Assessment of Beekeeping Constraints and Opportunities in Diga and Wayu Tuka Districts

Assessment of Beekeeping Constraints and Opportunities in Diga and Wayu Tuka Districts

Amsalu Arega

Bako Agricultural reaearch center

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

The study was conducted in Diga and Wayu Tuka Districts to determine the constraints and opportunities of beekeeping. Questionnaire surveys was administered to 146 beekeepers (97.1% males). Majority of the respondents started beekeeping after 2010 (28.03%) by catching colonies as honey bee colony source (54.8%). The major dearth period of the area was late march to early may. The trend of beekeeping in the study area was shifting from traditional to modern beekeeping and the trend of honeybee colony and its yield was decreasing due to honeybee health problem of the area (pests, predators, pathogenic disease, high cost of bee equipment and agrochemical application). In the study area the major pests and predators considered as challenges were ants, beetles, wax moth, varroa destructor and some predators like honey badgers, honeybee eater birds, dead head hawks moth, lizards, wasps and birds respectively. For the reason of time restraint in this study area, farther study on the driving force of challenge and opportunity of beekeeping is suggested by monitoring throughout the year.

Keywords: Honeybees, opportunity, constraint, Oromia

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Amsalu Arega. Assessment of Beekeeping Constraints and Opportunities in Diga and Wayu Tuka Districts. International Journal of Animal Research, 2020; 5:37.


1. Abd Al-Majeed, Al-Ghzawi and Shahera Z. 2008. Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology. Ins. Sci.vol 15, pg 563-67.
2. Adjare S. O. 1990.Beekeeping in Africa.Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO).Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/6, FAO, Rome, Italy.
3. Adjare, S 1984. The Golden Insect: A Hand Book on Beekeeping for Beginner’s. Technology consultancy center, University of Science and technology, Kumassi in association with IT publication. Notingham NG74EJ, UK.
5. Ajiao A.M. & Oladimeji, Y.U. 2013. Assessment of contribution of apicultural practices to Household income and poverty alleviation in Kwara State, Nigeria: International Jo. Sci. Vol.4 (4): 687-698.
6. Alemu Tsegaye 2015. Potential threats to honeybee health with emphasis on varroa mite in Waghimra and south Wollo zones of Amhara region, Ethiopia.
7. Amsalu Bezabih and Desalegn Begna. 2001. Survey of honeybee pest and Pathogen in South and Southwest parts of Ethiopia. Published in 16th Proceedings of Ethiopian Veterinary Association. Pp. 86-93.
8. Amsalu Bezabih and Desalegn Begna. 2007. Study the effects of wax moth on honeybees and bee products. Holleta Bee Research Center, Annual report.
9. Amssalu Bezabeh and Desalegn Begna. 2012. Investigating the annual cycle of honeybee amoeba (Malpighamoeba) disease.
10. Amssalu Bezabeh, Desalegn Beganga and Alemayehu Gela. 2010. Diagnostic survey honeybee diseases and pests in Ethiopia. Holata Bee Research Centre, Annual report.2010.
11. Amssalu Bezabeh, Nuru Adgaba, Sarah E, Radloff, H Randall Hepburn. 2004. Multivariate morphometric analysis of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Ethiopian region. Apidologie.
12. Amssalu Bezabih and Desalegn Begna. 1998. Investigating the annual cycle of honeybee amoeba (Malpighamoeba mellificae) disease under local condition. Oromia Research Institution Annual Report.
13. Amssalu Bezabih and Desalegn Begna. 2005. Distribution of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Nosema (Nosema apis) in Ethiopia. Published in 4th Proceedings of Ethiopian Beekeepers Association. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. 19-26.
14. Anderson DL, Trueman JWH. 2000. Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24: 165-189.
15. Anderson DL. 2000. Variation in the parasitic bee mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud, Apidologie 31, 281-92.
