International Journal of Trade and Policy

  • An Analysis of The Traditions of Origin of Ughoton: the Seaport of Old Benin Kingdom

    This paper wholistically examines the issues relating to the origin of Ughoton in the earliest times. It analyses the political anxiety, crises, conflicts misrule, anarchy which characterised the reign of Ogiso Owodo. It assesses the circumstances surrounding the birth of Prince Ekaladerhan, and his banishment. It discusses the role of oracle in Benin traditional institutions. Finally the paper also examines how Ughoton was founded in the eleventh century. The researcher obtained data from primary and secondary sources. Archival materials and oral interview constituted the primary sources while the secondary sources were books, newspapers, articles, theses and dissertations. It was found that the manipulation of the oracle’s divinations was a factor in the foundation of Ughoton. It was also found that from the numerous wives of Ogiso Owodo, only Imade gave birth to a child Prince Ekaladerhan. Prince Ekaladerham was banished and he eventually founded Ughoton in the eleventh century.

  • Obafemi Awolowo and His Contributions to Socio Economic Development of Nigeria: 1948-1966

    This study examines the personality and contributions of Chief Obafemi Awolowo to socio – economic development of Nigerian between 1948 and 1966.. The study found out that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a significant role in Nigeria’s independence movement during First and Second Republics. The study notes that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was thrice a major contender for Nigeria’s highest office. He was a key player in the intra-party power tussle that erupted in 1962 that led to disturbances in Western Region House of Assembly. Also, the study examines major challenges faced by Chief Obafemi Awolowo and how he eventually became the Federal Commissioner of Finance and the Vice Chairman of the Federal Executive Council in 1966. The study employs primary and secondary source materials including books, journal articles and other scholarly publications to interrogate the study. It concludes that Awolowo was responsible for much of the progressive social legislation that made Nigeria a modern nation today.

  • A Historical Analysis of Dutch-Benin Trade Relations, 1593-1741

    This paper examined the nature of trade relations between the Benin Kingdom and the Dutch between 1593 and 1741. It documented and analysed the features of Benin-Dutch trade; the major items of trade and means of exchange; as well as the terms of the Dutch-Benin Trade Treaty of 1715. The paper further interrogated the causes of the breakdown of trade relations between the two countries in 1741. Data for the study was obtained extensively through archival materials as primary sources; and books, newspapers, articles, theses, dissertations and journals as secondary sources. The paper found out that trade was the hallmark of Benin-Europeans’ relations between the 1440s and 1741. It observed that the trade contact between Benin and the Dutch started around 1593 and declined around 1741. It concluded that the trade relations brought mutual benefits to both parties: great prosperity and fame to the Benin kingdom; and economic buoyancy to the Dutch.

  • Transaction Costs and Optimal Liability Rule in the Context of Hadley v Baxendale (1854)

    This paper uses a signaling game model to address the debate between limited liability rule and unlimited liability rule in the context of the case of Hadley v Baxendale (1854). This paper compares the levels of net social surplus obtained by the two legal rules under different sets of parameter values. The parameters investigated are the level of transaction cost in communicating the private information regarding the valuation of the contract, the proportion of low valuation versus high valuation promisees, the extra cost of achieving a high performance of contract relative to a low performance by promisors and, the gap between high valuation and low valuation of contract performance. The paper finds that the optimal liability rule depends on the parameter values. When there are many low valuation promisees and transaction cost is low, limited liability rule is better. When there are many low valuation promisees and transaction cost is high, both rules perform equally well. When there are many high valuation promisees, unlimited rule is better irrespective of the level of transaction cost. Finally, when there is high valuation differential relative to performance cost differential, the set of parameter values under which the unlimited rule performs better becomes larger.

  • Hygienic-sanitary Conditions of Fish Markets Commercialized in the Municipality of Maceió

    Introduction: The search for a healthier diet has led to a worldwide increase in fish consumption in recent years. This also brought a growth of diseases transmitted by this type of food, when outside the quality standards and poor hygienic-sanitary conditions of the establishments in which they are sold. This study aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of fish commercialized in the city of Maceió – Alagoas, contributing to define a microbiological profile of this product. Methodology: Fish samples from six commercial points were collected from commercial establishments, with two replicates at different periods, totaling 12 samples. Microbiological analyzes were performed for total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive), following methodology according to the legislation. . Results and Discussion: Turbidity and gas production were observed in 75% of the total coliform samples and 66.66% of positivity for the samples in the EC tubes, indicating the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Salmonella spp was absent in all samples. In the Staphylococcus aureus analyzes, only one sample (8.33%) was uncontaminated by this microorganism, however, 91.67% of the samples were contaminated. Conclusion: The sum of these results suggests possible fecal contamination, evidencing unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions of manipulation of the fish commercialized in the evaluated establishments of the city of Maceió-AL.

  • Towards Economic Survival and Self-sufficiency: a Historical Exploration of Nigeria’s Indigenisation Policy, 1972 and 1977

    Indigenisation was a major strategy employed by the Nigerian government in the 1970s to exercise more control over the nation’s economy. It was indeed a bold attempt to enhance the economic survival and self-sufficiency of the nation. This study therefore interrogates the rationale, methods and impact of Nigeria’s indigenisation policy on the country’s economic welfare then and beyond. It notes that indigenisation was proposed from four different angles: ownership, technology, control and manpower. The paper took a critical look at the indigenization policy’s provisions in Nigeria’s National Development Plan of 1970-1974, the Nigeria Enterprises Promotion Decree of 1972, as amended, and the extent to which their goals were achieved. It concludes that though indigenization was applauded, it failed to achieve the desired goals of promoting economic stability and survival of the Nigerian nation.

  • Micro Insurance in India: an analysis of the perceptions, problems and opportunities

    India is a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It is estimated that 37% of the total population live below poverty line (BPL). Social security for BPL people is a matter of concern for the nation. To answer the question, why should the poor insure? We should have answer for the questions like, what happens when a poor family’s breadwinner dies, when a child in a disadvantaged household is hospitalized, or the home of a vulnerable family is destroyed by fire or natural disaster? Every serious illness, every accident and every natural disaster threatens the very existence of poor people and usually leads to deeper poverty. That’s where “microinsurance” comes in. To cope with the risks such as health problems, crop failure, loss of livestock, death of a family member, loss of asset, income and employment is much harder on the part of poor and low- income groups than others. Many poor households involve in activities of smaller scale but carrying higher degree of risk and uncertainty. The objective of the present study is to examine different risks faced by the poor and low-income groups, their current coping mechanisms. The present study aims to analyse outreach of microinsurance because of its increasing popularity. The study identifies the problems and issues relating to microinsurance such as product design, pricing, claim settlements. It also studies the gender specific demand for micro insurance products in India. The study attempts to suggest the ways in which microinsurance services can become more inclusive to enhance risk management capability of the poor. The study attempts to indicate that access to microinsurance by the poor and disadvantaged population can contribute significantly to the achievement of the development goals of the country, particularly the goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, promoting gender equality and empowering women.