Subjective Well-being and Engagement in Leisure Sports Events:an Illustration of Annual 100km Hike in China

Subjective Well-being and Engagement in Leisure Sports Events:an Illustration of Annual 100km Hike in China

Xu Tao1, Liu Huiyue2*

1an undergraduate majoring in Tourism Management in Shenzhen Tourism College of Jinan University; No.6, EAST OCT Road, NanShan District, ShenZhen City, Guangdong Province, China. 2Ph.D., is an associate professor in Shenzhen Tourism College of Jinan University.

International Journal of Service Science and Management

Leisure sports events are increasingly popular in China and have an important economic and cultural impact on urban Chinese society. Taking the 100-kilometer Hike Through Shenzhen as an example, the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of service quality, leisure involvement, satisfaction and subjective well-being by using a structural equation modelling (SEM). Results show that environment, interaction and outcomes each has a significant positive impact on service quality. It was also found that service quality of the event has a significant impact on participants’ happiness by positively affecting their leisure involvement and satisfaction. Results suggest that marketing campaigns with an emotional component can deepen participants’ sense of identity in regard to events, enhance individuals’ physical well-being and promote a ‘healthy China’.

Acknowledgments: This research was partially supported by grants from Guangdong Philosophy and Social Science Project (No. GD19CLJ02), Guangdong Soft Science Project (No.2019A101002021) and Shenzhen Philosophy and Social Science Project (SZ2020D013). We would like to thank the anonymous referee and the editor for very helpful and detailed comments.

Keywords: Leisure sports events; service quality; leisure involvement; satisfaction; subjective well-being; structural equation model.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Xu Tao, Liu Huiyue. Subjective Well-being and Engagement in Leisure Sports Events:an Illustration of Annual 100km Hike in China. International Journal of Service Science and Management, 2020; 3:10.  DOI: 10.28933/ijssm-2020-08-0105


