Complimentary Care: Non-Pharmacological Pain Management

Complimentary Care: Non-Pharmacological Pain Management

Abdul Kader Mohiuddin

Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh; 151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment

Aristotle (4th century B.C.) described pain as emotion, being the opposite of pleasure. Whereas, Buddha stated “Pain is the outcome of sin”, as evidence that an individual was possessed by demons. In some religions it is the cost of attachment. Spiritual counseling thus may be more of a priority than medical management. Many non-physiologic factors (psychological, familial and societal attitudes, life stressors, and cultural or spiritual) contributing to the experience of and response to pain. Emotional stress such as anxiety and depression play a key role in experience of pain. Chronic pain is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and insomnia regardless of disability status. it has both modifiable factors (mental health, co-morbidities, smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical activity/exercise, sleep, nutrition, economic status and occupational) and non-modifiable factors (age, sex, cultural and socioeconomic background, history of trauma/ injury/ interpersonal violence, heritage). The relationship between increased BMI and chronic pain in adults seems intuitive and may be related, in part, to increased weight-bearing on joints, reduced physical activity and deconditioning. Patient with physical disabilities may have co-occurring chronic pain, but the prevalence and specific associated factors are unknown. Neuropathic pain (NeP) can be the result of a variety of conditions, including metabolic disease, infection, malignancy, trauma, medications, and toxins; estimates of 60% among those with chronic pain. Chronic pain affects 20% of the European population and is commoner in women, older people, and with relative deprivation. Its management in the community remains generally unsatisfactory, partly because of lack of evidence for effective interventions. Also, family and caregivers’ beliefs and attitudes towards pain, either positively and negatively to tolerate and express pain are important. Risk factors include socio-demographic, clinical, psychological, and biological factors. Pain increases depression risk 3-5-fold. Pain, rather than chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders; 50–80% of chronic pain patients report insomnia of a severity that warrants clinical attention. It is estimated that approximately one in five of the adult population in Europe suffers chronic pain, which is therefore more prevalent than asthma or diabetes. Chronic pain has long-term biological, psychological and social causes and consequences that are important in prevention and management.

Keywords: Pain; Patient; Back Pain; Cancer; Fibromyalgia; Osteoarthritis; Surgical Pain

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Complimentary Care: Non-Pharmacological Pain Management. International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment, 2019, 2:7.


1. Tick H, Nielsen A, Pelletier KR, Bonakdar R, Simmons S, Glick R, Ratner E, Lemmon RL, Wayne P, Zador V; Pain Task Force of the Academic Consortium for Integrative Medicine and Health. Evidence-Based Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Comprehensive Pain Care: The Consortium Pain Task Force White Paper. Explore (NY). 2018 May – Jun;14(3):177-211. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2018.02.001. Epub 2018 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 29735382.
2. Power; Recent advances in postoperative pain therapy, BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 95, Issue 1, 1 July 2005, Pages 43–51,
3. Stanford Healthcare web. Management of Pain without Medications. Available From:
4. Web geriatricpain. Nondrug Pain and Symptom Management OVERVIEW. Swedish Medical Center. Nursin g Assistant End -of-Life: Computerized Educational Program. Pittsburgh, PA: Hospice and Palliative Nursing Association; 2006.
5. Care Notes. Non-pharmacological Pain Management Therapies for Adults (medically Reviewed). Web Dec 21, 2018
6. Nadler SF. Nonpharmacologic Management of Pain. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, November 2004, Vol. 104, 6S-12S.
7. Winerman L. The rise of non-drug pain treatment; Sub-title: As the United States fights an opioid crisis, psychologists are in demand for nonpharmacological treatment options for chronic pain—though hurdles remain. American Psychological Association November 2018, Vol 49, No. 10, pp 45
8. Web Care Search Australia. Non-Pharmacological Approaches. Available From:
9. Black R. The PPM Guide to Relieving Pain Without Medication. Web Practical pain Management 11/06/17
10. McCaffery M. Guest editorial. What is the Role of Nondrug Methods in the Nursing Care of Patients With Acute Pain? Pain Management Nursing, Vol 3, No 3 (September), 2002: pp 77-80
11. Delaune, S.C.& Ladner , P.K. (Eds.) (2002). Fundamental of Nursing : Standard And Practice ( 2nd Edition) , pp.916-941,Newyork, Thomson Delmar Learning. ISBN: 978- 076824522.
12. Campbell B. Non-Drug Treatments for Pain: Nine Strategies. Available From:
13. Yurdanur Demir (2012). Non-Pharmacological Therapie s in Pain Management, Pain Management – Current Issues and Opinions, Dr. Gabor Racz (Ed.), ISBN: 97 8-953-307-813-7, InTech, Available from: rent-issues-and-opinions/non-pharmacological- therapies-in-pain-management
14. Web Art Therapy Certification and Training Programs. Available From:
15. Geziry AE, Toble Y, Kadhi FA, Pervaiz M, Nobani MA. Non-Pharmacological Pain Management. Edited by Nabil A. Shallik. Web IntechOpen. November 5th 2018 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79689
16. Rodriguez D. Pain Management Without Drugs. Medically Reviewed by Pat F. Bass III, MD, MPH. Web Everyday Health 7/15/2013
17. WebMD. 11 Tips for Living With Chronic Pain. Available From:
18. Roditi, D. and Robinson, M.E. (2011) The Role of Psychological Interventions in the Management of Patients with Chronic Pain. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 4, 41-49.
19. Web Medline Plus. Non-Drug Pain Management. Available From:
20. Jewell T. What Is Diaphragmatic Breathing? Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT. Web Healthline September 25, 2018
21. Li Y, Wang R, Tang J, et al. Progressive muscle relaxation improves anxiety and depression of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:792895.
22. Sundram BM, Dahlui M, Chinna K. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line. Ind Health. 2015;54(3):204-14.
23. Hashim HA, Hanafi Ahmad Yusof H. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players’ mood states. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2(2):99-105.
24. Peper E. Autogenic Training: An Integrated Approach with Biofeedback for Approach with Biofeedback for Supporting Health. Available From:
25. Audette JF, Bailey A. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Athlete. Clinical Sports Medicine (2007) Pages 307-320.
26. Menzies V, Taylor AG, Bourguignon C. Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(1):23-30.
27. Blödt S, Pach D, Roll S, Witt CM. Effectiveness of app-based relaxation for patients with chronic low back pain (Relaxback) and chronic neck pain (Relaxneck): study protocol for two randomized pragmatic trials. Trials. 2014;15:490. Published 2014 Dec 15. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-490
28. Alodaibi FA, Fritz JM, Thackeray A, Koppenhaver SL, Hebert JJ. The Fear Avoidance Model predicts short-term pain and disability following lumbar disc surgery. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0193566. Published 2018 Mar 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193566
29. Meier ML, Stämpfli, P; Humphreys BK, Vrana A, Seifritz E, Schweinhardt P. The impact of pain-related fear on neural pathways of pain modulation in chronic low back pain. PAIN Reports: May/June 2017 – Volume 2 – Issue 3 – p e601. doi: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000601
30. Lim JA, Choi SH, Lee WJ, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with chronic pain: Implications of gender differences in empathy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(23):e10867.
31. Vitoula K, Venneri A, Varrassi G, et al. Behavioral Therapy Approaches for the Management of Low Back Pain: An Up-To-Date Systematic Review[published online ahead of print, 2018 May 16]. Pain Ther. 2018;7(1):1–12. doi:10.1007/s40122-018-0099-4
32. Song MK, Choi SH, Lee DH, Lee KJ, Lee WJ, Kang DH. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Empathy in Patients with Chronic Pain. Psychiatry Investig. 2018;15(3):285-291.
33. Nicholls JL, Azam MA, Burns LC, et al. Psychological treatments for the management of postsurgical pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2018;9:49-64. Published 2018 Jan 19. doi:10.2147/PROM.S121251
34. Zanini S, Voltolini A, Gragnano G, Fumagalli E, Pagnini F. Changes in Pain Perception following Psychotherapy: The Mediating Role of Psychological Components. Pain Res Manag. 2018;2018:8713084. Published 2018 Apr 19. doi:10.1155/2018/8713084
35. Pigeon WR, Moynihan J, Matteson-Rusby S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of CBT interventions for co-morbid chronic pain & insomnia: a pilot study. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50(11):685-9.
