Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology

  • Antimicrobial activity of essential oil s in the treatment of microorganisms involved in crohn disease

    Background: Crohn Disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease with unknown etiology that affects the gastrointestinal tract resulting in tissue damage having clinical symptoms like fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and anemia leaving the patient imunodepressive causing risks of opportunistic infection. Recurrent infections in the gastrointestinal tract can also serve as a trigger for the onset of the syndrome. The treatment with medications can bring side effects and for this reason the present study evaluates the activity of the extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), on the most incident microorganisms proposing to display it as a possible alternative treatment for patients with this disease. Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Syzygium aromaticum against the most common microorganisms involved in CD. Methods: 10 mL of crude extract of clove were obtained by distillation and later tested by antibiogram in clinical strains of Candida albicans, one of the microorganisms of higher incidence in the disease. Results: By adding the disks containing the extract colonies diluted in salina to 0.5 according to McFarland scale (approximately 1.5 x 10 8 CFU / ml) arranged in Sabouraud agar plates incubated at 96,8º F for 24 hours was observed the formation of 10 mm inhibition halos demonstrating the antimicrobial effect of the extract on Candida albicans colonies. Discussion: Several known medicines were obtained from natural sources, including consecrated antibiotics, demonstrating the importance of the study and application of natural products. Conclusion: The extract tested was considered efficient in its antifungal activity and new researches and confirmatory tests are necessary for this and other natural extracts so that they can be applied in the promotion of health causing fewer side effects and at a lower cost.

  • Negative influence on human health for use and frequent i nadequado vitamin C

    Introduction: Vitamin C or simply ascorbic acid (AA) is heat labile and water soluble vitamin. Humans and other primates are the only mammals unable to synthesize AA. The recommended dose for maintenance of vitamin C saturation level in the body is about 100mg per day in various situations, such as infections, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and in smokers, even higher doses are required, it is in the wild under two forms: reduced or oxidized. Objective: To present the factors that negatively influence human health by inappropriate and frequent use of the vitamin population. Methodology: This is a literature review study being evaluated scientific articles published in the years 2005-2015 in journals indexed in the following SCIELO databases, Pub Med, Medlinee Science Direct. Results and Discussion: Food or vitamin C supplements in excess can have some negative effects on the body. The excess of AA in the body can cause a sick person. The individual may also have vomiting and diarrhea, followed by stomach pains and moderate or severe headaches, other side effects include destruction of red blood cell hemolysis. Vitamin increases the tendency of the body to absorb iron more than the required amount. This can increase the risk of blood diseases, such as thalassemia and hemochromatosis, can accumulate in the kidneys inciting the lithiasis process, ascorbic acid can also act on the delay of surgical wounds. Conclusion: We conclude that the AA or vitamin C however much it may be a benefit in some respects can bring risks if used improperly way, as pointed out above, you should always be careful and always use the evaluation of a health professional.

  • Effect of poly-ε-caprolactone micro-spheres containing usnic acid on the nucleus of the hematocytes of mice submitted to the acute toxicity test

    Introduction: Usnic acid, derived benzofuran (2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3 (2H, 9Bh) -dibenzofuran, C18H16O7) produced by some species of lichen. The high toxicity of this substance involves the generation of free radical that results in the injury to the cellular and mitochondrial membrane, peroxidation of lipids and cellular death. The incorporation of the usnic acid (UA) into microspheres of Poly-ε-caprolactone, a polymeric particulate system, can reduce hepatotoxicity. Objective: To analyze the effect of poly-ε-caprolactone microspheres incorporated with usnic acid on the histomorphometry of the hepatocyte nuclei of Swiss mice submitted to the acute toxicity test. Methodology: The groups treated with vehicle (0.9% NaCl and 5% cremophor), usnic acid (2000, 300 and 50 mg/kg) and microspheres incorporated with usnic acid (UA-Micro) in the dose of 2000 mg/kg were subjected to the acute toxicity test according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD – Guideline, 423). Fragments of hepatic tissue were removed for preparation of histological slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The morphometric analysis of the diameters of the hepatocyte nuclei was performed using the IMAGE software, from the photomicrographs (final magnification 790 μm). Statistical analysis of the diameters of hepatocyte nuclei was performed using Variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test. Results and Discussion: Treatment with UA-Micro (2000 mg/kg) showed no histomorphometric changes in the hepatocyte nuclei of the mice submitted to acute toxicity, but the animals treated with UA (2000 and 300 mg/kg) had a statistical difference (**p

  • Pectin and chitosan microparticles as controlled release systems of nutraceuticals

    Introduction: The nutraceuticals are nutrients present in natural food with functions of drugs, which may provide health benefits, such as prevention and treatment of diseases. However, when we eat the food, only a small concentration of nutraceuticals is still active. In addition, the residence time gastric and the low permeability in the intestine also lead to the degradation of these bioactive compounds, decreasing the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. With this, several strategies were formulated to isolate and protect these bioactive molecules. Outstanding among them the microencapsulation which consists in the isolation and protection of these molecules from the microparticles obtained polymers; bioactive and biodegradable such as Pectin and Chitosan. Objectives: To analyse from recent studies microparticles of Pectin and Chitosan have a potential significant release of nutraceuticals. Methodology: Were searched for articles that examined the microencapsulação of nutraceuticals from Pectin and Chitosan, and the effects on the bioavailability of the same. Results and Discussion: The reviewed studies showed a potential release of nutraceuticals significant using microparticles of Pectin and Chitosan. The studies showed the benefits of nutraceuticals in the human organism. The nutraceuticals are found mainly in the form of peptides bioactive, vitamins and antioxidants, and they are of extreme importance in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and processes associated with aging. In addition, it also showed the feasibility of the use of Pectin and Chitosan as release systems for nutraceuticals. Conclusion: When analyzing the articles, it was possible to conclude that the microparticles have a potential in release significant, with perspective to administration by the oral route, and also with use potential of Pectin and Chitosan as release systems for nutraceuticals and can be used to production of pharmaceuticals and new functional foods.

  • Role of omega 3 in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world with a high prevalence in women. Researches on modifiable risk factors in breast cancer, including the role of diet, has received considerable attention from researchers around the world. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), polyunsaturated fatty acids belonging to the Omega 3 (ω-3) family, are currently the most studied dietary factors and appear to be closely related to the decreased risk of developing cancer breast. Objective: Analyzing the role of ω-3 in the treatment and reduction of risk of breast cancer. Methodology: A review of the literature was done by searching articles in the SCIELO, PUBMED and ACADEMIC GOOGLE databases. A total of 14 publications were selected from the years 2009 and 2017 because they fit the theme established in the present study. Results and Discussion: The consumption of fish and other foods rich in ω-3 may be related to the decreased risk of breast cancer. Results from a recent review strongly suggest a potential role for EPA and DHA as complementary agents in combination with therapies against breast cancer. It is suggested that the action of ω-3 in reducing the risk and development of breast cancer occurs from the reduction of the inflammation process and the inhibition of carcinogenesis by creating a cytotoxic environment that may be capable of inducing apoptosis and reducing proliferation. Conclusion: Further intervention studies are needed to confirm the role of ω-3 in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. However, a large part of the research suggests that the ingestion of ω-3 can be used as a strategy to prevent breast neoplasm, stimulating consumption in the diet of the general population, with a greater focus on females.