16. Aronstein KA and Murray KD. 2010. Chalk brood disease in honey bees. Jo. Inve.Pathology. 103:20–29.
17. Asaminew Tassew. 2015. Dynamics and Future Scenarios of Animal Production in Mixed Farming System of Northwestern Ethiopia. PHD Thesis.Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems & Centre for Development Research. Vienna, Austria.
18. Aster Yohanis, Amssalu Bezabeh, Betre Yakob, Desalegn Begna, Yosef Shiferaw, Yosef Kebede and Nohe Kebede. 2010. Ecological distribution of honeybee Chalk brood disease (Ascosphaera apis) in Ethiopia. Ethiopian J. Ani. Prod., 9(1):177-191.
19. Availability and Quality of the Food Supply (AFSSA). 2009. Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies. Documents /SANT-Ra-MortaliteAbeilles.
20. Ayalew Kassaye. 1990. The honeybees (Apis mellifera) of Ethiopia. A morphometric study.MSc thesis.Agricultural University of Norway, Norway.
21. Ayalew Kassaye. 2001. Promotion of beekeeping in the Rural Sector of Ethiopia. In proceedings of the 3rd Ethiopian beekeepers association (EBA)
22. Bailey L. and Ball B. V. 1991. Honey bee pathology, Academic Press: vii, pg193.
23. Bekele Tesfaye, Genet Dadi and Temaro Gelgelu. 2017. Assessment of honeybee enemies (pests and predators) in Bale zone, Southeastern Ethiopia. Sci. Jo. of Animal Science. 6(3) 383-392.
24. Bhandari G. 2014. An Overview of Agrochemicals and Their Effects on Environment in Nepal.” Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Sci. and Edu. Pu 2.2 66-73.
25. Biressaw Serda, Tessema Zewudu, Moges Dereje and Mohammed Aman. 2015. Beekeeping Practices, Production Potential and Challenges of Bee Keeping among Beekeepers in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia. J Vet. Sci., Techno 6:255. Doi: 10.4172/2157- 7579.1000255.
26. Birhanu Tesema. 2016. Constraints and Opportunities of Honeybee Production and Honey Marketing Systems: A Case of Guji and Borena Zone of Oromia State. EC Agriculture 3. 635-645.
27. Bo Hou, Linhai Wu. 2010. Safety impact and farmer awareness of pesticide residues, Food and Agricultural Immunology, 21: 191- 200.
28. Challa Kinati. 2010. Honey production, Marketing and Quality assessment in Gomma woreda, Southwestern, Ethiopia, pp102
29. Christian Mau 2016. Bee health: understanding the life cycle of the varroa mite. Global pollinator Safety Manager.Bayer Bee Care Center.
30. Crane E. 1976. The world’s beekeeping – past and present: Dadant and Sons (ed.), The Hive and the Honey Bee. Hamilton, Illinois, U.S.A., pp.1- 38.
31. Crane E. 1990. Bees and Beekeeping: Science, Practice and World Resources. Comstock Publishing Associates (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, New York.
32. CSA (central statistical agency). 2013. Agricultural sample survey 2012/2013, Volume II, Report on livestock and livestock characteristics. Addis Ababa. Statistical bulletin: 570.
33. CSA, 2011. Key Findings of the 2008/2009-2010/11 agricultural sample surveys for all sectors and seasons country summery. Central Statistics Authority. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
34. Dennis V and Marina D. 2010.A historical review of managed honey bee populations in Europe and the United States and the factors that may affect them.Journal of Invertebrate Pathology.
35. Desalegn Begna .2006. The occurrence of Chalk brood (Ascosphaera apis): A new honeybee (A.mellifera L.) disease in West Shoa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian J. of Ani. Prod., 6(1):1-8.
36. Desalegn Begna .2014. Occurrences and distributions of varroa mite (Varroa destructor) in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Jo. Fisheries Livest Prod, 2(3):1-4.
