Review Article of International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy
Cultural Competence, Race, and Ethnicity in Community Based Recovery Treatment Programs
Pascal Scoles, DSW,LCSW
Professor, Behavioral Health and Human Services and Director, Office of Collegiate Recovery, Community College of Philadelphia, PA.
Cultural competence is more than speaking the language or recognizing the cultural icons of a given group of individuals. Treating the individual is treating their culture. A culturally competent treatment professional must acknowledge an individual’s cultural strengths, values, and experiences while encouraging behavioral and attitudinal change. A significant variable in the change process is the relationship between racial or ethnic matching of clients and counselors. Successful treatment reveals a group of cultural dynamics on how this therapeutic alliance might affect treatment outcomes. To meet these complex cultural challenges, the movement towards a pluralistic cultural framework of helping with its bilingual and bicultural sensitivity appears to be a significant variable to engage the community and the individual in the healing process. Environmental exposures, such as pollution, high-crime areas, and lack of parks or playgrounds, social services, such as transportation, housing, and childcare, mental health care, significantly impact on lifestyle choices. Building strong, grassroots recovery community organizations (RCOs) and linking RCOs into a national movement to develop recovery leaders, offer many opportunities for the recovery community. It helps people in recovery, family members, friends, and allies to express their collective individual and neighborhood voices on issues of common concern by providing a forum for recovery-focused community services that support individual growth.
Keywords: Cultural Competence, Race, Ethnicity, Community Based Recovery Treatment Programs
How to cite this article:
Pascal Scoles. Cultural Competence, Race, and Ethnicity in Community Based Recovery Treatment Programs.International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy, 2020, 3:22. DOI: 10.28933/ijart-2020-07-3105
1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014) Improving Cultural Competence. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series No. 59. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4849.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
2. Samuels, A. (1991). Psychopathology: Contemporary Jungian Perspective. New York: Guilford Press.
3. Scoles, P. (2020). Anger, Anxiety, and Health Determinants in the Process of Community Recovery. International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy. Vol. 3:19.
4. Mokuau, N. (1997). Pacific Islanders. In J. Philleo, F.L. Brisbane, and L.G. Morgan, P., and Beck, J.E. The legacy and the paradox: Hidden contexts of methamphetamine use in the United States. In: Klee, H., ed. Amphetamine Misuse: International Perspectives on Current Trends (pp. 135–162). The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.
5. Woll, C. (1996). What difference does culture make? Providing treatment to women different from you. Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment, 6, 67-85.
6. Gordon, J.U. (Ed.) (1994). Managing multiculturalism in substance abuse services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
7. Cross, T. (2012). Cultural Competence Continuum. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work. National Organization of Child Care Worker Associations, Inc./0741-9481
8. Borrego, P., E. Ortiz-González and T. D. Gissendaner. (2019). Ethnic and Cultural Considerations, in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders. Academic Press. 461-497.
9. Olandi, M. (1992). Defining Cultural Competence: An organizing framework. In: M. Olandi (Ed) Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A guide for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention practitioners working with ethnic/racial communities. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of HHS.
10. Davis, L. & Proctor, E. (1989). Race, Gender, and Class: Guidelines for Practice. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
11. Cory, G. (2017). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Cengage Publishing.
12. Beutler, L.E., Zetzer, H., and Yost, E. (1997). Tailoring interventions to clients: Effects on engagement and retention. In L.S. Onken, J.D. Blaine, and J.J. Boren (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. NIDA Research Monograph 165. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 85-109.
13. Barbujani G. (2005) Human races: Classifying people vs. understanding diversity. Current Genomics 6:215-226
14. Wang, V. Ota. (2001). Counseling and Psychotherapy: Ethnic and Cultural Differences. in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.
15. Brisbane, F. L., and Womble, M. (1992). Working with African Americans: The Professional Hand-book, 1992. Chicago: HRDI International Press.
16. Anderson NB, Bulatao RA, Cohen B, (editors). (2004). Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health. National Research Council (US). Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
17. Yang, P. (2000). Theories of Ethnicity. In: Ethnic Studies Issues and Approaches. State University New York Press. pp.39-60.
18. Leong, F. T., and Kim, H. W. (1991). Going beyond cultural sensitivity on the road to multiculturalism: Using the intercultural sensitizer as a counselor training tool. Journal of Counseling and Development. 70, 112-118.
19. Gordon, J.U. (Ed.) (1994). Managing multiculturalism in substance abuse services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
20. White et. Al. (2009) The Recovery Revolution: Will it include children, adolescents, and transition-age youth?
21. Mason, J.L., (1995). Cultural competence assessment questionnaire: A manual for users. Portland, OR: Portland State University Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children’s Mental Health.
22. McLamore, S., and H. Romo. (1998). Racial and Ethnic Relations in America. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
23. Jung, C.G. (1980). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
24. Healthy People 2000 Progress Review. (1997). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD: Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.
25. Frieden TR. (2010). A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(4):590-595.DOI:10.2105/ AJPH. 2009.185652.
26. Scoles, P, and F. DiRosa (2018). Social Determinants of Health and Behavioral Health Challenges. Counselor. Vol. 19. No.3. May/June.
27. Magnan, S., 2017. Social Determinants of Health 101 for Health Care: Five Plus Five. NAM Perspectives. Discussion Paper, National Academy of Medicine, Washington, DC. DOI: 10.31478/201710c
28. Michener, J., D. Koo, B. Castrucci, and J. Sprague, (Eds). Practical Playbook, Public Health, and Primary Care Together. (2016). Oxford University Press.
29. White W, Sanders M. (2008) Recovery management and people of color redesign addiction treatment for historically disempowered communities. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. Vol. 26(3):365–395.
30. Scoles P. (2020) Spirituality, Culture, and the Process of Assessment in Recovery. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation. Vol. 9:2.
31. Scoles, P. (2020). Building recovery resilience through culture, community, and spirituality. Journal of Behavioral Health. 9.(1): 275-281.
32. Scoles, P. (2020). Health and the healing process of recovery. Journal of Addiction and Recovery. Volume 3:1.
33. www.facesandvoicesofrecovery.org/blog/2016/0 1/ new-recovery-movement basics).