Synthesis of Biocompatible carboxylic acid functionalized Graphene Oxide as a stimulator of bacterial growth

Synthesis of Biocompatible carboxylic acid functionalized Graphene Oxide as a stimulator of bacterial growth

Neelima Sharma 1*, Rishi Sharma2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi -835215, Jharkhand, India. 2Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi -835215, Jharkhand,India.

International Journal of nanoparticle research

Researchers have shown great interest towards Graphene and its potential applications in various fields such as electronics, energy, materials and biomedical areas. The effects of Graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives on bacteria activities is still controversial. Thus, how graphene and its derivatives interact with microorganisms and the mechanisms of their interactions are important issues for nanotechnology which need proper exploration. In the present investigation, graphene oxide (GO) has been synthesized and functionalized by the chemical method. The GO and COOH-functionalized GO have been characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Further, haemocompatibility study has been performed to check the biocompatibility of functionalized graphene oxide. The effect of GO and COOH-GO on the bacterial growth has been observed. The FTIR, Raman and SEM data confirm the successfully functionalization of GO with carboxyl (-COOH) group. The haemolysis test shows that GO and GO-COOH are highly hemocompatible. Interestingly, functionalized graphene oxide, can significantly stimulate bacterial growth for gram positive and gram negative bacteria, whereas as-made GO shows no effect. It can be concluded that carboxylic acid functionalized GO may act as a new, positive regulator for the growth of bacterial cells.

Keywords:Graphene oxide; FTIR; SEM; Raman; Biocompatibility; Bacterial culture

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Neelima Sharma, Rishi Sharma. Synthesis of Biocompatible carboxylic acid functionalized Graphene Oxide as a stimulator of bacterial growth. International Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2018; x:xx.. DOI:10.28933/xxxxxxxx


