biological point of view, these characteristics are important for the survival of individuals. However, in the anxiety scenario, these effects are constantly manifesting, leading to the predominance arc of deleterious effects on the individual’s life. Early aging and cognitive signs, such…
With the changing age structure of the population, epidemiological shifts are observed. The incidence of infectious diseases has declined over the years and has been replaced by chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and psychological disorders. Anxiety disorders are more common among people suffering from chronic medical disease, and the number of medical illnesses is positively associated with the presence of anxiety (RAMOS; STANLEY, 2018, p.57). Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders that have their basis in one of the most rudimentary and adaptive human functions: the innate stress response (‘fight or flight’’ response) (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p. 104). So, it is possible that during our lifetime we may suffer some kind of anxiety disorder. In fact, the stress response is designed to motivate us to protect ourselves by preparing to cope with a perceived threat. But when this stress or fear is disproportionate to actual threat or danger and significantly interferes with normal daily functioning, the person is said to have an anxiety disorder (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p.104, OLTHUIS; WATT; BAILE; HAYDEN; STEWART, 2015, p.12). While fear is the emotional response to an imminent threat, characterized by an acute autonomic system activation, anxiety is better described as the “anticipation of a future threat” (DONELLI; ANTONELLIA; BELLINAZZIB; GENSINIC; FIRENZUOLID, 2019, p. 2). Anxiety is a disease which affects a large part of the world population. According to (Kessler et al (2007), approximately one in four individuals are likely to have, or have previously had, an anxiety disorder.
Speech Language Therapy and Mental Health: analysis of communicative behavior and intervention in individuals with schizophrenia
Speech language intervention in mental health There are still a few literary reports of direct action of Speech Therapy in public care services to individuals diagnosed with mental disorders which is a current challenge for Speech language pathologist. The only mandatory presence of this professional in the minimum team is in Child and Youth Psychosocial Attention Center (PSACc), but not in the Psychosocial Attention Center (PSAC) for example, where the majority of the users are adults (SANTOS et al., 2012). If, on the one hand, mental health outpatient clinics were an important entry point for the speech therapist into the public health system, on the other hand, in front of PSAC implementation, its presence in the teams is not yet consolidated. In 20 years of SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) and under the aegis of the advances of Psychiatric Reform it is also necessary to make consistent the practices into the field of language as a power of psychosocial rehabilitation and inclusion of children, teenagers and adults affected by psychiatric disorders of high complexity (SANTOS et al., 2012). The National Mental Health Policy (NPMH) supported by the law 10.216/2002, has as an object consolidate an open, community-based model of public mental health care. In other words, ensure the free movement of people with mental disorders through services and communities, and provide care based on the resources offered by them. The PSAC, Residential Therapeutic Services (RTS), the Centers of Coexistence and Culture and the services of integral attention (in general hospitals and PSAC) are part of a service network based on this model (BRASIL, 2001).
How can society live with anxiety and pain? The discussion about anxiety goes through dentistry as it affects the oral condition. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a very prevalent condition in the population, and mental disorders are often associated with disabilities that affect various activities, also being associated with various diseases and syndromes that present chronic pain, such as chronic Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD). Interactions of exposure to adverse psychosocial events and mental disorders can make the etiological diagnosis of chronic pain a major challenge. Chronic pain is an important public health problem, affecting a relevant portion of the population, interfering with psychological status, social activities and work. Therefore attention and care is needed to control anxiety and promote the quality of life of the population.
Antibotics Which Distrbuted in the Hospital of Al Wahda (Derna, Libya) by Medical Supply Ward for 3 Months and Their Relations With Number of Patients Admitted and Compare These Antibiotics With Bacterial Culture Results Done by Laboratory
Antimicrobial resistance (and particularly antibiotic resistance) is spreading now, and there are few prospects for the development of new classes of antibiotics in the short term. However, there is today considerable awareness of the need for, and political support for, action to combat Antimicrobial resistance1. Surveillance of antimicrobial use tracks how and why antimicrobials are being used and misused by patients and healthcare providers. Monitoring antimicrobial prescription and consumption behavior provides insights and tools needed to inform therapy decisions, to assess the public health consequences of antimicrobial misuse, and to evaluate the impact resistance containment interventions2. And all reports from WHO tell us about post antibiotics era that will be start if we don’t work quickly on antibiotics resistance by all efforts and due to situations of my country in Libya now need a lot of studies to decrease corruption in budgets put for health sector. Experimental methods: Study made by pilot method and we depend on data collected from dispensing papers of medical supply ward in Al Wahda hospital. *medical statistics office of Al Wahda hospital *Al Wahda hospital laboratory. *data collected to 3 months and 477 in- patient of wahda hospital. Results and discussion: After collect data from dispensing paper that based on treatment chart, we covered 477 patients for 3 months by 2169 ceftri-702 gent-1360 aug-547 cefot-23amik. And we notice percentage of higher antibiotics use was ceftriaxone equal to 45.18 % of totality and use of broad antibiotics rather than narrow antibiotics by 84.9% ,and in all principles of clinical pharmacology direct to use narrow firstly plus first line antibiotics therapy as shown in figure 1,2 respectively. And the percentage of patients those received antibiotics that Available in hospital from all patients was 25.3% ,we found that the most higher antibiotic sensitive to bacteria was CIPRO and…
WEB INFORMATION QUALITY VERSUS TURBULENCE ON URL DECAY: CRITIC ON RELIABILITY OF AUTHORITY CITATIONS
Internet usage provides environment for learning, research, entertainment, and business. Web design is crucial for market-ability of the Web page, whereas, Web information is essential for enhancing research skills for academic and institutional growth and development. This study aims to assess information provided in the various Internet sites according to several literature content compliance and gaps on URL forming rots over time as inaccessible URLs may be subject to copyright infringement. References of authors render article citations by providing URLs, DOIs, and PURLs, in which old URLs tend to be unavailable as time function which may be subject to intellectual property issue by communication obstruction of public right. Hyperlinks enable end-users to access Web content for an exclusive communication right to the public under Article 8 of WIPO Copyright Treaty as retrieval from Internet Archives and Google services had a limited ability to preserve its full content, hence, public communication results to impediment. Therefore, modern DOIs and PURLs must be preferred in citing articles as their unique identifiers are permanent, unlike old URLs that used to rot after several years.