37. Desalegn Begna and Amssalu Bezabeh. 1999. Distribution of honeybee diseases Nosema apis and Malpighamoeba mellificae in Ethiopia. Holata Bee Research Center.Annual Report.
38. Desalegn Begna and Yosef Kebede .2005.Survey of honeybee pests & pathogens in Addis Ababa region”.5th Proceedings National Conference of Ethiopian Beekeeping Association. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
39. Desalegn Begna, Alemayew Gela, Taye Nega and Amsalu Bezabeh. 2016. Identifying the Species, Effects and Seasonal Dynamics of Honeybee Varroa Mites: A Newly Emerging Parasite to Ethiopian Honeybee. Int. J. Sci. Res. Environ Sci. Toxicol., pg 1-4.
40. Desalegn Begna. 2001. Chalk Brood in Ethiopia. Holata Bee Research Centre, Ethiopia. Bees/or Development Journal 78.
41. Desalegn Begna. 2001. Honeybee pest and predators of Ethiopia. 3rd Proceedings of National Conference of Ethiopian Beekeeping Association pp 59-67, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
42. Desalegn Begna. 2015. Honeybee diseases and Pests research progress in Ethiopia: A review. African Journal of Insect 3 (1), 093-096.
43. Desalegn Begna. 2015. Occurrences and Distributions of Honeybee (Apis mellifera Jemenitica) Varroa Mite Varroa destructor) in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Fisheries and Livest Prod, 3:126. Doi: 10.4172/2332
44. Desta Gemedi, 2017. “Status of Honeybee Apis mellifera Bandasii Pests and Pathogens in Seka Chokersa District of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia”, International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB), 5, 12, 12-27, 2017.
45. Dietemann, V; Nazzi, F; Martin, S J; Anderson, D; Locke, B; Delaplane, K S; WauquieZ, Q; Tannahill, C; Frey, E; Ziegelmann, B; Rosenkranz, P; Ellis, J D. 2013. Standard methods for Varroa research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research, 52(1):1-54.
46. Dirk C de Graaf, Adriana M Alippi , Karina Antúnez , Katherine A Aronstein , Giles Budge , Dieter De Koker, Lina De Smet , Douglas W Dingman , Jay D Evans , Leonard J Foster , Anne Fünfhaus, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez , Aleš Gregorc, Hannelie Human, K Daniel Murray, Bach Kim Nguyen , Lena Poppinga , Marla Spivak, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Selwyn Wilkins and Elke Genersch. 2012. Standard methods for American foulbrood research. International Bee Research Association.
47. Douglas Somerville, 2011. Tracheal Mite.Technical Specialist Honey Bees, Goulburn. https://www.
48. EARO (Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization). 2000. Apiculture research strategy. Animal Science Research Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 45p.
49. EFSA. 2012. Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam considering all uses other than seed treatments and granules. European Food Safety Authority2 European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy
50. Ellis J, Klopchin E, Buss F, Fishel W, H Kern, C Mannion, E McAvoy, L. S. Osborne, M. Rogers, M. Sanford, H. Smith, P. Stansly, L. Stelinski, and S. Webb. 2017. Minimizing Honey Bee Exposure to Pesticides. Manual.
51. Ellis J.D., Graham J.R., Mortensen A. 2013. Standard methods for Wax moth research. In: V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds). The COLOSS BEEBOOK. Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Jo. Api. Research, 52 (1).1-17.
52. Etenesh Mekonen, (2016). Characterization of Honey production And Marketing Systems, Challenges and Opportunities in Ada Berga District.CASE.Bahirdar University. Ethiopia
53. FAO. 1989. Survey of honeybee diseases and pests in Ethiopia.
54. FAO. 2006a. Honey bee diseases and pests: a practical guide, pg1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
55. FAO. 2006b. Small Hive Beetle (Honey bee diseases and pests: a practical guide
56. FERA. 2013. Honeybee Disease in Europe. The Food and Environment Research Agency report to Syngenta Ltd, 2013.
57. Fichtl, R. and Admasu Addi. 1994. Honeybee Flora of Ethiopia. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany.
