Introduction:The growing microbial resistance of the various drugs circulating in the market, stimulated by the indiscriminate and irrational use of drugs, demand the development of new therapeutic options that could derail this situation.Thus, the investigation of new bioactive compounds in medicinal plants with antimicrobial action in folk medicine, presents itself as an expressive source for the discovery of new substances that contribute to the minimization of this reality, considering the range of contributions of medicinal plants in the treatment of several inflammatory and infectious diseases in traditional medicine throughout the generations in the communities that hold this knowledge.Among the plant species for medicinal use, Hymenaea courbaril, popularly known as jatobá, stands out for a variety of therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of diarrhea, intestinal cramps, cystitis, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Objetives: Based on the above, the objective of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of Hymenaea courbaril poop on Escherichia coli isolates.To prepare the extracts, the shells of the species were immersed in ethanol solution to extract their active and rotavaporated principles. The antibacterial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method in Muller Hinton agar, evaluating the antibacterial potential by measuring in millimeters (mm) the bacterial inhibition halos formed in Petri dishes.The assays were performed in triplicate, using two concentrations of ethanolic extracts, 25 mg and 50 mg. Results and discussion: The mean inhibition halo at the concentrations evaluated were, respectively, 8 mm and 9.7 mm. The medicinal species showed good potential of antibacterial application against the species of microorganism researched, proving to be a promising candidate in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by this microorganism, being necessary, however, to carry out tests with a more expressive number of concentrations for deepening of the microorganism study.
Introduction: Intestinal parasitism is still one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil, with school age children being the most affected, becoming lethal in many cases due to secondary diseases caused by parasitism. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of intestinal protozoa in students of a public day-care center located in the neighborhood of Várzea in Recife City of the State of Pernambuco between the years 2015 and 2017. Methodology: The research was carried out after the authorization of parents and / or guardians of children, after signing the informed consent form with the delivery of fecal samples. Protozoan research was carried out at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Tropical Medicine Department of UFPE, using the methods of Hoffman, Kinyoun for microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp and the method of direct examination for the microscopic analysis of the other protozooses. Results and Discussion: In the years 2015 and 2017 parasitological research involved a total of 30 and 33 children, with a positivity for 20% (6/30) and 21% (7/33) protozoa, respectively. Among the protozoonoses, the highest positivity in the year 2015 was for Cryptosporidium spp, where 67% (4/6) presented a positive sample, followed by Endolimax nana, where 33% (2/6) were diagnosed positively. On the other hand, the most frequent parasites in 2017 were Giardia lamblia, where 71% (5/7) of the children showed positivity and Cryptosporidium spp with 29% (2/7) of positive samples. Conclusion: When comparing the level of contamination of children by protozoa in the years 2015 and 2017, we observed that parasitism was maintained within the school environment, possibly due to the poor hygiene conditions of the nursery and / or the way some household environment.
Analysis of Cryptosporidium spp and Other Enteroparasites Associated With Schools in the Municipality of Recife
Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis mainly affects immunocompromised individuals, and co-infection with other associated parasites is frequent. Infection can cause severe diarrhea in children. Transmission occurs through interpersonal contact, zoonotic transmission, ingestion of contaminated water and food. Objectives: Analyzing the occurrence of enteroparasites in children of a school in the city of Recife in the State of Pernambuco, nutritional status by children and feces consistency. Methodology: Data and fecal samples were collected between May 2015 and January 2016. Nutritional analysis was performed according to SISVAN guidelines. Coproparasitological analysis employed the modified Lutz and Kinyoun methods. Results and Discussion: Our data showed that from 152 analyzed children, 32/152 (21%) had positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. By them, 10/32 (31.3%) presented polyparasitism, being 40% 4/10) positive for Endolimax nana, 20% (2/10) for Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, 20% (2/10) for Giardia lamblia, 20% (2/10) for Entamoeba coli and 20% 10) for Ascaris lumbricoides (with up to three associated parasites). Nascimento et. al., 2009 verified a positivity of 32.4% for Cryptosporidium spp, confirming that there was no reduction of the cases in the northeastern region of Brazil. Cryptosporidium spp contamination was observed in 22/32 (68.8%) diarrheal stools and 10/32 (31.2%) in the solid consistency stools assuming that there is intense elimination of oocysts in the diarrheal stools. Among children positive for cryptosporidiosis, 12/32 (37.5%) had some kind of nutritional disorders, being 6.3% underweight and 31.2% overweight, implying a possible association between this infection and cases of malnutrition child. Conclusion: Our study showed that school-aged children are highly susceptible to enteroparasites, requiring greater attention in relation to their nutrition to avoid nutritional disorders, as well as observing fecal consistency. Measures of basic sanitation and sanitary education would be efficient tools suggestive in the fight against the parasitoses.