36. Feliu-Soler A, Montesinos F, Gutiérrez-Martínez O, Scott W, McCracken LM, Luciano JV. Current status of acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a narrative review. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2145-2159. Published 2018 Oct 2. doi:10.2147/JPR.S144631
37. Dindo L, Zimmerman MB, Hadlandsmyth K, StMarie B, Embree J, Marchman J, Tripp-Reimer T, Rakel B. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Prevention of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Opioid Use in At-Risk Veterans: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study. J Pain. 2018 Oct;19(10):1211-1221. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.04.016. Epub 2018 May 17. PubMed PMID: 29777950; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6163061.
38. O’Connell, C., Azad, T., Mittal, V., Vail, D., Johnson, E., Desai, A., Sun, E., Ratliff, J. K., & Veeravagu, A. (2018). Preoperative depression, lumbar fusion, and opioid use: an assessment of postoperative prescription, quality, and economic outcomes, Neurosurgical Focus FOC, 44(1), E5. Retrieved Jan 31, 2019, from
39. Liu XY, Ma YK, Zhao JC, Wu ZP, Zhang L, Liu LH. Risk Factors for Preoperative Anxiety and Depression in Patients Scheduled for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Chin Med J (Engl). 2018;131(16):1951-1957.
40. Thapa P, Euasobhon P. Chronic postsurgical pain: current evidence for prevention and management. Korean J Pain. 2018;31(3):155-173.
41. Web Visiting Nurses Foundation. Comfort Therapy Program. Available From:
42. Web UnityPoint Health. Comfort Therapy with Hospice. Available From:
43. Web VITAS Healthcare. Complementary Therapies Increase Comfort, Well-Being of Hospice Patients. Available From:
44. Jamison RN, Virts KL. The influence of family support on chronic pain. Behav Res Ther. 1990;28(4):283-7. PubMed PMID: 2222385.
45. Reinhard SC, Given B, Petlick NH, et al. Supporting Family Caregivers in Providing Care. In: Hughes RG, editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Apr. Chapter 14. Available from:
46. Riffin C, Fried T, Pillemer K. Impact of Pain on Family Members and Caregivers of Geriatric Patients. Clin Geriatr Med. 2016;32(4):663-675.
47. Worley SL. New Directions in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: National Pain Strategy Will Guide Prevention, Management, and Research. P T. 2016;41(2):107-14.
48. Ambrose KR, Golightly YM. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: Why and when. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29(1):120-30.
49. Kabakian-Khasholian T, Portela A. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017;17(1):265. Published 2017 Aug 31. doi:10.1186/s12884-017-1447-9
50. Mior S. Exercise in the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain. 2001 Dec;17(4 Suppl):S77-85. Review. PubMed PMID: 11783835.
51. Geneen LJ, Moore RA, Clarke C, Martin D, Colvin LA, Smith BH. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4(4):CD011279. Published 2017 Apr 24. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011279.pub3
52. Gloth MJ, Matesi AM. Physical therapy and exercise in pain management. Clin Geriatr Med. 2001 Aug;17(3):525-35, vii. Review. PubMed PMID: 11459719.
53. Reis AD, Pereira PTVT, Diniz RR, et al. Effect of exercise on pain and functional capacity in breast cancer patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018;16(1):58. Published 2018 Apr 6. doi:10.1186/s12955-018-0882-2
54. Alami S, Desjeux D, Lefèvre-Colau MM, et al. Management of pain induced by exercise and mobilization during physical therapy programs: views of patients and care providers. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:172. Published 2011 Jul 22. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-172
55. Susko AM, Fitzgerald GK. The pain-relieving qualities of exercise in knee osteoarthritis. Open Access Rheumatol. 2013;5:81-91. Published 2013 Oct 15. doi:10.2147/OARRR.S53974
56. Lane E, Latham T. Managing pain using heat and cold therapy. Paediatr Nurs. 2009 Jul;21(6):14-8. PubMed PMID: 19623797.
57. Arankalle D, Wardle J, Nair PM. Alternate hot and cold application in the management of heel pain: A pilot study. Foot (Edinb). 2016 Dec;29:25-28. doi: 10.1016/j.foot.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 19. PubMed PMID: 27888788.
58. Dehghan M, Farahbod F. The efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain, a clinical trial study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(9):LC01-4.
59. Saeki Y. Effect of local application of cold or heat for relief of pricking pain. Nurs Health Sci. 2002 Sep;4(3):97-105. PubMed PMID: 12153407.
60. Kim EJ, Choi YD, Lim CY, Kim KH, Lee SD. Effect of heating and cooling combination therapy on patients with chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015;16:285. Published 2015 Jun 26. doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0800-4
61. Crawford C, Boyd C, Paat CF, et al. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part I, Patients Experiencing Pain in the General Population. Pain Med. 2016;17(7):1353-1375.
62. Vickers A, Zollman C, Reinish JT. Massage therapies. West J Med. 2001;175(3):202–204.
63. Field T. Massage therapy. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Jan;86(1):163-71. Review. PubMed PMID: 11795087.
64. Moyer CA, Rounds J, Hannum JW. A meta-analysis of massage therapy research. Psychol Bull. 2004 Jan;130(1):3-18. PubMed PMID: 14717648.
65. Field T. Massage therapy research review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016;24:19-31.
66. Lakhan SE, Sheafer H, Tepper D. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Reducing Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pain Res Treat. 2016;2016:8158693.
67. Navarra M, Mannucci C, Delbò M, Calapai G. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Front Pharmacol. 2015;6:36. Published 2015 Mar 2. doi:10.3389/fphar.2015.00036
68. PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. Aromatherapy With Essential Oils (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 2019 Jan 8. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from:
69. Hekmatpou D, Pourandish Y, Farahani PV, Parvizrad R. The Effect of Aromatherapy with the Essential Oil of Orange on Pain and Vital Signs of Patients with Fractured Limbs Admitted to the Emergency Ward: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Indian J Palliat Care. 2017;23(4):431-436.
70. Gok Metin Z, Arikan Donmez A, Izgu N, Ozdemir L, Arslan IE. Aromatherapy Massage for Neuropathic Pain and Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2017 Jul;49(4):379-388. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12300. Epub 2017 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 28605119.
71. Morone NE, Greco CM, Weiner DK. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pain. 2007;134(3):310-9.
72. Hilton L, Hempel S, Ewing BA, et al. Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2016;51(2):199-213.
73. Patil SG. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (Vipassana) in the management of chronic low back pain. Indian J Anaesth. 2009;53(2):158-63.
74. Zeidan F, Vago DR. Mindfulness meditation-based pain relief: a mechanistic account. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1373(1):114-27.
75. Zeidan F, Grant JA, Brown CA, McHaffie JG, Coghill RC. Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain. Neurosci Lett. 2012;520(2):165-73.
76. Lutz A, Slagter HA, Dunne JD, Davidson RJ. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2008;12:163–169.
77. Austin JH. Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness. xxiv. MIT, Press; Cambridge, MA: 1998. p. 844.
78. Holden R, Holden J. Music: a better alternative than pain?. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63(615):536.
79. Bradt J, Norris M, Shim M, Gracely EJ, Gerrity P. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner-City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study. J Music Ther. 2016;53(2):178-206.
80. Web Music Care. Training Context. Available From:
81. Hoareau SG, De Diego E, Guétin S. [Pain management and music therapy]. Rev Infirm. 2016 Jan;(217):31-3. doi: 10.1016/j.revinf.2015.10.025. French. PubMed PMID: 26743370.
82. Krishnaswamy P, Nair S. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study. Indian J Palliat Care. 2016;22(3):307-11.
