Review Article of International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews
Apical Vapour Lock Effect -Phenomenon related to Endodontic Irrigation– A Review
Pradnya V. Bansode and Vidya M. Patil
Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, GDCH, Aurangabad, MUHS, Maharashtra, India
Complete debridement of the root canal system is a primary requirement for the successful root canal treatment 1. Thus for optimum disinfection , a thorough cleaning and shaping is mandatory ; so the current concept in Endodontics is ‘ Files shape, irrigants clean’2. Even with the use of rotary instrumentation, the nickel-titanium instruments currently available only act on the central body of the canal, leaving canal fins, isthmi, and cul-de-sacs untouched after completion of the preparation. These areas might harbor tissue debris, microbes, and their by-products, which might prevent close adaptation of the obturation material and result in persistent periradicular inflammation 3,4.So the irrigants must be brought into direct contact with the entire canal wall surfaces for effective action, particularly for the apical portions of small root canals. Recently, concern has been expressed about the possible presence of gas bubbles in the apical part of the root canal that could block irrigant penetration and may affect effective debridement.This phenomenon is termed as‘apical vapor lock’5 (AVL). It is also called as Dead Water Zone.
Keywords: Apical Vapour Lock Effect, Phenomenon related to Endodontic Irrigation, Review
How to cite this article:
Pradnya V. Bansode and Vidya M. Patil. Apical Vapour Lock Effect -Phenomenon related to Endodontic Irrigation– A Review. International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews, 2019, 2:15
1. Agarwal A et al Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination usingThree different Techniques: An in vitro Study The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, September 2017;18(9):790-794
2. Mandke L Apical Vapour Lock Effect in Endodontics – A Review International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research Volume 5 | Issue 2 | February 2018
3. Pasricha S K Pressure Alteration Techniques in Endodontics- A Review of Literature Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015 Mar, Vol-9(3)
4. Chow TW. Mechanical effectiveness of root canal irrigation. J Endod. 1983;9(11):475-79.
5. Boutsioukis C. et al Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach International Endodontic Journal, 47, 191–201, 2014
6. Gao Y, Haapasalo M, Shen Y, Wu H, Li B, Ruse ND, Zhou X. Development and validation of a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of root canal irrigation. J Endod 2009 Sep;35(9):1282-1287.
7. Pasricha SK, Makkar S, Gupta P. Pressure alteration techniques in endodontics-a review of literature. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2015;9:.
8. Gu LS, Kim JR, Ling J, Choi KK, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Review of contemporary irrigant agitation techniques and devices. J Endod. 2009;35(6):791-804
9. Gary Glassman DD. Safety and Efficacy Considerations in Endodontic Irrigation.2011.
10. Darcey J, Jawad S, Taylor C, Roudsari RV, Hunter M. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 4: Irrigation. Dental update. 2016;43:20.
11. Grossman LI. Irrigation of root canals. J Am Dent Assoc 1943;30:1915–7.
12. Park E, Shen Y, Khakpour M et al. Apical pressure and extent of irrigant flow beyond the needle tip during positive- pressure irrigation in an in vitro root canal model. J Endod 2013; 39: 511−515.
13. Saber SE, Hashem AA. Efficacy of different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. Journal of Endodontics. 2011;37:1272-5.
14. Elumalai D et al Newer Endodontic irrigation devices: An updateIOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences Volume 13, Issue 6 Ver. V (Jun. 2014), PP 04-08
15. Schoeffel GJ. The EndoVac method of endodontic irrigation: part 2—efficacy. Dent Today. 2008;27:82,84,86-87.
16. Nielsen BA, Baumgartner JC. Comparison of the endovac system to needle irrigation of root canals. J Endod. 2007;33:611-5.
17. Shin SJ, Kim HK, Jung IY, Lee CY, Lee SJ, Kim E. Comparison of the cleaning efficacy of a new apical negative pressure irrigating system with conventional irrigation needles in the root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 Mar;109(3):479-84.
18. Bansode P, Rana H, Wavdhane MB. Newer Irrigation Systems in Endodontics: A Literature Review. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2015;4:9- 13
19. Neelakantan P, Devaraj S, Jagannathan N. Histologic Assessment of Debridement of the Root Canal Isthmus of Mandibular Molars by Irrigant Activation Techniques Ex Vivo. Journal of endodontics. 2016;42:1268-72.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.