Research Article of International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications
Vinyl Ester/Glass Microballoon Syntactic Foams with Low Density
Salleh1, 2, M.M. Islam*1, J.A. Epaarachchi1, Haibin Su3
1Centre for Future Materials, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350, Australia 2Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, 32200, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia 3Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798.
In this study, the synthesis and characterization of vinyl ester/glass microballoon syntactic foams with different weight percentages are investigated. Both the tensile and compressive properties of the syntactic foams are characterized. Generally, the results show that the compressive strength and moduli of several syntactic foam compositions are comparable to those of pure vinyl ester as a matrix resin. Due to the lower density of syntactic foams, the specific compressive properties of SCFT-01 (2wt.%) are higher than all other specimens and closer to neat resin. Similar trends are also observed in the tensile properties. The results show that syntactic foams with vinyl ester matrix possess strength behaviour that varies with different content of glass microballoons. This difference is related to the possibility of particle fracture in the stress range where modulus is calculated from the compressive stress–strain curves. In addition, tensile modulus is found to be 70–80% higher than the compressive modulus for all syntactic foam compositions, but both of them are still lower than neat resin. The results also show that the content of glass microballoons in the syntactic foams should be controlled to obtain a good combination of compressive strength and tensile strength. The reasons are discussed in detail.
Keywords: Syntactic foam, composite, glass microballoon, resin, wall thickness
How to cite this article:
Salleh et al., Vinyl Ester/Glass Microballoon Syntactic Foams with Low Density. International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications, 2017; 1:1.. DOI:10.28933/ijmsa-2017-01-01
 Bardella L, El-Hadek MA, Tippur HV. Discussion on the paper “Simulation of porosity by microballoon dispersion in epoxy and urethane: Mechanical measurements and models. Journal of Materials Science Letters. 2003;22:1643-6.
 Gupta N, Ricci W. Comparison of compressive properties of layered syntactic foams having gradient in microballoon volume fractionand wall thickness. Materials Science and Engineering A. 2006;427:331-42.
 Park S, Jin F, Lee C. Preparation and physical properties of hollow glass microspheres-reinforced epoxy matrix resins. Material Science Engineering A. 2005;402:335-40.
 Tien CL, Gupta N, Talalayev A. Thermoanalytical characterization of epoxy matrix-glass microballoon syntactic foams. Journal Material Science. 2009;44:1520–7.
 Vasanth C, Dinesh P, Gupta N. Thermal expansion behaviour of hollow glass particle/vinyl ester composites. Journal Materials Science. 2012;47:5596-604.
 Gupta N, Woldesenbet E, Kishore, Sankaran S. Studies on Compressive Failure Features in Syntactic Foam Material. Journals of Sandwich Structures and Materials. 2001;4:249-72.
 SALLEH Z, ISLAM, M.M. and KU, H. Study on Compressive Properties of Syntactic Foams for Marine Applications<Paper Syntactic Foam-zulzamri.pdf>. Journal of Multifunctional Composite. 2014:21-7.
 Gupta N, Priya S, Islam R, Ricci W. Characterization of mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy–glass microballoon syntactic composites. Ferroelectrics. 2006;345:1-12.
 Wouterson EM, Boey FYC, Hu X, Wong SC. Effect of fiber reinforcement on the tensile, fracture and thermal properties of syntactic foam. Polymer. 2007;48:3183-91.
 Kishore, Shankar R, Sankaran. Gradient syntactic foams: Tensile strength, modulus and fractographic features. Materials Science and Engineering A. 2005;412:153-8.
 Karthikeyan C, Sankaran S, Kumar M, Kishore. Processing and compressive strengths of syntactic foams with and without fibrous reinforcements. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2001;81:405-11.
 Wouterson E, Boey F, Hu X, Wong S. Fracture and impact toughness of syntactic foam. Journal of Cell Plastics. 2004;40:145-54.
 Bardella L, Genna F. Elastic design of syntactic foamed sandwiches obtained by filling of three-dimensional sandwich-fabric panel. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 2001;38:307-33.
 Bardella L, Genna F. Elastic design of syntactic foamed sandwiches obtained by filling of three-dimensional sandwich-fabric panels. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 2001a;38:307–33.