83. Guétin S, Giniès P, Siou DK, Picot MC, Pommié C, Guldner E, Gosp AM, Ostyn K, Coudeyre E, Touchon J. The effects of music intervention in the management of chronic pain: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2012 May;28(4):329-37. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31822be973. PubMed PMID: 22001666.
84. Magill-Levreault L. Music therapy in pain and symptom management. J Palliat Care. 1993 Winter;9(4):42-8. PubMed PMID: 8133409.
85. Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H. Music for pain relief. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD004843. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD004843. PubMed PMID: 16625614.
86. Singh P, Chaturvedi A. Complementary and alternative medicine in cancer pain management: a systematic review. Indian J Palliat Care. 2015;21(1):105-15.
87. Garza-Villarreal EA, Pando V, Vuust P, Parsons C. Music-Induced Analgesia in Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pain Physician. 2017 Nov;20(7):597-610. Review. PubMed PMID: 29149141.
88. Chai PR, Carreiro S, Ranney ML, Karanam K, Ahtisaari M, Edwards R, Schreiber KL, Ben-Ghaly L, Erickson TB, Boyer EW. Music as an Adjunct to Opioid-Based Analgesia. J Med Toxicol. 2017 Sep;13(3):249-254. doi: 10.1007/s13181-017-0621-9. Epub 2017 Jun 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 28646359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5570730.
89. Uyar M, Akın Korhan E. [The effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety in intensive care patients]. Agri. 2011 Oct;23(4):139-46. doi: 10.5505/agri.2011.94695. Review. Turkish. PubMed PMID: 22290677.
90. Simon HB. Music as Medicine. The American Journal of Medicine (2014) February 2015 Volume 128, Issue 2, Pages 208–210.
91. Alparslan GB, Babadağ B, Özkaraman A, Yıldız P, Musmul A, Korkmaz C. Effects of music on pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol. 2016 May;35(5):1317-21. doi: 10.1007/s10067-015-3046-3. Epub 2015 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 26245724.
92. Garza-Villarreal EA, Wilson AD, Vase L, et al. Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia. Front Psychol. 2014;5:90. Published 2014 Feb 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00090
93. Picard LM, Bartel LR, Gordon AS, Cepo D, Wu Q, Pink LR. Music as a sleep aid in fibromyalgia. Pain Res Manag. 2014;19(2):97-101.
94. McKenna P, Haste E. Clinical effectiveness of dramatherapy in the recovery from neuro-trauma. Disabil Rehabil. 1999 Apr;21(4):162-74. PubMed PMID: 10390082.
95. Baker, F. A., Metcalf, O., Varker, T., & O’Donnell, M. (2018). A systematic review of the efficacy of creative arts therapies in the treatment of adults with PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(6), 643-651.
96. Stuckey HL, Nobel J. The connection between art, healing, and public health: a review of current literature. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):254-63.
97. Lumley M, Leisen J, Partridge R, et al. Does emotional disclosure about stress improve health in rheumatoid arthritis? Randomized, controlled trials of written and spoken disclosure. Pain. 2011;152:866–877. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.003.
98. Mugerwa S, Holden JD. Writing therapy: a new tool for general practice?. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62(605):661-3.
99. Zhou C, Wu Y, An S, Li X. Effect of Expressive Writing Intervention on Health Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131802. Published 2015 Jul 7.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131802
100. Lumley MA, Cohen JL, Borszcz GS, et al. Pain and emotion: a biopsychosocial review of recent research. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67(9):942-68.
101. Pain Assessment Screening Tool and Outcomes Registry (PASTOR) History and Methodologies. Clinical resources Web
102. Diane M. Flynn, Karon Cook, Michael Kallen, Chester Buckenmaier, Ricke Weickum, Teresa Collins, Ashley Johnson, Dawn Morgan, Kevin Galloway, Kristin Joltes; Use of the Pain Assessment Screening Tool and Outcomes Registry in an Army Interdisciplinary Pain Management Center, Lessons Learned and Future Implications of a 10-Month Beta Test, Military Medicine, Volume 182, Issue suppl_1, 1 March 2017, Pages 167–174,
103. Evaluation of the TRICARE Program: Fiscal Year 2018 Report to Congress Access, Cost, and Quality Data through Fiscal Year 2017 February 28, 2018. Available From:
104. Flynn DM, McQuinn H, Fairchok A, et al. Enhancing the success of functional restoration using complementary and integrative therapies: Protocol and challenges of a comparative effectiveness study in active duty service members with chronic pain. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2018;13:100311. Published 2018 Nov 29. doi:10.1016/j.conctc.2018.100311
105. PASTOR/PROMIS® pain outcomes system: what does it mean to pain specialists? Karon F Cook, Chester Buckenmaier 3rd, and Richard C Gershon Pain Management 2014 4:4, 277-283
106. Bernstein DN, Kelly M, Houck JR, Ketz JP, Flemister AS, DiGiovanni BF, Baumhauer JF, Oh I. PROMIS Pain Interference Is Superior vs Numeric Pain Rating Scale for Pain Assessment in Foot and Ankle Patients. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 Oct 4:1071100718803314. doi: 10.1177/1071100718803314. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30282475.
107. Flynn DM, Eaton LH, McQuinn H, et al. TelePain: Primary Care Chronic Pain Management through Weekly Didactic and Case-based Telementoring. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2017;8:162-166.
108. Karon F. Cook, Michael A. Kallen, Chester Buckenmaier, Diane M. Flynn, Steven R. Hanling, Teresa S. Collins, Kristin Joltes, Kyung Kwon, Sheila Medina-Torne, Parisa Nahavandi, Joshua Suen, Richard Gershon; Evaluation of the Validity and Response Burden of Patient Self-Report Measures of the Pain Assessment Screening Tool and Outcomes Registry (PASTOR), Military Medicine, Volume 182, Issue 7, 1 July 2017, Pages e1851–e1861,
109. Wheeler RB. How Pets Can Ease Chronic Pain. Reviewed by Niya Jones, MD, MPH. Web Everyday Health 11/12/2014.
110. Thompson DJ. Pet Therapy and Depression. Reviewed by Niya Jones, MD, MPH. Web Everyday Health 10/26/2011.
111. Dawn A. Marcus, Cheryl D. Bernstein, Janet M. Constantin, Frank A. Kunkel, Paula Breuer, Raymond B. Hanlon; Animal-Assisted Therapy at an Outpatient Pain Management Clinic, Pain Medicine, Volume 13, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 45–57,
112. Marcus DA, Bernstein CD, Constantin JM, Kunkel FA, Breuer P, Hanlon RB. Impact of animal-assisted therapy for outpatients with fibromyalgia. Pain Med. 2013;14:43–51. 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01522.x
113. Havey J, Vlasses F, Vlasses P, Ludwig P, Hackbarth D. The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Pain Medication Use After Joint Replacement. Anthrozoos. 2014;27:361–9.
114. Kline JA, Fisher MA, Pettit KL, Linville CT, Beck AM. Controlled clinical trial of canine therapy versus usual care to reduce patient anxiety in the emergency department. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0209232. Published 2019 Jan 9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209232
115. Calcaterra V, Veggiotti P, Palestrini C, et al. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0125813. Published 2015 Jun 3. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125813
116. Klein M., Taphoorn M.J., Heimans J.J., van der Ploeg H.M., Vandertop W.P., Smit E.F., Leenstra S., Tulleken C.A., Boogerd W., Belderbos J.S., et al. Neurobehavioral status and health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 2001;19:4037–4047. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2001.19.20.4037.
117. Brown P.D., Ballman K.V., Rummans T.A., Maurer M.J., Sloan J.A., Boeve B.F., Gupta L., Tang-Wai D.F., Arusell R.M., Clark M.M., et al. Prospective study of quality of life in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. J. Neuro-Oncol. 2006;76:283–291. doi: 10.1007/s11060-005-7020-9.
118. Petranek S, Pencek J, Dey M. The Effect of Pet Therapy and Artist Interactions on Quality of Life in Brain Tumor Patients: A Cross-Section of Art and Medicine in Dialog. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018;8(5):43. Published 2018 Apr 27. doi:10.3390/bs8050043
119. Khalkhali H, Tanha ZE, Feizi A, Ardabili SS. Effect of applying cold gel pack on the pain associated with deep breathing and coughing after open heart surgery. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2014;19(6):545-9.
