Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Spartial Distribution of Phytochemical and Antifungal Evaluation of Six Medicinal Plants in South-West, Nigeria
*Oladejo, S. O.1, Olawuyi, O. J.2, Awoniran D.R.1 and Mudasiru, O. M.3
1Department of GIS, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2, 3Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
The phytochemical and antifungal evaluations of the leaves of six plant species (Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum and Spondias mombin) in Nigeria were studied. The leaves of these plants were collected from the wild, air-dried and pulverized into fine powder for the phytochemical constituents and minimum Inhibitory concentrations. The powdered leaves were screened and results were properly recorded as observed. Based on MIC, water extract of sample A Euphorbia hirta (6,620mg/100g, sample B Spondias mombin (6,51mg/100g), Sample C Nicotiana tabacum (7,210mg/100g), sample D 97,010mg/100g), sample E Chromolaena odorata (5,420mg/100g), sample F (6,960mg/100g), sample G Momordica charantia, sample H Ficus asperifolia (65030mg/100), sample I (7,480mg/100g).
For acetone extract of sample A (4,978mg/100g), Sample B (5,470mg/100g), sample C (4,450mg/100g,) sample G (4,560mg/100g), sample E (3,870mg/100g), sample F (4810mg/100g). sample G (4,560mg/100g, sample H (4,780mg/100g), sample 1 (4,700mg/100g), For hexane extract of sample A(3,640mg/100), sample B (4125mg/100g), sample C (3,37smg/100). sample D (3,335mg/100g), sample E (3,310mg/100g, sample F (3,648mg/100g), sample G (3,425mg/100g sample H (3,940mg/100g sample I (3,560mg/100g). For bacitracin extract of sample A (3,927mg/100g), sample B (3, 926mg/100g), sample C (3,775mg/100g), sample D (3,877mg/100g), sample E (3,7825mg/100g sample F (3,810mg/100g), sample G (3,606mg/100g), sample H (3,676mg/100g), sample I (3,810mg/100g).
Phytochemical constituuents present includes tannin, phenol, saponins, alkaloids, phylate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides, trypsin inhibitor and flavonoids. It is therefore recommended that Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum, Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata can be used as source for antibiotics substances for possible treatment of ailments like malaria, asthma, diabetes, fibroids, hypertension, epilepsy, fever and some mycotic infections.
Keywords: Antifungal evaluation, Plant extracts, Phytochemicals, Nigerian medicinal plants, Botanical description, Constituuents，Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum and Spondias mombin .
How to cite this article:
Oladejo, S. O., Olawuyi, O. J. Awoniran D.R. and Mudasiru, O. M.Spartial Distribution of Phytochemical and Antifungal Evaluation of Six Medicinal Plants in South-West, Nigeria.International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2018, 3:11. DOI: 10.28933/ijctm-2018-09-1501
1. Abu, A. B., Zuraini, Z., Lacimanan, Y., Sreenivasan, S. (2011). Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2: 386-390.
2. Adepoju, O. T. and Oyewole, O. E. (2008). “Nutrient Composition and Acceptability Study of Fortified Jams from Spondias mombin (Hog Plum, Iyeye in Yoruba) Fruit Pulp”. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science, 29(2): 180–189. ISSN 0189-0913 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0189 0913).
3. Adjanohoun, J. E., Aboubaker, N., Dramane, K. (1996). Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia. Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Cameroon. OUA/STR, Lagos, 301-325pp.
4. Booth, C. (1971). The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 237 pp.
5. Burkill, H. M. (1994). The useful plants of west tropical Africa families MFT, Royal Botanic Garden, Kew. 4:605 pp.
6. Donkor, A. M., Mosobil, R., Suurbaar, J. (2016). In vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of Senna alata, Ricinus communis and Lannea barteri extracts against wound and skin disease causing bacteria. J. Anal. Pharm. Res., 3(1): 46-51.
7. Dutta, T, Sahoo, R., Sengupta, R., Ray, S. S., Bhattacharjee, A. Ghosh, S. (2008). Novel cellulases from an extremophilic filamentous fungi, Penicillium citrinum: production and characterization. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 35(4): 275-282.
8. Fapohunda, S. O., Olawuyi, O. J. and Okei, C. P. (2011). Antimicrobial and phytochemical potentials of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Nigeria. The South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 29: 21-25.
9. Galván, I. J., Mir-Rashed, N., Jessulat, M., Atanya, M., Golshani, A., (2008). Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata. Phytochemistry, 69: 738-746.