1. Liu Quan,Zhang Yong,Wang Zhi-xue. Charac-teristics,Development Trend and Strategy of Modern Leisure Sport [J]. Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,40(11):22-27.
2. Wang Zhong-jie,Yang Yun.Ordered modern life and slow exercising sports lifestyle[J].Journal of Physical Educating,2012,19(06):35-37.
3. Headey B, Veenhoven R, Wearing A. Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1991,24(02):
4. Sirgy M J, Kruger P S, Lee D J, et al. How does a travel trip affect tourists’ life satisfaction?[J]. Journal of Travel research, 2011, 50(3): 261-275.
5. Sato M, Jordan J S, Funk D C. The role of physically active leisure for enhancing quality of life[J]. Leisure Sciences, 2014, 36(3): 293-313.
6. Chen L H, Chen M Y, Ye Y C, et al. Perceived service quality and life satisfaction: The mediating role of the actor’s satisfaction-with-event[J]. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 2012, 13(4): 7-24.
7. Elavsky S, McAuley E, Motl R W, et al. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences[J]. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2005, 30(2): 138-145.
8. Rejeski W J, Mihalko S L. Physical activity and quality of life in older adults[J]. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological sciences and medical sciences, 2001, 56(suppl_2): 23-35.
9. Diener E, Suh E M, Lucas R E, et al. Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress[J]. Psychological bulletin, 1999, 125(2): 276.
10. Erdogan B, Bauer T N, Truxillo D M, et al. Whistle while you work: A review of the life satisfaction literature[J]. Journal of Management, 2012, 38(4): 1038-1083.
11. Berry L L. Cultivating service brand equity[J]. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 2000, 28(1): 128-137.
12. Juran J, Godfrey A B. Quality handbook[J]. Re-published McGraw-Hill, 1999: 173-178.
13. Berry L L, Parasuraman A. Marketing services: Competing through quality[M]. Simon and Schuster, 2004.
14. Cronin Jr J J, Brady M K, Hult G T M. Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments[J]. Journal of retailing, 2000, 76(2): 193-218.
15. Martínez J A, Martinez L. Some insights on conceptualizing and measuring service quality[J]. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2010, 17(1): 29-42.
16. Spreng R A, Mackoy R D. An empirical examination of a model of perceived service quality and satisfaction[J]. Journal of retailing, 1996, 72(2): 201-214.
17. Yoshida M, James J D. Customer satisfaction with game and service experiences: Antecedents and consequences[J]. Journal of sport management, 2010, 24(3): 338-361.
18. Zeithaml V A, Berry L L, Parasuraman A. The behavioral consequences of service quality[J]. Journal of marketing, 1996, 60(2): 31-46.
19. Bitner M J. Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees[J]. Journal of marketing, 1992, 56(2): 57-71.
20. Yoon Y S, Lee J S, Lee C K. Measuring festival quality and value affecting visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty using a structural approach[J]. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2010, 29(2): 335-342.
21. Greenwell T C, Fink J S, Pastore D L. Assessing the influence of the physical sports facility on customer satisfaction within the context of the service experience[J]. Sport Management Review, 2002, 5(2): 129-148.
22. Theodorakis N D, Alexandris K, Tsigilis N, et al. Predicting spectators’ behavioural intentions in professional football: The role of satisfaction and service quality[J]. Sport management review, 2013, 16(1): 85-96.
23. Lee D J, Sirgy M J. Quality-of-life (QOL) marketing: Proposed antecedents and consequences[J ]. Journal of Macromarketing, 2004, 24(1): 44-58.
24. Van Boven L. Experientialism, materialism, and the pursuit of happiness[J]. Review of general psychology, 2005, 9(2): 132-142.
25. Newman D B, Tay L, Diener E. Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2014, 15(3): 555-578.
26. Brown J S, Duguid P. Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation[J]. Organization science, 1991, 2(1): 40-57.
27. Chen, L. H., Chen, M. Y., Ye, Y. C., Tung, I. W., Cheng, C. F., & Tung, S. Perceived service quality and life satisfaction: The mediating role of the actor’s satisfaction-with-event. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 2012,13(4), 249–266.
28. Nicholas D T,Kiki K. Effect of Event Service Quality and Satisfaction on Happiness Among Runners of a Recurring Sport Event[J]. Leisure Sciences,2015,37(1):87-107.
29. Laurent G, Kapferer J N. Measuring consumer involvement profiles[J]. Journal of marketing re-search, 1985, 22(1): 41-53.
30. Wiley C G E, Shaw S M, Havitz M E. Men’s and women’s involvement in sports: An examination of the gendered aspects of leisure involvement[J]. Leisure Sciences, 2000, 22(1): 19-31.
31. Havitz M E, Dimanche F. Leisure involvement revisited: Conceptual conundrums and measurement advances[J]. Journal of leisure research, 1997, 29(3): 245-278.
32. McIntyre N. The personal meaning of participation: Enduring involvement[J]. Journal of leisure research, 1989, 21(2): 167-179.
33. YU Yong,TIAN Jinxia. A Research on Structural Relationship among Leisure Involvement,Leisure Benefits and Sense of Happiness for Bicycle Riders [J]. Tourism Tribune, 2013, 28(2): 67-76.
34. Howat G, Crilley G, McGrath R. A focused service quality, benefits, overall satisfaction and loyalty model for public aquatic centres[J]. Managing Leisure, 2008, 13(3-4): 139-161.
35. McGinnis L P, Gentry J W. Getting past the red tees: Constraints women face in golf and strategies to help them stay[J]. Journal of Sport Management, 2006, 20(2): 218-247.
36. Reich J W, Zautra A. Life events and personal causation: Some relationships with satisfaction and distress[J]. Journal of personality and social psychology, 1981, 41(5): 1002.
37. Heo J, Lee Y, McCormick B P, et al. Daily experience of serious leisure, flow and subjective well‐being of older adults[J]. Leisure Studies, 2010, 29(2): 207-225.
38. Alexandris K, Zahariadis P, Tsorbatzoudis C, et al. An empirical investigation of the relationships among service quality, customer satisfaction and psychological commitment in a health club con-text[J]. European sport management quarterly, 2004, 4(1): 36-52.
39. Ridinger L L, Funk D C, Jordan J S, et al. Marathons for the masses: Exploring the role of negotiation-efficacy and involvement on running commitment[J]. Journal of Leisure Research, 2012, 44(2): 155-178.
40. Brady M K, Cronin Jr J J. Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach[J]. Journal of marketing, 2001, 65(3): 34-49.
41. Fornell C, Larcker D F. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error[J]. Journal of marketing re-search, 1981, 18(1): 39-50.
42. Nicolao L, Irwin J R, Goodman J K. Happiness for sale: do experiential purchases make consumers happier than material purchases? [J]. Journal of Consumer Research, 2009, 36(2): 188-198.
43. Hair J F, Black W C, Babin B J, et al. Multivariate Data Analysis (the 7th Edition) [M]. Beijing: China Machine Press,2011: 709.
44. Bagozzi R P, Yi Y. On the evaluation of structural equation models[J]. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 1988, 16(1): 74-94.
45. Gefen D. E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust[J]. Omega, 2000, 28(6): 725-737.
46. Igbaria M, Iivari J, Maragahh H. Why do individuals use computer technology? A Finnish case study[J]. Information & management, 1995,29 (5): 227-238.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details)

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.