58. Flores J M, Ruiz J A, Ruz J M, Puerta F, Bustos M, Padilla F, Campano F. 1996. Effect of temperature and humidity of sealed brood on chalk brood development under controlled conditions. Apidologie 27: 185–192.
59. Friedrich Ruttner. 1987. The Evolution of Honeybee. University Frankfurt, 6000 Frankfurt, FRG
60. Fries I., Chauzat M.P., Chen Y.P., Doublet V., Genersch E., Gisder S., Higes M., Mcmahon D.P. Martín-Hernández R., Natsopoulou M., Paxton R.J., Tanner G., Webster T.C.,Williams G.R. 2013. Standard methods for nosema research. In: V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds). The COLOSS BEEBOOK: Volume 2: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(5): 1-8.
61. Gemechis Gizachew, Sefinew Alemu, Amssalu Bezabeh and Malede Berhan. 2013. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bee Lice in Holata and its Surroundings, Ethiopia. Jo. Veterinary Sci. Technol, 4: 1-4.
62. Gemechis Legesse. 2014: Review of progress in Ethiopian honey production and marketing. Livestock Research for Rural Development.26, 14. Retrieved August, from
63. Genersch E, Aubert M. 2010. Emerging and re-emerging viruses of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L). 41(6):54. 22
64. Genet M. 2016.Effects of Varroa destructor on temperature and humidity conditions and expression of energy metabolism genes in infested honeybee colonies.Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.
65. Gezahegn Tadesse and Amssalu Bezabeh. 1991. Identifying and Diagnosing Honeybee Diseases at Holata Bee Research and Training Center. Proceedings of the fourth National Livestock Improvement Conference.263-265.
66. Gidey Adeday, Mulugeta S, Fromsa A. 2012. Prevalence of bee lice Braula coeca (Diptera: Braulidae) and other perceived constraints to honey bee production in Wukro Woreda, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria 8: 631-635.
67. Gidey Adeday, Shiferaw Mulugeta and Abebe Fromsa. 2017. Varroa destructor (Acari: varroidae): Prevalence in three Peasant Associations of Wukro District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia
68. Gidey Yirga and Mekonen Teferi. 2010. Participatory Technology and Constraints Assessment to Improve the Livelihood of Beekeepers in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia. Volume 2 (1): 76-92.
69. Govinda Bhandari. 2014. An Overview of Agrochemicals and Their Effects on Environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2, 66-73. Doi: 10.12691/aees-2-2-5.
70. Guesh Godifey. 2015. Epidemiology of honey bee disease and pests in selected zones of Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. M.Sc. thesis.CAES.Bahirdar University.
71. Haylegebriel Tesfay, 2014. Honey Bee Diseases, Pest and Their Economic Importance in Ethiopia. Department of Biology (Zoology), College of Natural and Computational Science, Adigrat University.
72. HBRC (Holata Bee Research Center). 1997. Beekeeping Training Manual (unpublished), HBRC, Holata, Ethiopia.
73. HBRC. 2004. Beekeeping Training Manual. Holata, Ethiopia
74. Hepburn, Se Radloff. 1997. Biogeographically correlates of population variance in the honeybees (Apis mellifera L) of Africa. Apidologie, Springer Verlag, 1997, 28 (5), 243-258.
75. Hossam F, Ahmad A, and Abdelsalam A, (2013). Body morphological characteristics of honey bees.College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
76. IISL. 2013. The factors affecting honeybee decline. Innovation and information for sustainable living.
77. James D. Ellis and C.M. Zettel Nalen, 2010.Varroa mite distribution and life cycle.Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services University of Florida.
78. Kerealem Ejigu, Tilahun Gebey and Preston T.R. 2009.Constraints and prospects for apiculture research and development in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Livestock Res Rural Dev., 21(10): 1-14.
