Review Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews
Plant Species Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation
Susan Bikila Mengistu
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Sinana Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 208, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia
Climate is one of the most important factors that influence and determine the behavior, abundance and distribution of species, as well as having a strong influence on the ecology of habitats and ecosystems structure. Changes in the behavior, abundance and distribution of species are linked to climate. Diversity and plant species are highly interlinked and the relationship between biodiversity and climate change should be explored from several perspectives. This variety provides the building blocks to adapt to changing environmental conditions which are caused due to climate change. Conserved habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon in the plant biomass. Climate is one of the major limiting factors which determine the survival and growth of plants. The conservation and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services can play a key role in helping societies to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is affected by climate change, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services and function it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate-change mitigation and adaptation. Maintenance of agro-biodiversity and carbon sequestration through the process of photosynthesis is the two important and complementary environmental services of agro-ecosystems. Climate change affects biodiversity and one of the causes of biodiversity loss. At the same time climate change will accelerate further if biodiversity and ecosystems are not effectively protected. Generally due to the variation of genetic makeup within pants, different plant species diversity plays a great role in climate change adaption and mitigation process.
Keywords:Adaptation, carbon, climate change, diversity, mitigation
How to cite this article:
Susan Bikila Mengistu.Plant Species Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation. International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 3:8.
1. Adair E.C., Reich P.B., Hobbie S., Knops J., 2009. Interactive effects of time, CO2, N, and diversity on total belowground carbon allocation and ecosystem carbon storage in a grassland community. Ecosystems 12:1037-52.
2. Adger W.N., Agrawala S., Mirza M.M.Q., Conde C., OÆBrien K., Pulhin J., Pulwarty R., Smit B., Takahashi K. 2007. Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 717-743.
3. Albrecht A., Kandji S.T., 2003. Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry system. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 99:15-27.
4. Becken S., 2005. Harmonising climate change adaptation and mitigation: The case of tourist resorts in Fiji. Global Environmental Change 15: 381-393.
5. Bunker D.E., DeClerck F., Bradford J., Colwell R.K., Perfecto I., Phillips O.L., Sankaran M., Naeem S., 2005. Species Loss and Aboveground Carbon Storage in a Tropical Forest. Science 310:1029-1031.
6. Cabe D.M., 2009. Carbon Sequestration in Forestry. Irish Co-Operative Organization Society (Icos). Ireland.
7. Campbell A., Kapos V., Chenery A., Kahn S.I., Rashid M., Scharlemann J., Dickson B., 2009. The Linkages between Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation : A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature. UNEP-WCMC. 60p.
8. Cook S, Ma Z, Brain R (2013). Rangeland Carbon Sequestration. USU Extension Publication: sustainability/2013/13pr. Available at: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/sustainability_2013_13pr.pdf
9. David S, Howlett M, Mosquera-Losada R, Ramachandran NPK, Vimala DN, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A (2011). Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. Journal of environmental quality 40: 1-8.
10. DEFRA., 2008. England Biodiversity Strategy Climate Change Adaptation Principles. Conserving biodiversity in a changing climate. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.16p.
11. Dı´Az S., Hector A., Wardle D.A., 2009. Biodiversity in Forest Carbon Sequestration Initiatives. Current Opinion Environmental Sustainability 1:55-60.
12. Dixon R.K., 1995. Agroforestry systems: Sources or sinks of greenhouse gases. Agroforestry Systems 31 (2): 99-116.
13. Dixon R.K., Winjum J.K., Andrasko K.J., Lee J.J., Schroeder P.E., 1994. Integrated systems: assessment of promising agroforest and alternative land-use practices to enhance carbon conservation and sequestration. Climatic Change 30: 1-23.
14. EPA, 2008. Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry. www.epa.gov/sequestration/index.html
15. FRA, 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Country Report Ethiopia. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Rome, Italy.
16. www. fao.org/forestry/ fra/fra2010/en/, accessed date September 15, 2010
17. Hall C.M., Williams A.M., 2008. Tourism and Innovation. London: Routledge. 280p.
18. Hooper D.U., Vitousek P.M., 1997. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science 277:1302-1304.
19. Hopkins J.J., Allison H.M., Walmsley C.A., Gaywood M., Thurgate G., 2007.Conserving biodiversity in a changing climate: guidance on building capacity to adapt. Defra on UK Biodiversity Partnership.
20. Houghton J., Unruh J.D., Lefebvre P., 1993) Current land use in the tropics and its potential for sequestering carbon. Global Biogeochimical Cycles 7: 305-320.
21. Hu Y.L., Zeng D.H., Fan Z.P., Chen G.S., Zhao Q., Pepper D. 2008. Changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following grassland afforestation of semiarid sandy soil in the southern keergin. Sandy Lands, china. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 2193-2200.