120. Chailler M, Ellis J, Stolarik A, Woodend K. Cold therapy for the management of pain associated with deep breathing and coughing post-cardiac surgery. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2010;20(2):18-24. PubMed PMID: 20458988.
121. Gorji HM, Nesami BM, Ayyasi M, Ghafari R, Yazdani J. Comparison of Ice Packs Application and Relaxation Therapy in Pain Reduction during Chest Tube Removal Following Cardiac Surgery. N Am J Med Sci. 2014;6(1):19-24.
122. Nonpharmacological Interventions. Available From:
123. Positioning and Alignment Duty: Assist Client with Personal Hygiene Task. Available From:
124. Guidelines for The Management Of Pain In Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Health Nigeria 2018. Available From:
125. Manuel F, Rosenbaum I, Rosenbaum EH. Physical Medicine Approaches To Pain Relief. Available From:
126. Linda R. Van Dillen, PhD, PT, et al. The Effect of Modifying Patient-Preferred Spinal Movements and Alignment During Symptom Testing in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Report. In Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. March 2003. Vol. 84. No. 3. Pp. 313-322.
127. Bush TR, Leitkam S, Aurino M, Cooper A, Basson MD. A Comparison of Pressure Mapping Between Two Pressure-Reducing Methods for the Sacral Region. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2015 Jul-Aug;42(4):338-45. doi: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000144. PubMed PMID: 25933123.
128. Atlas SJ, Deyo RA. Evaluating and managing acute low back pain in the primary care setting. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(2):120-31.
129. Elkins G, Jensen MP, Patterson DR. Hypnotherapy for the management of chronic pain. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007;55(3):275-87.
130. Shenefelt PD. Use of hypnosis, meditation, and biofeedback in dermatology. Clin Dermatol. 2017 May – Jun;35(3):285-291. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2017.01.007. Epub 2017 Jan 22. PubMed PMID: 28511826.
131. Lee JS, Pyun YD. Use of hypnosis in the treatment of pain. Korean J Pain. 2012;25(2):75-80.
132. Xie YF, Huo FQ, Tang JS. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;30(1):31-41.
133. Hu L, Zhang L, Chen R, Yu H, Li H, Mouraux A. The primary somatosensory cortex and the insula contribute differently to the processing of transient and sustained nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory inputs. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36(11):4346-4360.
134. Vogt BA. Pain and emotion interactions in subregions of the cingulate gyrus. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6(7):533-44.
135. Raz A, Fan J, Posner MI. Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain. PNAS July 12, 2005 102 (28) 9978-9983;
136. Jensen MP, Day MA, Miró J. Neuromodulatory treatments for chronic pain: efficacy and mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014 Mar;10(3):167-78. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.12. Epub 2014 Feb 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 24535464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5652321.
137. Middleton C. Understanding the physiological effects of unrelieved pain. Nurs Times. 2003 Sep 16-22;99(37):28-31. Review. PubMed PMID: 14533321.
138. Sessle B. Unrelieved pain: a crisis. Pain Res Manag. 2011;16(6):416-20.
139. Louriz M, Belayachi J, Armel B, et al. Factors associated to unrelieved pain in a Morrocan Emergency Department. Int Arch Med. 2014;7(1):48. Published 2014 Nov 8. doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-48
140. Chorney JM, McGrath P, Finley GA. Pain as the neglected adverse event. CMAJ. 2010;182(7):732.
141. Baratta JL, Schwenk ES, Viscusi ER. Clinical consequences of inadequate pain relief: barriers to optimal pain management. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Oct;134(4 Suppl 2):15S-21S. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000681. PubMed PMID: 25254999.
142. Raymond Sinatra; Causes and Consequences of Inadequate Management of Acute Pain, Pain Medicine, Volume 11, Issue 12, 1 December 2010, Pages 1859–1871,
143. Rizzo RRN, Medeiros FC, Pires LG, Pimenta RM, McAuley JH, Jensen MP, Costa LOP. Hypnosis Enhances the Effects of Pain Education in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pain. 2018 Oct;19(10):1103.e1-1103.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.03.013. Epub 2018 Apr 11. PubMed PMID: 29654980.
144. Chen X, Yuan R, Chen X, et al. Hypnosis intervention for the management of pain perception during cataract surgery. J Pain Res. 2018;11:1921-1926. Published 2018 Sep 20. doi:10.2147/JPR.S174490
145. Brugnoli MP, Pesce G, Pasin E, Basile MF, Tamburin S, Polati E. The role of clinical hypnosis and self-hypnosis to relief pain and anxiety in severe chronic diseases in palliative care: a 2-year long-term follow-up of treatment in a nonrandomized clinical trial. Ann Palliat Med. 2018 Jan;7(1):17-31. doi: 10.21037/apm.2017.10.03. Epub 2017 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 29307207.
146. Kathryn Schaefer Ziemer, Amy Fuhrmann & Mary Ann Hoffman (2015) Effectiveness of a Positive Writing Intervention for Chronic Pain: A Randomized Trial, MYOPAIN, 23:3-4, 143-154, DOI: 10.1080/24708593.2017.1307893
147. Qian Lu, Matthew W Gallagher, Alice Loh, Lucy Young; Expressive Writing Intervention Improves Quality of Life Among Chinese-American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 11, 22 October 2018, Pages 952–962,
148. Niles AN, Haltom KE, Mulvenna CM, Lieberman MD, Stanton AL. Randomized controlled trial of expressive writing for psychological and physical health: the moderating role of emotional expressivity. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2013;27(1):1-17.
149. Kupeli N, Schmidt UH, Campbell IC, Chilcot J, Roberts CJ, Troop NA. The impact of an emotionally expressive writing intervention on eating pathology in female students. Health Psychol Behav Med. 2018;6(1):162-179. Published 2018 Jun 30. doi:10.1080/21642850.2018.1491797
150. Yoon Frederiksen, Mia Skytte O’Toole, Mimi Y. Mehlsen, Benedicte Hauge, Helle Olesen Elbaek, Robert Zachariae, Hans Jakob Ingerslev; The effect of expressive writing intervention for infertile couples: a randomized controlled trial, Human Reproduction, Volume 32, Issue 2, 1 February 2017, Pages 391–402,
151. Mackenzie CS, Wiprzycka UJ, Hasher L, Goldstein D. Does expressive writing reduce stress and improve health for family caregivers of older adults? Gerontologist. 2007 Jun;47(3):296-306. PubMed PMID: 17565094.
152. Berdine HJ. Neuropathic Pain: Diagnosis, Treatment, and the Pharmacist’s Role in Patient Care. Web Pharmacy Times® September 01, 2005
153. Miles J. Electrical stimulation for the relief of pain. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1984;66(2):108-12.
154. Non-Drug Pain Management. Web U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available From:
155. Web Arthritis Foundation. Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Arthritis Pain. Available From:
156. ELECTROPHYSICAL AGENTS – Contraindications And Precautions: An Evidence-Based Approach To Clinical Decision Making In Physical Therapy. Physiother Can. 2011;62(5):1-80.
157. Johnson M. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Mechanisms, Clinical Application and Evidence. Rev Pain. 2007;1(1):7-11.
158. F. MacPherson, L. Colvin; Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). Research to support clinical practice, BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 114, Issue 4, 1 April 2015, Pages 711–712,
159. (F) Kathleen A. Sluka, Jan M. Bjordal, Serge Marchand, Barbara A. Rakel; What Makes Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Work? Making Sense of the Mixed Results in the Clinical Literature, Physical Therapy, Volume 93, Issue 10, 1 October 2013, Pages 1397–1402,
160. White PF, Craig WF. Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Low Back Pain—Reply. JAMA. 1999;282(10):941–942. doi:10-1001/pubs.JAMA-ISSN-0098-7484-282-10-jbk0908
161. Johnson MI, Mulvey MR, Bagnall AM. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantompain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD007264. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007264.pub3.
