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  • Cannabis in Nepal and scopes of its re-legalization

    The inception of legalization of Cannabis in America has paved way for the extensive research on this medicinal and religious plant all over the world. Despite the long relationship of Nepalese community with Cannabis since time immemorial, where it used to be used for both medical as well as recreational purposes, its illegalization during 1970s led to significant drop in one of the major source of income for numerous household and their families thereby impacting GDP of the country. Due to the geographical diversity of Nepal with most parts covered by hills and mountains along with the fertile land of plain region, the country has been a home to many landraces of Cannabis and we believe that it has the potential to be one of the major hub of harvest of Cannabis and Cannabis derived pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we have focused on the native strains of Cannabis in Nepal which are sold in the markets all over the world legally and how the legalization of Cannabis would bring remarkable upgrade to the country reeling under low economy and would be a great boost for the country to rise above its status of developing country. Apart from this, we have also proposed the steps that have to be taken at the government level for the stepwise legalization, substantial growth of the native strains and be a major leader in the world market by the export of Cannabis and its derived products.

  • A review on the performance of the proactive implant surface

    Objective: to review the performance of the proactive hydrophilic implant system in the implantology practice. Materials and methods: a thorough literature review took place by looking into pubmed and google scholar searching engines. A total number of 310 articles were found. The aim was to review the literature commenting on the clinical and microlevel performances. Hence, 21 articles were included to cover three major categories which are: in Microlevel (group A), clinical (group B), and performance with grafting materials (group C). Results: Group A; showed stable osseointegration indicating the efficacy of the hydrophilic proactive surface. Group B; indicated favourable outcomes in managing cases of immediate implants with successful variable loading protocols. Group C; showed favourable reactions with grafting and non-grafting groups. Conclusion: It seems that the proactive implant surface is showing promising results with acceptable supporting literature so far.

  • Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Functional and sensory attributes of instant fufu developed from bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum)

    In this study, the eating qualities and physicochemical properties of three fufu samples were produced and evaluated, while the functional properties of the fufu flours were also determined. The results obtained for the functional properties of swelling power were 12.26, 12.13, and 12.35; solubility 8.73, 6.79 and 5.27; water binding capacity 276.15, 261.02 and 280.05; bulk density 0.53, 0.56 and 0.76; pH 6.4, 6.3 and 6.8; and dispersibility 59.2, 59.8 and 8.68 for samples A, B and R, respectively. Sample R (control) had the highest mean values for water binding capacity, pH, swelling power and bulk density while sample A had the highest mean value for solubility. Sample B had the lowest mean values for all the functional properties measured while Sample R (commercial yam fufu) was liked most in terms of aroma, taste, colour, mouldability and texture. From the results, sample A (80% bitter yam flour and 20% cassava starch) had relatively better sensory attributes than sample B (70% bitter yam flour and 30% cassava starch), as well as better functional properties.

  • Temozolamide-Associated Pancytopenia in a Patient with Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. GBM treatment is a combined modality approach involving maximum surgical resection, adjuvant postoperative radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment.There is a greater risk of hematological toxicity in concurrent temozolomide and radiation therapy. We reported that pancytopenia has been developed on a 54-year old female patient with GBM after concurrently used temozolomide and radiotherapy treatment. It should be kept in mind that this side effect may develop because the risk of morbidity and mortality may be elevated. Therefore, supportive therapies should be started immediately in patients where this toxicity developed.

  • The Rare Case of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in a Patient Previously Diagnosed with a Stroke

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease) is a disease of small and medium-sized vasculature, mainly involving the distal upper and lower extremities in male patients under the age of 45. Smoking tobacco is considered to be a predisposing and triggering agent. This presentation discusses the case of JS, a 35-year old male patient who initially presented with a stroke, followed by pain and swelling in the upper extremity, and finally with pain, absent peripheral pulses, and necrosis of the left lower extremity requiring below knee amputation. This case is of interest due to the rarity of this disease in the developed world, the presentation of a stroke in a young patient later diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans, and the use of a prostaglandin analog in treatment. This case highlights the difficulty of making the diagnosis of vasculitis and the time consuming, multispecialty approach that is required. The availability of subspecialists, medical record integration, communication between community hospitals, and the drug Iloprost could have positively affected the patient’s outcomes and prognosis.

  • Case Report on Port Site Sinus

    Port site infection (PSI) is an infection which is seen at port site after any laparoscopic surgery or at the site where any other medical devices are inserted into the body. It is one of the rare but preventable complications of successful laparoscopic surgeries due to improper sterilization of instruments. PSI is already known to be a rare complication but if it is occurring because of mycobacterium then it is considered to be the rarest. One of the commonest causative organisms is Staphylococcus and mycobacterial species also. Antibiotics are prescribed based on culture sensitivity reports. If mycobacterium is seen to be the cause, then second line anti-tubercular drugs (ATT drugs) like Macrolide (Clarithromycin), Quinolones (Ciprofloxacin), Tetracyclines (doxycycline) and aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) are prescribed. A case of male patient is reported who underwent laparoscopic surgery (TAPP) and developed pus discharge from supraumbilical port site. Sinus tract excision for port site infection was tried two times but every time recurrence was seen. Anti-tubercular drugs was started by patient after collecting excision biopsy reports showing Langerhans cells which are associated with TB and progress was seen in patient.