22. IBC, 2005. National biodiversity strategy and action plan. Government of the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa.103p.
23. IPCC, 2002. Climate change and Biodiversity. Habiba Gitay, Avelino Suarez, Robert T.watson and David Jon Dokken (eds) . IPCC Technical paper V. 86p.
24. IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 976p.
25. Kapos V., Scharlemann J.P.W., Campbell A., Chenery A., Dickson B., 2008. Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity: A review of the recent scientific literature. UNEPWorld Conservation Monitoring Centre. Cambridge.53p.
26. Marquard E, Weigelt A, Roscher C, Gubsch M, Lipowsky A, Schmid B (2009). Positive biodiversity–productivity relationship due to increased plant density. Journal of Ecology 97:696-704.
27. MEA, 2005. People and Ecosystems: A Framework for Assessment and Action. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
28. Montoya J.M., Raffaelli D., 2010. Climate change, biotic interactions, and ecosystem services. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 365: 2013-2018.
29. Nessa E.O., Tasman P.C., 2005. Biodiversity Loss and Ecosystem Functioning: Distinguishing Between Number and Identity of Species. Ecology 86(7): 1783-1796.
30. Oelmann Y., Buchmann N., Gleixner G., Habekost M., Roscher C., Rosenkranz S., Schulze E., Steinbeiss S., Temperton V.M., Weigelt A., Weisser W.W., Wilcke W. 2011. Plant diversity effects on aboveground and belowground N pools in temperate grassland ecosystems: development in the first 5 years after establishment. Glob Biogeochemical Cycles 25: 2014.
31. Parajuli R., 2009. Renewable energy over climate change and vulnerabilities; Need, relevance and efforts in Nepal, published in environmental-expert.com
32. Paul K.L., Polglase P.J., Richards G.P., 2003. Predicted change in soil carbon following afforestation or reforestation, and analysis of controlling factors by linking a C ccounting model (CAMFor) to models of forest growth (3PG), litter decomposition (GENDEC) and soil C turnover (RothC). Forest Ecology and Management 177: 485-501.
33. Preston K., Rotenberry J.T., Redak R.A., Allen M.F., 2008. Habitat shifts of endangered species under altered climate conditions: importance of biotic interactions. Global Change Biology 14(11): 2501-2515.
34. Reid H., Swiderska K., 2008. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links. An IIED Briefi. Published by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). www.iied.orgng.
35. Ruiz-Jaen M.C., Potvin C., 2010. Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest. New Phytologist 189: 978-987.
36. Schroth G., Sammya A.D., Wenceslau G.T., Daniel H., Reinhard L., 2002. Conversion of Secondary forest in to agroforestry and monoculture plantations in Amazonia: Consequences for biomass litter and soil carbon stocks after seven years. Forest Ecology and Management 163: 131-150.
37. CBD, 2009. Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Report of the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change. Montreal, Technical Series 41.126p.
38. Spittlehouse D.L., Stewart R.B., 2003. Adaptation to climate change in forest management. Perspectives. BC Journal of Ecosystem Management 4(1):1- 11.
39. Steinbeiss S, BeßLer H, Engels C, Temperton VM, Buchmann N, Roscher C, Kreutziger Y, Baade J, Habekost M, Gleixner G (2008). Plant diversity positively affects short-term soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands. Global Change Biology 14:2937-2949.
40. Thompson I.D., Baker A., TerMikaelian M. 2003. A review of the long-term effects of post-harvest silviculture on vertebrate wildlife, and predictive models, with an emphasis on boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 177: 441-469.
41. Tilman D., Reich P.B., Knops J., Wedin D., Mielke T., Lehman C., 2001. Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294:843-845.
42. Travis J.L., Sumner D., 2012). Agricultural technologies for climate change in developing countries: Policy options for innovation and technology diffusion. Food Policy 37: 114-123.
43. UNEP, 2008. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector; Frameworks, Tools and Practices. www.unep.fr
44. UNEP, 2009. Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. Fifth Intergovernmental Conference Biodiversity in Europe. STRACO 10 Liege, Belgium.
45. UNEP, 2013. Climate change. UNEP is at the forefront of global efforts to address the climate challenge and realize its opportunities.
46. World Bank, 2009. Development and Climate Change. World Bank.
47. Yachi S., Loreau M., 1999. Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Ecology 96:1463-1468.
48. Yitebitu M., Zewdu E., Sisay N., 2010. Ethiopian Forest Resources: Current Status and Future Management Options in view of Access to Carbon Finances. Prepared for the Ethiopian Climate Research and Networking and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 54p.