162. Johnson MI. Chapter 27. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Acupuncture. In: Cathy Stannard, Eija Kalso, Jane Ballantyne. Evidence-Based Chronic Pain Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Aug 26, 2011
163. Sears B. Types of Electrical Stimulation Used in Physical Therapy. Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD. Web Verywellhealth August 29, 2018
164. C. Zeng,, T. Yang, Z-h.Deng, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, G.-h.Lei. Electrical stimulation for pain relief in knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2015, Pages 189-202.
165. Current Procedural Terminology. Implanted Peripheral Nerve Stimulator (PNS) for Pain Control. Medical Policy American Medical Association (AMA). Available From:
166. Nguyen VQ, Bock WC, Groves CC, et al. Fully implantable peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of hemiplegic shoulder pain: a case report. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;94(2):146-53.
167. Wilson RD, Bennett ME, Nguyen VQC, Bock WC, O’Dell MW, Watanabe TK, Amundson RH, Hoyen HA, Chae J. Fully Implantable Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain: A Multi-Site Case Series With Two-Year Follow-Up. Neuromodulation. 2018 Apr;21(3):290-295. doi: 10.1111/ner.12726. Epub 2017 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 29164745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5895530.
168. Gofeld M, Agur A. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Shoulder Pain: A Proof of Concept Anatomy Study. Neuromodulation. 2018 Apr;21(3):284-289. doi: 10.1111/ner.12749. Epub 2018 Jan 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 29314501.
169. Nayak R, Banik RK. Current Innovations in Peripheral Nerve Stimulation. Pain Res Treat. 2018;2018:9091216. Published 2018 Sep 13. doi:10.1155/2018/9091216
170. Andrew G. Shetter, Gabor B. Racz, Royce Lewis, and J.E. Heavner. Chapter 16. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation. In. Richard B. North, Robert M. Levy. Neurosurgical Management of Pain by Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 26, 1996
171. Lerman I. R., Chen J. L., Hiller D., et al. Novel High-Frequency Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Treatment of Refractory Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Brief Technical Note. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2015;18(6):487–493. doi: 10.1111/ner.12281.
172. Günter C, Delbeke J, Ortiz-Catalan M. Safety of long-term electrical peripheral nerve stimulation: review of the state of the art. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2019;16(1):13. Published 2019 Jan 18. doi:10.1186/s12984-018-0474-8
173. Lee B, Koripalli MK, Jia Y, Acosta J, Sendi MSE, Choi Y& Ghovanloo M. An Implantable Peripheral Nerve Recording and Stimulation System for Experiments on Freely Moving Animal Subjects. Scientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 6115 (2018)
174. Lake DA. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation. An overview and its application in the treatment of sports injuries. Sports Med. 1992 May;13(5):320-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 1565927.
175. Dirks ML, Wall BT, Snijders T, Ottenbros CL, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJ. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation prevents muscle disuse atrophy during leg immobilization in humans. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2014 Mar;210(3):628-41. doi: 10.1111/apha.12200. Epub 2013 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 24251881.
176. Jones S, Man WD, Gao W, Higginson IJ, Wilcock A, Maddocks M. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 17;10:CD009419. Review. PubMed PMID: 27748503.
177. Fischer A, Winkler A, Spiegl M, et al. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle mass and strength in critically ill patients after cardiothoracic surgery (catastim 2). Intensive Care Med Exp. 2015;3(Suppl 1):A818. Published 2015 Oct 1. doi:10.1186/2197-425X-3-S1-A818
178. Web Cincinnati, Ohio. Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) / Neuroprosthetics. Available From:
179. Iwatsu K, Iida Y, Kono Y, Yamazaki T, Usui A, Yamada S. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may attenuate muscle proteolysis after cardiovascular surgery: A preliminary study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Feb;153(2):373-379.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.09.036. Epub 2016 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 27793340.
180. Iwatsu K, Yamada S, Iida Y, Sampei H, Kobayashi K, Kainuma M, Usui A. Feasibility of neuromuscular electrical stimulation immediately after cardiovascular surgery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Jan;96(1):63-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.08.012. Epub 2014 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 25218214.
181. Sachetti A, Carpes MF, Dias AS, Sbruzzi G. Safety of neuromuscular electrical stimulation among critically ill patients: systematic reviewSegurança no uso da eletroestimulação neuromuscular em pacientes graves: revisão sistemática. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2018;30(2):219-225.
182. Pugliese JM, Sions JM, Velasco TO, Hicks GE. Use of trunk muscle training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation to reduce pain and disability in an older adult with chronic low back pain: A case report. Physiother Theory Pract. 2018 Apr 4:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1457745. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29617180; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6179941.
183. Li YP, Cui X, Liu SC, Zhang SH, Zhao YH. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treating postpartum low back pain. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Jul;97(28):e11426. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011426. PubMed PMID: 29995793; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6076201.
184. Xiao-xian G, Bai-ya F, Yan-yang M. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for wrist rehabilitation after acute ischemic stroke. Medicine: September 2018 – Volume 97 – Issue 38 – p e12299 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012299
185. Carnaby-Mann GD, Crary MA. Examining the Evidence on Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Swallowing: A Meta-analysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(6):564–571. doi:10.1001/archotol.133.6.564
186. Bi XL, Xie CX. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for endometriosis-associated pain: A retrospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(26):e11266.
187. Hadjiat Y, Serrie A, Treves R, Chomier B, Geranton L, Billon S. Pain associated with health and economic burden in France: results from recent National Health and Wellness Survey data. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2018;10:53-65. Published 2018 Jan 18. doi:10.2147/CEOR.S148405
188. Guertin JR, Pagé MG, Tarride JÉ, Talbot D, Watt-Watson J, Choinière M. Just how much does it cost? A cost study of chronic pain following cardiac surgery. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2741-2759. Published 2018 Nov 8. doi:10.2147/JPR.S175090
189. CMS: US health care spending to reach nearly 20% of GDP by 2025. Web Advisory Board February 16, 2017. Available From:
190. NHE Fact Sheet. Web U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Available From:
191. Geurts JW, Willems PC, Kallewaard JW, van Kleef M, Dirksen C. The Impact of Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain: Costs and Patients’ Burden. Pain Res Manag. 2018;2018:4696180. Published 2018 Oct 1. doi:10.1155/2018/4696180
192. Yue-peng L, Xue C, Shi-chen L, Shi-hua Z, Yu-hang Z. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treating postpartum low back pain. Medicine: July 2018 – Volume 97 – Issue 28 – p e11426 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011426
193. Katonis P, Kampouroglou A, Aggelopoulos A, et al. Pregnancy-related low back pain. Hippokratia. 2011;15(3):205-10.
194. Sabino J, Grauer JN. Pregnancy and low back pain. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008;1(2):137-41.
195. Li Z, Aninditha T, Griene B, et al. Burden of cancer pain in developing countries: a narrative literature review. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2018;10:675-691. Published 2018 Nov 2. doi:10.2147/CEOR.S181192
196. Nersesyan H, Slavin KV. Current aproach to cancer pain management: Availability and implications of different treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007;3(3):381-400.
197. Gan TJ. Poorly controlled postoperative pain: prevalence, consequences, and prevention. J Pain Res. 2017 Sep 25;10:2287-2298. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S144066. eCollection 2017. Review. PubMed PMID: 29026331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5626380.
198. Zhang YB, Cheng YN. A randomized controlled trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for chronic urinary retention following traumatic brain injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(2):e14106.
199. Miller S. Jungheim M. Kühn D. Ptok M. Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Pharyngolaryngeal Dysfunctions. Folia Phoniatr Logop 2013;65:154-168
200. Moore SR, Shurman J. Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic back pain: a double-blind, repeated measures comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jan;78(1):55-60. PubMed PMID: 9014958.
201. Chen FC, Shao HL, Han FL. A pilot study of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for neuropathic pain caused by spinal cord injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(31):e11658. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011658. PubMed PMID: 30075553; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6081201.
202. Zhou M, Li F, Lu W, Wu J, Pei S. Efficiency of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation on Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Sep;99(9):1730-1739. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.04.020. Epub 2018 May 17. PubMed PMID: 29777714.