 Sagi-Mana D, Narkis M, Siegmann A, Joseph R, Dodiuk H. The effect of marine environment on a vinyl ester resin and its highly filled particulate quartz composites. Journal Applied Polymer Science 1998;69:2229–34.
 Rajapakse Y, Hui D. Marine composites and sandwich structures. Composites B Engineering. 2008;39:1-4.
 Gupta N, Ye R, Porfiri M. Comparison of tensile and compressive characteristics of vinyl ester/glass microballoon syntactic foams. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2010;41:236-45.
 Bunn P, Mottram JT. Manufacture and Compression Properties of Syntactic Foams. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 1993;24:565-71.
 Balch D, Dunand D. Load partitioning in aluminum syntactic foams containing ceramic microspheres. . Acta Material 2006;54:1501–11.
 Imre NO, Kornél M. Microballoon of Metal-matrix composite reinforced by ceramic microballoon. Physics of Fluids. 2004;16:11180-1126.
 Palmer RA, Gao K, Doan TM, Green L, Cavallaro G. Pressure infiltrated syntactic foams—Process development and mechanical properties. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2007;464:85-92.
 Hussain M, Nakahira A, Nishijima S, Niihara K. Fracture behaviour and fracture toughness of particulate filled epoxy composites. Material Letter 1996;27:21-5.
 Broutman L, Sahu S. The effect of interfacial bonding on the toughness of glass filled polymers. Material Science Engineering 1971;8:98–107.
 Tagliavia G, Porfiri M, Gupta N. Vinyl ester–glass hollow particle composites: dynamic mechanical properties at high inclusion volume fraction. Journal Composite Material. 2009;43:561-82.
 Gupta N, Nagorny R. Tensile properties of glass microballoon-epoxy resin syntactic foams. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2006;102:1254-61.
 Islam MM, Kim HS. Novel syntactic foams made of ceramic hollow micro-spheres and starch: theory, structure and properties. Journal of Materials Science. 2007;42:6123-32.
 Gupta N, Woldesenbet E, Mensah P. Compression Properties of Syntactic Foams: Effect of Cenosphere Radius Ratio and Specimen Aspect Ratio. Composites: Part A. 2004;35:103-11.
 Division PILEGM. Spherical Typical Product Characteristics Valley Forge, PA 19482 USA: Potters Industries LLC; 2011.
 John B, Nair CPR, Devi KA, Ninan KN. Effect of low-density filler on mechanical properties of syntactic foams of cyanate ester. Journal of Materials Science. 2007;42:5398-405.
 Swetha C, Kumar R. Quasi-static uni-axial compression behaviour of hollow glass microspheres/epoxy based syntactic foams. Materials & Design. 2011;32:4152-63.
 Phang Z, Ding J. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Interface Focus. 2012;2:366–77.
 Kim HS, Plubrai P. Manufacturing and failure mechanisms of syntactic foam under compression☆. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2004;35:1009-15.
 G Subhasha, Q Liu, Gao XL. Quas static uni axial compression behaviour of hollow glass microspheres epoxy based syntactic foams. . International Journal Impact Engineering 2006;32:1113–26.
 M. Koopman, K. Chawla, N. Carlisle N, Gladysz. G. Microstructural failure modes in three-phase glass syntactic foams. Journal of Material Science 2006;41:4009–14.
 Gladysz G, Perry B, McEachen G, Lula J. Three-phase syntactic foams: structure–property relationships. Journal of Material Science 2006;41:4085–92.
 Huang JS, Gibson LJ. Elastic moduli of a composite of hollow spheres in a matrix. . Journal Mechanic Physics Solids 1993;41:55–75.
 Li P, Petrinic N, Siviour CR, Froud R, Reed. Strain rate dependent compressive properties of glass-microbaloon epoxy syntactic foams. Journal of Material Science Engineering A 2009;515:19-25.
 C. Periasamy, Jhaver R, Tippur HV. Quasi-static and dynamic compression response of a light weight interpenetrating phase composite foam. Material Science Engineering A. 2010;527:2845–56.
 Gupta N, Woldesenbet E, Kishore. Compressive fracture features of syntactic foams-microscopic examination. Journal Material Science. 2002;37:3199–31209.
 Thomas H, Ling L, Wong C, Koon Y, Alexander B. Tailored for simplicity: creating high porosity, high performance bio-based macroporous polymers from foam templates. The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2013;16:1931–40.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.