79. Kidane Mollaw. 2014. Assessment Of Beekeeping Practices And Honey Production In Mejhengir Zone Of Godere District, Gambella People National Regional State, Ethiopia.
80. Lalaena Gonzalez-Figueroa. 2017. Predators of the Honeybee.Manual.
81. Lopes LQS, Quatrin PM, De Souza ME, De Almeida Vaucher R, Vianna Santos RC (2015).Fungal Infections in Honey Bees. Fungal Genom Biol 4: 118. doi:10.4172/2165-8056.1000118
82. Lukas Kilcher. 2011. African Organic Agriculture Training Manual. Version 1.0. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL(Frick)
83. MAAREC (Mid-Atlantic Apicultural Research and Consortium). 2006. Varroa mites. Delaware, Maryland, 2003. Newjersy, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and the USDA Cooperating, pp: 4-7.
84. Manning R, Manning K., Lancaster A., Rutkay L. 2000. Survey of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies for Nosema apis in Western Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 47 (7), 883–886
85. Marla Spivak and Gary S.Reuter. 2016. Honey Bee Diseases and Pests. Manual
86. Mary F. Coffey. 2007. Parasites of the Honeybee. Teagasc, Crops Research Centre, Oak Park, Carlow co-financed by The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
87. Michael H. 2008. Nosema Disease Literature review and three year survey of beekeepers. Part 2
88. Mike Allsopp. 2014. Honeybee Pests and Disease. Ppri/Pages /Insect%20Ecology/Honeybee-Pests-and-Diseases.aspx
89. Morse R. and Flottum K. 1997. Honey Bee Pests, Predators, and Diseases. A.I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio, USA.
90. Mulisa Faji and Fekadu Begna. 2017. Review of Opportunity and Challenges of Beekeeping in Ethiopia. Jo. Plant and Animal Sciences: 3(3): 053-060.
91. Musa L.M.A, Peters K.J and Ahmed M.K.A .2006. On farm characterization of Butana and Kenana cattle breed production systems in Sudan. Livestock research for rural development, 18 (12): 56-61.
92. Neumann P., Evans J.D., Pettis J.S., Pirk C.W.W., Schäfer M.O., Tanner G., Ellis J. D. 2013. Standard Methods for Small Hive Beetle Research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds) The Coloss Bee book: Vol II: Standard Methods for Apis Mellifera Pest and Pathogen Research. Jo. Api, 52 (4): 1-32.
93. Nuru Adgaba. 2002. Geographical races of the Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Northern Regions of Ethiopia. Rhodes University, South Africa.
94. Nuru Adgaba. 2006. Geographical races of the Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Northern Regions of Ethiopia. PhD dissertation. Rhodes University, South Africa.
95. Nuru Adgaba. 2007. Atlas of pollen grains of major honeybee flora of Ethiopia, Holata bee research center, Holata, Ethiopia.
96. Office International Epizooties (OIE). 2004. Manual of Diagnostics test and vaccines for terrestrial animals. 5th edition: Paris, France.
97. OIE 2008.Acarapisosis of honey bees.Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals.
98. OIE 2013.Nosemosis of honeybees. Terrestrial Manual or consult the OIE. Web site for the most up -to-date list: expertise/reference laboratories/list -of- laboratories/http://www.oi
99. OIE, 2012.World Animal Health Information Database.Version 2.World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.
100. Oliver R. 2012. Neonicotinoids: Trying To Make Sense of the Science. First published in Bee Journal, part 2.
101. Otten C. 2003. A General overview on AFB and EFB Pathogen, Way of infection, Multiplication, Clinical symptoms and Outbreak, Apiacta, 38:106-113,
102. Paul Kozak. 2012. Varroa Mite–Biology and Diagnosis. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
103. Pongthep Akratanakul. 1990.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO Agricultural FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/4.