203. Martimbianco ALC, Torloni MR, Andriolo BN, Porfírio GJ, Riera R. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 12;12:CD011289. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011289.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 29231243.
204. Vaz MA, Baroni BM, Geremia JM, Lanferdini FJ, Mayer A, Arampatzis A, Herzog W. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) reduces structural and functional losses of quadriceps muscle and improves health status in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res. 2013 Apr;31(4):511-6. doi: 10.1002/jor.22264. Epub 2012 Nov 8. PubMed PMID: 23138532.
205. Imoto AM, Peccin MS, Teixeira LE, Silva KN, Abrahão M, Trevisani VF. Is neuromuscular electrical stimulation effective for improving pain, function and activities of daily living of knee osteoarthritis patients? A randomized clinical trial. Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131(2):80-7. PubMed PMID: 23657509.
206. Guo P, Wang JW, Tong A. Therapeutic effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treating patients with chronic low back pain. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(48):e13197.
207. Teoli D, An J. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). 2019 Jan 6. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from PubMed PMID: 30725873.
208. Tashani O, Johnson M. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) A Possible Aid for Pain Relief in Developing Countries?. Libyan J Med. 2009;4(2):62-5. Published 2009 Jun 1. doi:10.4176/090119
209. Segura R. Clinical Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. JAMA. 1985;253(14):2138. doi:10.1001/jama.1985.03350380158046
210. Berkman R. Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Low Back Pain. JAMA. 1999;282(10):941–942. doi:10-1001/pubs.JAMA-ISSN-0098-7484-282-10-jbk0908
211. Ghoname EA, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Henderson BN, Gajraj NM, Huber PJ, Gatchel RJ. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study. JAMA. 1999 Mar 3;281(9):818-23. Erratum in: JAMA 1999 May 19;281(19):1795. PubMed PMID: 10071003.
212. Johnson MI, Jones G. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: current status of evidence. Pain Manag. (2017) 7(1), pp 1–4. Available From:
213. Grover CA, McKernan MP, Close RJH. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) in the Emergency Department for Pain Relief: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility and Efficacy. West J Emerg Med. 2018;19(5):872-876.
214. Zeb A, Arsh A, Bahadur S, Ilyas SM. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in management of neuropathic pain in patients with post traumatic incomplete spinal cord injuries. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(5):1177-1180.
215. Mahmood A, Veluswamy SK, Hombali A, Mullick A, N M, Solomon JM. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Spasticity in Adults With Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Nov 16. pii: S0003-9993(18)31455-2. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.10.016. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 30452892.
216. Chen FC, Jin ZL, Wang DF. A retrospective study of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic pain following ankylosing spondylitis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(27):e11265.
217. Almeida CC, Silva VZMD, Júnior GC, Liebano RE, Durigan JLQ. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current demonstrate similar effects in relieving acute and chronic pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Braz J Phys Ther. 2018;22(5):347-354.
218. Tantawy SA, Kamel DM, Abdelbasset WK. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduce pain and improve quality of life in patients with idiopathic chronic orchialgia? A randomized controlled trial. J Pain Res. 2017;11:77-82. Published 2017 Dec 27. doi:10.2147/JPR.S154815
219. Zimmerman LL, Gupta P, O’Gara F, Langhals NB, Berger MB, Bruns TM. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation to Improve Female Sexual Dysfunction Symptoms: A Pilot Study. Neuromodulation. 2018 Oct;21(7):707-713. doi: 10.1111/ner.12846. Epub 2018 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 30247794; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6218940.
220. Ebrahimian M, Razeghi M, Zamani A, Bagheri Z, Rastegar K, Motealleh A. Does High Frequency Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Affect EEG Gamma Band Activity?. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2018;8(3):271-280. Published 2018 Sep 1.
221. Constant I, Sabourdin N. The EEG signal: a window on the cortical brain activity. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22:539–52. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2012.03883.x.
222. Martinovic J, Busch NA. High frequency oscillations as a correlate of visual perception. Int J Psychophysiol. 2011;79:32–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.07.004.
223. Zhang ZG, Hu L, Hung YS, Mouraux A, Iannetti GD. Gamma-band oscillations in the primary somatosensory cortex–a direct and obligatory correlate of subjective pain intensity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7429–38. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5877-11.2012.
224. Chen AC, Herrmann CS. Perception of pain coincides with the spatial expansion of electroencephalographic dynamics in human subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2001;297:183–6. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01696-7.
225. García-Pérez S, García-Ríos MC, Pérez-Mármol JM, Tapia-Haro RM, Albornoz-Cabello M, Valenza MC, Aguilar-Ferrándiz ME. Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Energy in Older Adults: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2018 Oct;31(10):462-469. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000544614.18501.b4. PubMed PMID: 30234576.
226. Megía García Á, Serrano-Muñoz D, Bravo-Esteban E, Ando Lafuente S, Avendaño-Coy J, Gómez-Soriano J. [Analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with fibromyalgia: A systematic review]. Aten Primaria. 2018 Jul 17. pii: S0212-6567(17)30682-0. doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2018.03.010. [Epub ahead of print] Spanish. PubMed PMID: 30029964.
227. Tao H, Wang T, Dong X, Guo Q, Xu H, Wan Q. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of migraine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Headache Pain. 2018;19(1):42. Published 2018 May 29. doi:10.1186/s10194-018-0868-9
228. Burch R, Rizzoli P, Loder E. The Prevalence and Impact of Migraine and Severe Headache in the United States: Figures and Trends From Government Health Studies. Headache. 2018 Apr;58(4):496-505. doi: 10.1111/head.13281. Epub 2018 Mar 12. PubMed PMID: 29527677.
229. Bonafede M, Sapra S, Shah N, Tepper S, Cappell K, Desai P. Direct and indirect healthcare resource utilization and costs among migraine patients in the United States [published online February 15, 2018]. Headache. doi: 10.1111/head.13275.
230. Tao H, Wang T, Dong X, Guo Q, Xu H, Wan Q. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of migraine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Headache Pain. 2018 May 29;19(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s10194-018-0868-9. PubMed PMID: 29845369; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5975046.
231. Asgari Z, Tavoli Z, Hosseini R, et al. A Comparative Study between Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Fentanyl to Relieve Shoulder Pain during Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Clinical Trail. Pain Res Manag. 2018;2018:9715142. Published 2018 Mar 18. doi:10.1155/2018/9715142
232. Marcolino MAZ, Hauck M, Stein C, Schardong J, Pagnussat AS, Plentz RDM. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alone or as additional therapy on chronic post-stroke spasticity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Disabil Rehabil. 2018 Oct 16:1-13. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2018.1503736. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30326752.
233. Sadala AY, Machado AFP, Liebano RE. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain intensity during application of carboxytherapy in patients with cellulite: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018 Dec;17(6):1175-1181. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12489. Epub 2018 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 29337405.
234. Kwong PW, Ng GY, Chung RC, Ng SS. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation improves walking capacity and reduces spasticity in stroke survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2018 Sep;32(9):1203-1219. doi: 10.1177/0269215517745349. Epub 2017 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 29232981.
235. Kong X, Gozani SN. Effectiveness of fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in chronic pain: a large-scale, observational study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:703-714. Published 2018 Apr 9. doi:10.2147/JPR.S156610
236. Shimoura K, Iijima H, Suzuki Y, Aoyama T. Immediate Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Pain and Physical Performance in Individuals With Preradiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019 Feb;100(2):300-306.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.08.189. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PubMed PMID: 30315763.