Introduction:The fair is considered one of the most traditional food and retail marketing sites. Among the products marketed with the greatest consumption are the cheeses that can be produced both artisan and industrial. Cheese is considered to be a frequent vehicle of foodborne pathogens and, in particular, fresh cottage cheese because they are mostly made from raw milk and are not matured. Objective: To analyze the bacteriological quality of artisanal cheeses marketed in the free trade fairs of the city of Caruaru-PE. Methodology: The samples were collected in polyethylene plastic bags and after collection, the samples were transported in an isothermal container and sent to the laboratories of Food Technology and Food Microbiology of the Centro Universitário Tabosa de Almeida. The research of total coliforms, thermotolerant and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed by the multiple tubes technique and the counting of heterotrophic bacteria was by the technique of pour plate both as recommended by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA). Results and Discussion: All collected samples had total coliforms, thermotolerant and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with heterotrophic bacteria counting above 105 CFU / ml. The presence of contamination indicating bacteria in the samples analyzed may be related to contamination during processing and post processing, storage, temperature fluctuation, contaminated packaging and equipment contamination. Conclusion: Since the production and inadequate marketing of cheeses can have serious consequences for the population, it is concluded that the high index of contamination by feces (coliforms), organic matter (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and contamination index (heterotrophic bacteria) may be related to the presence of pathogens above the values established by current legislation. Thus becoming a product of poor conditions for human consumption, requiring a greater supervision.
Bacteriological Evaluation and Physical-chemical Parameter of Cheese Fellowships Marketed in the Municipality of Caruaru- PE
Introduction: Foods of animal or vegetable origin, fresh or processed, including cheese, can carry several pathogenic microorganisms, thus causing disease to those who consume it. In particular, fresh hand-crafted cheeses because they are mostly made from raw milk and do not undergo ripening. Objective: To analyze the bacteriological quality of artisanal cheeses marketed in the free trade fairs of the city of Caruaru-PE. Methodology: The samples were collected in plastic bags and after collection, were transported in an isothermal container and sent to the laboratories of Food Technology and Food Microbiology of Centro Universitário Tabosa de Almeida. The research of total coliforms, thermotolerant and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed by the multiple tubes technique and the counting of heterotrophic bacteria was by the technique of pour plate both as recommended by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA). Results and Discussion: Of the 50 rennet samples analyzed, all (100%) showed growth for the coliform group, and 49 samples (98%) showed growth for thermotolerant coliforms. Of these, 17 samples (34.69%) presented counts greater than or equal to 1600 NMP / g. Regarding the Pseudomonas count, 46 (92%) of the 6 fairs analyzed presented growth for the genus Pseudomonas sp. While 45 (90%) of the samples confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in addition, the heterotrophic bacteria count was above 105 CFU / g. As for the physical-chemical parameter (pH) of the analyzed samples, the results found ranged from 5.2 to 5.9. Conclusion: In view of the results, it was concluded that the high index of contamination by faeces (coliforms), organic matter (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and contamination index (heterotrophic bacteria) may be related to the presence of pathogens above the values established by legislation valid. Thus becoming a product of poor conditions for human consumption, requiring a greater supervision.