[1] X.W. Wang, G.Z. Sun, P. Routh, D.H. Kim, W. Huang, P. Chen, Heteroatomdoped graphene materials: syntheses, properties and applications, Chem. Soc. Rev. 43 (20) (2014) 7067-7098.
[2] S.K. Pal, Versatile photoluminescence from graphene and its derivatives, Carbon 88 (2015) 86-112.
[3] Y. Zhang, T.R. Nayak, H. Hong, W.B. Cai, Graphene: a versatile nanoplatform for biomedical applications, Nanoscale 4 (13) (2012) 3833-3842.
[4] V. Urbanova, K. Hola, A.B. Bourlinos, K. Cepe, A. Ambrosi, A.H. Loo, M. Pumera, F. Karlicky, M. Otyepka, R. Zboril, Thiofluorographene-hydrophilic graphene derivative with semiconducting and genosensing properties, Adv. Mater. 27 (14) (2015) 2305-2310.
[5] M. Liu, J.P. Song, S.M. Shuang, C. Dong, J.D. Brennan, Y.F. Li, A graphene-based biosensing platform based on the release of dna probes and rolling circle amplification, ACS Nano 8 (6) (2014) 5564-5573.
[6] M. Yi, S. Yang, Z.Y. Peng, C.H. Liu, J.S. Li, W.W. Zhong, R.H. Yang, W.H. Tan, Twophoton graphene oxide/aptamer nanosensing conjugate for in vitro or in vivo molecular probing, Anal. Chem. 86 (7) (2014) 3548-3554.
[7] P.K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H.W. Hou, J.T.L. Thong, C.T. Lim, K.P. Loh, Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel, Nano Lett. 11 (12) (2011) 5240-5246.
[8] B.W. Zhu, Z.Q. Niu, H. Wang, W.R. Leow, H. Wang, Y.G. Li, L.Y. Zheng, J. Wei, F.W. Huo, X.D. Chen, Microstructured graphene arrays for highly sensitive flexible tactile sensors, Small 10 (18) (2014) 3625-3631.
[9] L.Y. Feng, L. Wu, X.G. Qu, New horizons for diagnostics and therapeutic applications of graphene and graphene oxide, Adv. Mater. 25 (2) (2013) 168-186.
[10] L.Y. Feng, Y. Chen, J.S. Ren, X.G. Qu, A graphene functionalized electrochemical aptasensor for selective label-free detection of cancer cells, Biomaterials 32 (11) (2011) 2930- 2937.
[11] L.Y. Yang, Y.T. Tseng, G.L. Suo, L.L. Chen, J.T. Yu, W.J. Chiu, C.C. Huang, C.H. Lin, Photothermal therapeutic response of cancer cells to aptamer-gold nanoparticle-hybridized graphene oxide under nir illumination, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 (9) (2015) 5097-5106
[12] L.M. Zhang, J.G. Xia, Q.H. Zhao, L.W. Liu, Z.J. Zhang, Functional graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for controlled loading and targeted delivery of mixed anticancer drugs, Small 6 (4) (2010) 537-544.
[13] H.Q. Dong, C.Y. Dong, T.B. Ren, Y.Y. Li, D.L. Shi, Surface-engineered graphenebased nanomaterials for drug delivery, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10 (9) (2014) 2086-2106.
[14] M.X. Zhang, Y.H. Cao, Y. Chong, Y.F. Ma, H.L. Zhang, Z.W. Deng, C.H. Hu, Z.J. Zhang, Graphene oxide based theranostic platform for T-1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5 (24) (2013) 13325-13332.
[15] X.F. Tan, L.Z. Feng, J. Zhang, K. Yang, S. Zhang, Z. Liu, R. Peng, Functionalization of graphene oxide generates a unique interface for selective serum protein interactions, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5 (4) (2013) 1370-1377.
[16] Y.S. Tu, M. Lv, P. Xiu, T. Huynh, M. Zhang, M. Castelli, Z.R. Liu, Q. Huang, C.H. Fan, H.P. Fang, R.H. Zhou, Destructive extraction of phospholipids from Escherichia coli membranes by graphene nanosheets, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 (8) (2013) 594-601.
[17] W.B. Hu, C. Peng, W.J. Luo, M. Lv, X.M. Li, D. Li, Q. Huang, C.H. Fan, Graphenebased antibacterial paper, ACS Nano 4 (7) (2010) 4317-4323.
[18] S.Y. Yin, Y.L. Wu, B.H. Hu, Y. Wang, P.Q. Cai, C.K. Tan, D.P. Qi, L.Y. Zheng, W.R. Leow, N.S. Tan, S.T. Wang, X.D. Chen, Three-dimensional graphene composite macroscopic structures for capture of cancer cells, Adv. Mater. Interfaces 1 (1) (2014) 1300043.
[19] H.J. Zhou, B. Zhang, J.J. Zheng, M.F. Yu, T. Zhou, K. Zhao, Y.X. Jia, X.F. Gao, C.Y. Chen, T.T. Wei, The inhibition of migration and invasion of cancer cells by graphene via the impairment of mitochondrial respiration, Biomaterials 35 (5) (2014) 1597-1607.
[20] K.H. Liao, Y.S. Lin, C.W. Macosko, C.L. Haynes, Cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene in human erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3 (7) (2011) 2607-2615.
[21] O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, A. Akhavan, Size-dependent genotoxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in human stem cells, Biomaterials 33 (32) (2012) 8017-8025.
[22] O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, A. Esfandiar, Wrapping Bacteria by Graphene Nanosheets for Isolation from Environment, Reactivation by Sonication, and Inactivation by Near-Infrared Irradiation, J. Phys. Chem. B 115 (19) (2011) 6279-6288.
[23] D. Wang, G.W. Wang, G.Q. Zhang, X.C. Xu, F.L. Yang, Using graphene oxide to enhance the activity of anammox bacteria for nitrogen removal, Bioresour. Technol. 131 (2013) 527-530.
[24] T.F. Tian, X.Z. Shi, L. Cheng, Y.C. Luo, Z.L. Dong, H. Gong, L.G. Xu, Z.T. Zhong, R. Peng, Z. Liu, Graphene-based nanocomposite as an effective, multifunctional, and recyclable antibacterial agent, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 (11) (2014) 8542-8548.
[25] J. Tang, Q. Chen, L.G. Xu, S. Zhang, L.Z. Feng, L. Cheng, H. Xu, Z. Liu, R. Peng, Graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite as a highly effective antibacterial agent with speciesspecific mechanisms, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5 (9) (2013) 3867-3874.
[26] L.L. Jin, K. Yang, K. Yao, S. Zhang, H.Q. Tao, S.T. Lee, Z. Liu, R. Peng, Functionalized graphene oxide in enzyme engineering: a selective modulator for enzyme activity and thermostability, ACS Nano 6 (6) (2012) 4864-4875.
[27] M. Chakravarty, R. Sharma, A. Kumar, N. Sharma, Synthesis and bio-compatibility study of thermal-CVD grown graphene. Int. J. Nanosci. (2016)-in press.
[28] R. Sharma, A. K. Pandey, N. Sharma, D. Sasmal, P.K. Barhai, Diamond like carbon films as a protective surface on PMMAfor biomedical applications, Sur. Coat. Technol. 205 (2010) 2495–2502.
[29] R. Sharma, N. Sharma, R. Parmar, V. Chatterjee, A. Kumar, N. Woehrl, V. Buck, P. K. Barhai, Nanocrystalline Diamond Films as A Protective Coating For Implantable Bio-devices, Adv. Mat. Lett. 7 (2016) 903-909.
[30] N. Pathak, S. Khandelwal, Influence of cadmium on murine thymocytes : potentiation of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Toxicol. Lett. 165 (2006) 121-132.