237. WebMD LLC. Chiropractic Care for Back Pain. Available From:
238. B. Miller; Oxford Handbook of Pain Management, BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 108, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 172,
239. A. C. BREEN; CHIROPRACTORS AND THE TREATMENT OF BACK PAIN, Rheumatology, Volume 16, Issue 1, 1 February 1977, Pages 46–53,
240. Web Harvard Health Publishing (2018). Chiropractic care for pain relief. Available from:
241. Gevirtz R, Beltran R. Biofeedback for Chronic Pain. In: Integrative Pain Management. Edited by Robert A. Bonakdar and Andrew W. Sukiennik, published by Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/med/9780199315246.003.0026
242. Handbook of Clinical Chiropractic Care. Lawrence H. Wyatt, published by Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2004
243. Gedin F, Skeppholm M, Burström K, Sparring V, Tessma M, Zethraeus N. Effectiveness, costs and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care and physiotherapy compared with information and advice in the treatment of non-specific chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2017;18(1):613. Published 2017 Dec 22. doi:10.1186/s13063-017-2351-3
244. Innes SI, Werth PD, Tuchin PJ, Graham PL. Attitudes and beliefs of Australian chiropractors’ about managing back pain: a cross-sectional study. Chiropr Man Therap. 2015;23:17. Published 2015 May 11. doi:10.1186/s12998-015-0062-y
245. Nahin RL, Boineau R, Khalsa PS, Stussman BJ, Weber WJ. Evidence-Based Evaluation of Complementary Health Approaches for Pain Management in the United States. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(9):1292-306.
246. Evans R, Haas M, Schulz C, Leininger B, Hanson L, Bronfort G. Spinal manipulation and exercise for low back pain in adolescents: a randomized trial. Pain. 2018 Jul;159(7):1297-1307. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001211. PubMed PMID: 29596158; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6205160.
247. Pagé I, Descarreaux M. Effects of spinal manipulative therapy biomechanical parameters on clinical and biomechanical outcomes of participants with chronic thoracic pain: a randomized controlled experimental trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019;20(1):29. Published 2019 Jan 18. doi:10.1186/s12891-019-2408-4
248. Evans RC, Rosner AL. Alternatives in cancer pain treatment: the application of chiropractic care. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2005 Aug;21(3):184-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 16092806.
249. Dagenais S. Why not everyone with low back pain chooses chiropractic care. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2013;57(1):6-9.
250. Schneider J, Gilford S. The chiropractor’s role in pain management for oncology patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2001 Jan;24(1):52-7. PubMed PMID: 11174695.
251. Lefebvre R, Peterson D, Haas M. Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Care. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2012;18(1):75-79.
252. Ernst E. Chiropractic spinal manipulation for neck pain: a systematic review. The Journal of Pain. 2003;4:417–21.
253. Schneider M, Vernon H, Ko G, et al. Chiropractic management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2009;32:25–40
254. Ernst E, Canter PH. Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment for back pain: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Physical Therapy Reviews. 2003;8:85–91.
255. Riva JJ, Muller GD, Hornich AA, Mior SA, Gupta A, Burnie SJ. Chiropractors and collaborative care: An overview illustrated with a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2010;54(3):147-54.
256. Patil S, Sen S, Bral M, Reddy S, Bradley KK, Cornett EM, Fox CJ, Kaye AD. The Role of Acupuncture in Pain Management. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016 Apr;20(4):22. doi: 10.1007/s11916-016-0552-1. Review. PubMed PMID: 26896946.
257. Lu SC, Zheng Z, Xue CC. Does acupuncture improve quality of life for patients with pain associated with the spine? A systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;2011:301767.
258. Hu C, Zhang H, Wu W, et al. Acupuncture for Pain Management in Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:1720239.
259. Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(19):1444-53.
260. MacPherson H, White A, Cummings M, Jobst KA, Rose K, Niemtzow RC; STRICTA Group. Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture: the STRICTA recommendations. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Feb;8(1):85-9. PubMed PMID: 11890439.
261. Vickers AJ, Linde K. Acupuncture for chronic pain. JAMA. 2014;311(9):955-6.
262. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians; American College of Physicians; American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guidelines Panel. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):478-91. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2008 Feb 5;148(3):247-8. PubMed PMID: 17909209.
263. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Headaches: Diagnosis and management of headaches in young people and adults, 2012. Available From:
264. Conaghan PG, Dickson J, Grant RL. Care and management of osteoarthritis in adults: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2008 Mar 1;336(7642):502–503.
265. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons . Evidence Based Guideline. 2nd Edition. 2013. Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee.
266. Jonathan Wilkinson, Richard Faleiro; Acupuncture in pain management, Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain, Volume 7, Issue 4, 1 August 2007, Pages 135–138,
267. Vickers AJ, Vertosick EA, Lewith G, MacPherson H, Foster NE, Sherman KJ, Irnich D, Witt CM, Linde K; Acupuncture Trialists’ Collaboration. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Update of an Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis. J Pain. 2018 May;19(5):455-474. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Dec 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 29198932; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5927830.
268. Xu T, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al. Acupuncture for chronic uncomplicated musculoskeletal pain associated with the spine: A systematic review protocol. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(2):e14055.
269. Scott D Mist, Kim Dupree Jones; Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection, Pain Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 9, 1 September 2018, Pages 1862–1871,
270. Yang B, Yi G, Hong W, Bo C, Wang Z, Liu Y, Xue Z, Li Y. Efficacy of acupuncture on fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analysis. J Tradit Chin Med. 2014 Aug;34(4):381-91. Review. PubMed PMID: 25185355.
271. Wu MS, Chen KH, Chen IF, et al. The Efficacy of Acupuncture in Post-Operative Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0150367. Published 2016 Mar 9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150367
272. Jung JY, Cho JH, Chung SH. Acupuncture for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open. 2015;5(11):e009573. Published 2015 Nov 18. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009573
273. Sun E, Moshfegh J, Rishel CA, Cook CE, Goode AP, George SZ. Association of Early Physical Therapy With Long-term Opioid Use Among Opioid-Naive Patients With Musculoskeletal Pain. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(8):e185909. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5909
274. Web Conference Series LLC Ltd. Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Conferences. Available From:
275. Goertz CM, George SZ. Insurer Coverage of Nonpharmacological Treatments for Low Back Pain—Time for a Change. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(6):e183037. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3037
276. Coronado RA, Bialosky JE. Manual physical therapy for chronic pain: the complex whole is greater than the sum of its parts. J Man Manip Ther. 2017;25(3):115-117.
277. Pullen S. Physical therapy as non-pharmacological chronic pain management of adults living with HIV: self-reported pain scores and analgesic use. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2017;9:177-182. Published 2017 Sep 18. doi:10.2147/HIV.S141903
278. Tousignant-Laflamme Y, Martel MO, Joshi AB, Cook CE. Rehabilitation management of low back pain – it’s time to pull it all together!. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2373-2385. Published 2017 Oct 3. doi:10.2147/JPR.S146485
279. Tompkins DA, Hobelmann JG, Compton P. Providing chronic pain management in the “Fifth Vital Sign” Era: Historical and treatment perspectives on a modern-day medical dilemma. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;173 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S11-S21.
280. Fransen M, McConnell S, Harmer AR, Van der Esch M, Simic M, Bennell KL. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: a Cochrane systematic review. Br. J. Sports Med. 2015;49:1554–1557.
281. Joelsson M, Bernhardsson S, Larsson ME. Patients with chronic pain may need extra support when prescribed physical activity in primary care: a qualitative study. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2017;35(1):64-74.
282. Schmitt YS, Hoffman HG, Blough DK, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of immersive virtual reality analgesia, during physical therapy for pediatric burns. Burns. 2010;37(1):61-8.
283. Jeevanantham D, Rajendran V, Tremblay L, Larivière C, Knight A. Evidence-based guidelines for physiotherapy management of patients with multiple myeloma: study protocol. Syst Rev. 2018;7(1):118. Published 2018 Aug 16. doi:10.1186/s13643-018-0785-7
284. Chan HBY, Pua PY, How CH. Physical therapy in the management of frozen shoulder. Singapore Med J. 2017;58(12):685-689.
285. Shroff G, Thakur D, Dhingra V, Baroli DS, Khatri D, Gautam RD. Role of physiotherapy in the mobilization of patients with spinal cord injury undergoing human embryonic stem cells transplantation. Clin Transl Med. 2016 Dec;5(1):41. doi: 10.1186/s40169-016-0122-5. Epub 2016 Oct 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 27766603; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5073087.