  • Psychic itinerary of the cesarean section in six Cameroonian primiparous

    Statement of the Problem: The birth of a child does not create a split with the pregnancy and desires of the conception of the parents but rather confirms the continuity of the fantasies, the representations which animate these and more still the mother since the desire of the child. These fantasies and daydreams inherent in pregnancy and described by Bydlowsky are relegated to the background, and sometimes even ignored by families, but especially by obstetric care professionals during birth. Methodology: This article is an intrusion using semi-directive interviews in the psychic dynamics of six Cameroonian primiparous women who gave birth by cesarean section in a specialized hospital, from the preoperative to the postoperative through the operative. Findings: It emerges from this study that when the normal process of birth is changed, the mother can undergo this event considered natural in her cultural universe. Cesarean section is certainly a birth, but it is anti-physiological, because of the lack of passage that leads to a feeling of foreignness in women. In the Caesarean section, there seems to be a lack of narcissistic investment in the reproductive apparatus. Caesarized parturients feel guilty for not having given life according to the accepted model, both on the religious, social, cultural and psychic level. They feel guilty for not being able to repeat the act that women have been doing in their environment since the beginning of time. For their own family they bring denigration, for the in-laws they are incapable, for the other parturients they are inferior, and for themselves they are guilty. Conclusion: This birth-related surgery does not give women a leeway to become involved in the process. The physical undergoes invasive gestures that are not felt in a present but are imagined with a shift of time, of reality and resonance on the…

  • A Quantitative Assessment of the Nutritional Value of the Food for the School Nutrition Programme in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    The aim of the study was to determine the nutritional value of the food for the school nutritional programme in one district in KwaZulu-Natal Province. A positivist research paradigm and a quantitative research approach were used in the study. Furthermore, a cross-sectional research design was utilized. The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS and Excel and was presented in texts and tables. The study found that the average daily intake per learner from the school nutrition programme was 218 Kcal energy, 7.7g of protein, 1.8g of fat and 3.2g of dietary fibre. These were all below 30% of RDA values. The observed mean protein, energy and vitamin K intakes per child per day were significantly lower than the expected mean intake for the nutrients. Intakes of other nutrients were within the limits of the prescribed amounts according to the menu quantity schedule.There were variations in the nutrient intake among learners in different schools due to inconsistent supply of food items by service providers.


    Baeyer-VillThis review covers twenty eight monomeric Pt(η2-P2L)X2 (X = Br or I) derivatives. These complexes exist in cis- as well as trans-configurations from which the complexes with cis-configuration are more common. The organodiphosphines create wide varieties of the metallocyclic rings PNP, PC2P, PC3P, PNCNP and PC4OC4P. The mean values of Pt-L bond distances in cis-complexes are: 2.230 Å (P), 2.490 Å (Br) and 2.240 Å (P) 2.666Å (I), respectively. In the trans-complexes the values are 2.319 Å (P), 2.429 Å (Br) and 2.320 Å (P), 2.615 Å (I). The Pt-X bond distances in the cis- as well as in the trans-derivatives elongate with the covalent radius of the X atom. In addition in the cis-derivatives the Pt-X bond distances are longer than those in trans-derivatives, as a reason of higher trans-influence of P over the respective halogens. Some of the complexes are examples of distortion isomerism. Finally, the structural data of Pt(η2-P2L)X2 (X = Br or I) are compared with the values of Pt(η2-P2L)X2, complex and discussed.

  • A Case of Klinefelter Syndrome Presenting with Infertility and Gynaecomastia

    The term Klinefelters syndrome refers to a group of chromosomal disorders in which the normal male karyotype 46XY has at least one extra X chromosome. The 47XXY aneuploidy is the most common human male sex chromosomal disorder associated with infertility and hypogonadism .It has prevalence of 1 in 500 to 1 in 800 live births independent of race. The aim of this case report is to document the rare case in the literature with the view of raising awareness about its existence in our environment and beyond. The Case: We present a case of a 31 year old black male patient with a 7 years history of progressive bilateral painless breast swelling that has rapidly increased in size over the past 3 years. He has no associated breast discharge. He also complained of associated infertility since he married his wife about 7 years ago despite regular unprotected intercourse within the same period. Hormonal assays done showed elevated gonadotropins( Leuteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) , low levels of testosterone and elevated estradiol. Karyotype done revealed 47XXY karyotype.he was counseled on the need for assisted reproductive therapy, which he accepted. Subsequently, his wife was delivered of a baby boy following a successful assisted reproductive therapy by an obstetrician. Conclusion: Klinefelter syndrome is a rare clinical syndrome but a common chromosomal cause of male infertility. The introduction of assisted reproductive therapy has greatly improved infertility outcomes in terms of achieving pregnancy and live births.