104. Roubik D.W. 1989. Ecology and Natural History of Tropical Bees. Cambridge University Press, New York. 195-210.
105. Ruttner F. 1975. African races of honeybees.325-344. Proceedings of XXVth International Beekeeping Congress, Grenoble, France.
106. Ruttner F. 1986. Geographical variability and classification: Rinderer, T.E. (ed.), Bee Genetics and Breeding. Academic Press Inc., Orlando, U.S.A., pp. 23-34.
107. Sammataro D., De Guzman L., George S., Ochoa R., Otis G. 2013. Standard methods for tracheal mites research. In: V Dietemann, J.D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds). The COLOSSBEEBOOK: Volume II: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Jo. ofApi. Research 52(4).1-3.
108. Shimanuki H and David A. 2000.Diagnosis of Honey Bee Diseases.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No.AH–690, 61.
109. Sisay Gobessa, Eyassu Seifu, Amsalu Bezabih, 2012. Physicochemical Properties of Honey Produced in the Homesha District of Western Ethiopia. Haramaya University. Journal of Apicultural Science, 56, 33-40, DOI:
110. Smith F.G., 1961. Races of honeybees in Africa. Bee World 42: 255-260
111. SNV/ Ethiopia. 2005. Strategic intervention plan on honey & beeswax value-chains, snv support to business organizations and their access to markets (boam), 5.
112. Stefanidou M, Athanaselis S, Koutselinis A. 2003. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol. 45(5):261-5. PubMed PMID: 14513897
113. Taye Beyene and Marco Verschuur. 2014. Assessment of constraints and opportunities of honey production in Wonchi District South West Shewa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia. American Journal of Research Communication, 2(10): 342-353} www.usa, ISSN: 2325-4076.
114. Teklu Gebretsadik. 2016. Survey on honeybee pests and predators in Sidama and Gedeo zones of Southern Ethiopia with emphasis on control practices. South Agricultural Research Institute, Hawassa Agricultural Research Center
115. Tesfay Haylegebriel. 2014. Honey Bee Diseases, Pest and Their Economic Importance in Ethiopia. International Jo.Inno.and Sci. Res, 10. 527-535.
116. Tessega Belie. 2009. Honeybee Production and Marketing Systems, Constraints and Opportunities in Burie District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis, CAES. BahirdarUniversity, Pp 116.
117. Theorganicfarmer. 2015. Common bee pests and diseases in East Africa.
118. Tilahun Gebey, Berhe K. and Hoekstra D. 2010. Beekeeping development using value chain approach in Fogera district: experiences from IPMS project interventions, ILRI, Addis Ababa.
119. UGA. 2017. Polination: Protecting pollinators from pestcides.
121. Uppsala University 2014.Evolutionary history of honeybees revealed by genomics.Science
122. USDA, 2005.Tracheal mites.Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
123. Vivian, J. 1985. Keeping Bees.Williamson Publishing Co., Charlotte, U.S.A.
124. Wasim A, Dwaipayan S and Ashim C. 2009.Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2(1) :1-12.
125. Webster T.C. 1993. Nosema apis spore transmission among honey bees. Am. Bee J., 133, 869–870.
126. Williams Lea. 2015.Common Pests, Diseases and Disorders of the Adult Honey Bee.Plant and animal health agency.Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.BeeBase (National Bee Unit) website,
127. Wise Geek, 2015.Factors that affect agricultural productivity.
128. Workneh Abebe, Pucker R and Karippai RS. 2008. Adopting improved box hive in Atsbi Wemberta district of Eastern Zone, Tigray Region: Determinants and fi nancial benefits. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 10. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. PP30.
129. Yadav S., Kaushik H.D. 2017. Diseases and Enemies of Honeybees. In: Omkar (eds) Industrial Entomology. Springer, Singapore
130. Zachary Huang, 2012. Varroa Mite Reproductive Biology.Department of Entomology, Michigan State University.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.