286. Nketia-Kyere M, Aryeetey GC, Nonvignon J, Aikins M. Exploring barriers to accessing physiotherapy services for stroke patients at Tema general hospital, Ghana. Arch Physiother. 2017;7:8. Published 2017 Jul 6. doi:10.1186/s40945-017-0037-5
287. Morris DM, Jenkins GR. Preparing Physical and Occupational Therapists to Be Health Promotion Practitioners: A Call for Action. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(2):392. Published 2018 Feb 24. doi:10.3390/ijerph15020392
288. Jiandani MP, Mhatre BS. Physical therapy diagnosis: How is it different?. J Postgrad Med. 2018;64(2):69-72.
289. Lein DH Jr, Clark D, Graham C, Perez P, Morris D. A Model to Integrate Health Promotion and Wellness in Physical Therapist Practice: Development and Validation. Phys Ther. 2017 Dec 1;97(12):1169-1181. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzx090. PubMed PMID: 29186634.
290. Richardson RW. Ethical issues in physical therapy. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015;8(2):118-21.
291. Piano L, Maselli F, Viceconti A, Gianola S, Ciuro A. Direct access to physical therapy for the patient with musculoskeletal disorders, a literature review. J Phys Ther Sci. 2017;29(8):1463-1471.
292. Bennell KL, Spiers L, Takla A, et al. Efficacy of adding a physiotherapy rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: a randomised controlled trial (FAIR). BMJ Open. 2017;7(6):e014658. Published 2017 Jun 23. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014658
293. Abdel-Aziem AA, Soliman ES, Mosaad DM, Draz AH. Effect of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program on knee osteoarthritis in patients with different pain intensities. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018;30(2):307-312.
294. Gijbels D, Lamers I, Kerkhofs L, Alders G, Knippenberg E, Feys P. The Armeo Spring as training tool to improve upper limb functionality in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2011;8:5. Published 2011 Jan 24. doi:10.1186/1743-0003-8-5
295. Byrne J, Schütze R. Yoga and pain. Web painHEALTH. Available From:
296. Cramer H, Lauche R, Haller H, Dobos G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of yoga for low back pain. The Clinical journal of pain 2013; 29(5): 450-60. [PubMed]
297. Cramer H, Ward L, Saper R, Fishbein D, Dobos G, Lauche R. The Safety of Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Epidemiol 2015; 182(4): 281-93.
298. Deshpande A. Yoga for palliative care. Integr Med Res. 2018 Sep;7(3):211-213. doi: 10.1016/j.imr.2018.04.001. Epub 2018 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 30271708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6160500.
299. Vallath N. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain. Indian J Palliat Care. 2010 Jan;16(1):1-7. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.63127. PubMed PMID: 20859464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2936076.
300. Wieland LS, Skoetz N, Pilkington K, Vempati R, D’Adamo CR, Berman BM. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 12;1:CD010671. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010671.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 28076926; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5294833.
301. Chang DG, Holt JA, Sklar M, Groessl EJ. Yoga as a treatment for chronic low back pain: A systematic review of the literature. J Orthop Rheumatol. 2016 Jan 1;3(1):1-8. PubMed PMID: 27231715; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4878447.
302. Lee M, Moon W, Kim J. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:203173
303. Ward L, Stebbings S, Cherkin D, Baxter GD. Yoga for functional ability, pain and psychosocial outcomes in musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Musculoskeletal Care. 2013 Dec;11(4):203-17. doi: 10.1002/msc.1042. Epub 2013 Jan 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 23300142.
304. Curtis K, Osadchuk A, Katz J. An eight-week yoga intervention is associated with improvements in pain, psychological functioning and mindfulness, and changes in cortisol levels in women with fibromyalgia. J Pain Res. 2011;4:189-201. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S22761. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 21887116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3160832.
305. Carson JW, Carson KM, Jones KD, Mist SD, Bennett RM. Follow-up of yoga of awareness for fibromyalgia: results at 3 months and replication in the wait-list group. Clin J Pain. 2012 Nov-Dec;28(9):804-13. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31824549b5. PubMed PMID: 22751025; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5568073.
306. Wren AA, Wright MA, Carson JW, Keefe FJ. Yoga for persistent pain: new findings and directions for an ancient practice. Pain. 2011 Mar;152(3):477-80. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.017. Epub 2011 Jan 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 21247696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3040510.
307. Kisan R, Sujan M, Adoor M, Rao R, Nalini A, Kutty BM, Chindanda Murthy B, Raju T, Sathyaprabha T. Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions. Int J Yoga. 2014 Jul;7(2):126-32. doi: 10.4103/0973-6131.133891. PubMed PMID: 25035622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4097897.
308. Amin FM, Aristeidou S, Baraldi C, Czapinska-Ciepiela EK, Ariadni DD, Di Lenola D, Fenech C, Kampouris K, Karagiorgis G, Braschinsky M, Linde M; European Headache Federation School of Advanced Studies (EHF-SAS). The association between migraine and physical exercise. J Headache Pain. 2018 Sep 10;19(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s10194-018-0902-y. Review. PubMed PMID: 30203180; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6134860.
309. Ghasemi GA, Golkar A, Marandi SM. Effects of hata yoga on knee osteoarthritis. Int J Prev Med. 2013 Apr;4(Suppl 1):S133-8. PubMed PMID: 23717763; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3665019.
310. Di Monaco M, Di Monaco R, Manca M, Cavanna A. Handgrip strength is an independent predictor of distal radius bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Clin Rheumatol. (2000) 19:473–6. 10.1007/s100670070009
311. Deepeshwar S, Tanwar M, Kavuri V, Budhi RB. Effect of Yoga Based Lifestyle Intervention on Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychiatry. 2018 May 8;9:180. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00180. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29867604; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5952125.
312. Kolasinski SL, Garfinkel M, Tsai AG, Matz W, Van Dyke A, Schumacher HR. Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. (2005) 11:689–93. 10.1089/acm.2005.11.689
313. Wang Y, Lu S, Wang R, Jiang P, Rao F, Wang B, Zhu Y, Hu Y, Zhu J. Integrative effect of yoga practice in patients with knee arthritis: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(31):e11742. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011742. PubMed PMID: 30075589; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6081169.
314. Cheung C, Wyman JF, Bronas U, McCarthy T, Rudser K, Mathiason MA. Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Rheumatol Int. 2017 Mar;37(3):389-398. doi: 10.1007/s00296-016-3620-2. Epub 2016 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 27913870; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5569242.
315. Vijayaraghava A, Doreswamy V, Narasipur OS, Kunnavil R, Srinivasamurthy N. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Jun;9(6):CC08-12. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12851.6021. Epub 2015 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 26266115; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4525504.
316. Khan AA, Srivastava A, Passi D, Devi M, Chandra L, Atri M. Management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome with meditation and yoga: Healing through natural therapy. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jul-Dec;9(2):155-159. doi: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_25_17. PubMed PMID: 30546229; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6251288.
317. Saxena R, Gupta M, Shankar N, Jain S, Saxena A. Effects of yogic intervention on pain scores and quality of life in females with chronic pelvic pain. Int J Yoga. 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):9-15. doi: 10.4103/0973-6131.186155. PubMed PMID: 28149062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5225749.
318. Sulenes K, Freitas J, Justice L, Colgan DD, Shean M, Brems C. Underuse of yoga as a referral resource by health professions students. J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Jan;21(1):53-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0217. Epub 2014 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 25268564.
319. Agarwal RP, Maroko-Afek A. Yoga into Cancer Care: A Review of the Evidence-based Research. Int J Yoga. 2018 Jan-Apr;11(1):3-29. doi: 10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_42_17. Review. PubMed PMID: 29343927; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5769195.
320. Côté A, Daneault S. Effect of yoga on patients with cancer: our current understanding. Can Fam Physician. 2012 Sep;58(9):e475-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 22972739; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3440287.
321. McCall M, Thorne S, Ward A, Heneghan C. Yoga in adult cancer: an exploratory, qualitative analysis of the patient experience. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Jul 22;15:245. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0738-9. PubMed PMID: 26198820; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4511238.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.