10. Gautier, L. (1992). Taxonomy and distribution of a tropical weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. King and H. Robinson. Candollea, 47: 645–662.
11. Gilman, J.C. (2001). A manual of soil fungi. Oxford & IBH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India.
12. Global Invasive Species Database (2018). Species profile: Chromolaena odorata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=47 on 10-03-2018.
13. Henderson, L. (2001). Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Handbook No. 12. Pretoria, South Africa: ARC-PPRI.
14. Hussein, S. M., Barakat, H. H., Merfort, I., Nawwar, M. M. (1997). Tannins from the leaves of punica granatum. Phytochemisty 45: 819-823.
15. Knowles, F. and Watkins, J. E. (1950). Agricultural Chemistry, London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 28pp.
16. Lin. J., Opoku, A., Geheeb-Keller, M., Hutchings, A., Terblanche, S., Jäger, A.K., Van Staden, J. (1999). Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. J. Ethnopharmacol., 68(1): 267–274. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00130-0.
17. Loeffler, J., Stevens, D. A. (2003). Antifungal drug resistance. Clin. Infect. Dis., 36: 31-41.
18. McFadyen, R. E. C. (1998). Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology, 43: 369–393.
19. Morenikeji, O. A., Oladejo, S. O. and Olawuyi, O.J. (2011). Health implications of common herbs on Osan Ekiti Local Government Area of Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology, 11(2): 135-140.
20. Naz, R., Bano, A. (2012). Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed., 2(12): 944–947. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0.
21. Oladejo S.O. (2006). Ecological Effects of Human Activities in the Environment Ways Forward. A paper presented at; A 5- day Environmental Science $Teghnology Workshop held at the African Regional Centre for Space $ Technology Education, O.A .U. Ile- Ife.
22. Rao, N, Mittal, S, Menghani, E. (2013). Assessment of phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of Ricinus communis L. Asian J Pharm Technol., 3(1): 20–25.
23. Raper, K. B., Fennell, D.I. (1965). The genus Aspergillus. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
24. Rocha, A. D., de Oliveira, A. B., de Souza, Filho, J. D., Lombardi, J. A., Braga F. C. (2004). Antifungal constituents of Clytostoma ramentaceum and Mansoa hirsuta. Phytother. Res., 18: 463-467.
25. Rodrigues, K. F. and Hasse, M. (2000): Antimacrobial activities of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi from Spondias mombin. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 40: 261 – 267.
26. Rosenthal, G. A. and Janzen, D. H. (Eds.). Academic Press, New York.
27. Sofowora, A. (1982). African herbs. John wiley and sons, Chichester, p.198.
28. Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd Edn., Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, 289pp.
29. Soladoye, M. O. and Chukwuma, E. C. (2012). Quantitative phytochemical profile of the leaves of Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae) – an important medicinal plant in central Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2012, 4 (1): 200-206.
30. Stoner, M.F. (1981). Ecology of Fusarium in non-cultivated soils. Pages 276-286 in: Fusarium: Diseases, Biology, and Taxonomy. P.E. Nelson, T.A. Toussoun and R.J. Cook, eds. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
31. Swain, T. (1979). Tannins and Lignins. In: Herbivores: Their Interactions with Plant Metabolites.
32. Trease, G. E. and Evans, M. C. (2005). Pharmacognosy. 14th Edn., Elsevier, New Delhi, India, pp: 53, 431, 512.
33. Uyi, O. O., Ekhator, F, Ikuenobe, C. E., Borokini, T. I., Aigbokhan, E. I., Egbon, I. N., Adebayo, A. R., Igbinosa, I. B., Okeke, C. O., Igbinosa, E. O., Omokhua, G. A. (2014). Chromolaena odorata invasion in Nigeria: A case for coordinated biological control Management of Biological Invasions, 5(4): 377–393. (http://www.reabic.net/journals/mbi/2014/4/MBI_2014_Uyi_etal.pdf).
34. UNEP, (2014) United Nation Environment Annual Report.DCP,1884/NA.
35. Wang J, Mai G, Liu G, Yu S. (2013). Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of an acid-stable endoxylanase gene from Penicillium oxalicum in Trichoderma reesei. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 23(2): 251-259.
36. Williamson, E. M. (2002). Major herbs of Ayurveda. China: Churchill Livingstone.
37. Zachariades, C. and Strathie, L. W. (2006). Biocontrol of Chromolaena in South Africa: Recent Activities in Research and Implementation. Biocontrol News and Information, 27: 10–15.