International Journal of Aging Research

Anti-Aging Gene linked to Appetite Regulation Determines Longevity in Humans and Animals

Review Article of International Journal of Aging Research Anti-Aging Gene linked to Appetite Regulation Determines Longevity in Humans and Animals Ian James Martins aCentre of Excellence in Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, Sarich Neuroscience Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Verdun Street, Nedlands, 6009, Western Australia, Australia; bSchool of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, 6009; cMcCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands, 6009, Australia The process of aging is determined by various genetic and environmental factors. Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress that alters cellular chromatin structure, DNA methylation with histone modifications. These epigenetic alterations lead to nuclear changes associated with mitochondrial apoptosis that is a major defect in the global chronic disease epidemic (1). The variability in longevity between individuals in different communities implicate various nutritional and environmental factors involved in transcriptional dysregulation that lead to cell damage that accumulates with age and contributes to mitophagy, insulin resistance and programmed cell death. The absence or malfunction of a gene (2) necessary for transcriptional regulation of gene expression, DNA repair and telomere maintenance in neurons has become essential with relevance to neurodegeneration that determines aging and lifespan. Keywords: longevity; species; appetite; immune system; human; mitophagy; animals; neurodegneration; Sirtuin 1; nutritional therapy ...

Alzheimer’s Disease and Overload of Informal Caregivers

Research Article of International Journal of Aging Research Alzheimer's Disease and Overload of Informal Caregivers Oliveira, R.C.S1, Lima Neto, J.S2, Hemmlepp, L.K.F.S3, Bezerra, M.A.B4, Eufrásio, J.C5, Fittipaldi, E.O.S6 1,5Discente do Curso de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; 2,6Docente/Pesquisador do Departamento de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 3Psicóloga Clínica, Habilitada em Neurofeedback pelo Cérebro e Tecnologia Neurofeedback-Recife-PE, 4Fisioterapeuta, Pós-Graduada em Gerontologia pela Faculdade Redentor Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common chronic diseases of aging and caring for an elderly with this pathology causes a great deal of overload in the family. Objective: To analyze the overload of informal caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Methodology: Cross-sectional study approved by the Research Ethics Committee with Human Subjects (CAAE: 0178.0.236.000-11) and carried out at the Brazilian Alzheimer’s Association, in the section Pernambuco with 33 caregivers. The instruments used were: semi-structured sociodemographic questionnaire (caregiver and senior citizen ages, gender, degree of dependence of the elderly and degree of kinship among the participants) and Zarit Burden Interview Scale. These caregivers were divided into 4 groups, according to the degree of caregiver overload: mild, moderate, moderate to severe and severe. The Spearman correlation was used, considering p≤0.05. Results: Caregivers presented a mean age of 57.9 ± 12.2 years, while the elderly had 79.0 ± 8.1 years. 90.9% of the informal caregivers and 66.7% of the elderly were female. Regarding the degree of dependency of the elderly, 54.5% were considered totally dependent and, in relation to the classification by kinship, 63.6% were children. The moderate overload achieved a higher percentage, 39.4%, along with the moderate to severe overload level, 36.4%. When analyzing the degrees of overload with the age of the caregiver and the elderly, there was a positive correlation in the degrees of moderate to severe overload (rho = 0.734, p ...

The Efficacy of Vestibular Rehabilitation in the Treatment of the Elderly With Vestibular Symptomatologies

Review Article of International Journal of Aging Research The Efficacy of Vestibular Rehabilitation in the Treatment of the Elderly With Vestibular Symptomatologies Souza Neta, H.H1; Veras, A.R.A.L2; Aguiar, I.P1; Franco e Santos, S.N.S1; Costa, S.M.S1; Silva, V.R1. 1Students of the Speech Therapy Course of the University Center of João Pessoa- UNIPÊ. 2Speech Therapist, Master, Teacher of the Speech Therapy Course at Faculty São Miguel – PE. Introduction: Changes in structures and systems of the human body through the process of senescence are responsible for frequent complaints in the elderly population, among which are those of dizziness, vertigo and imbalance. The aging of the vestibular, visual, somatosensory, musculoskeletal and central nervous systems mainly affects the postural control, being this of fundamental importance for the autonomy of these individuals. Vestibular rehabilitation aims to improve the overall balance, quality of life and spatial orientation of patients with dizziness. Objective: To verify the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of elderly patients with symptoms of vestibular alterations. Methods: We conducted extensive research and selected articles published between 2012 and 2016, indexed in the databases SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS. The following keywords were selected in Portuguese: Speech Therapy, Elderly and Vestibular Rehabilitation. Results and discussion: Currently vestibular rehabilitation is increasingly being indicated in the treatment of vestibular dysfunction, as it is also being prescribed for individuals who present alterations related to balance and spatial orientation. The main peripheral vestibular disorders prevalent in the elderly are: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo; Menière’s syndrome; Vestibular neuritis and persistent perceptual postural dizziness (subjective chronic dizziness). The treatment of coexisting pathologies is also fundamentally important for the success of the therapy. Conclusion: Vestibular rehabilitation was shown to be an effective and viable alternative for vestibular symptomatology in the elderly. It is a satisfactory strategy to treat or minimize ...

Fonoaudiology and Nutrition: a Multidisciplinary Look on the Elderly Dysphagic

Review Article of International Journal of Aging Research Fonoaudiology and Nutrition: a Multidisciplinary Look on the Elderly Dysphagic Souza Neta, H.H1; Paulo, A.M.F1; Veras, A.R.A.L2; Honorato, C.D.P3; Araújo, N.T.A1; Franco e Santos, S.N.S1. 1Students of the Speech Therapy Course of the University Center of João Pessoa- UNIPÊ. 2Speech Therapist, Master, Teacher of the Speech Therapy Course at Faculty São Miguel – PE 3Student of the Nutrition Course of the Federal University of Paraíba-UFPB. Introduction: In view of the inversion of the growth of the age pyramid in Brazil, where the increase in the elderly population has been highlighting, studies on this growing population and its specifications, such as incoordination in the act of swallowing food or saliva, are relevant. Functional, anatomical and physiological alterations resulting from senescence and associated pathologies directly interfere in swallowing, causing a damage. The swallowing deficit can lead to dysphagia, leading to malnutrition and dehydration in the elderly, due to a low caloric intake, food intake and even death. Since these aspects are impaired, it is necessary nutritional care and speech-language interventions on difficulties encountered at meals. Objective: To carry out a literature review through selected scientific articles about the importance of speech and hearing intervention in the elderly dysphagic. Methods: We conducted extensive research and selected articles published between 2013 and 2016, indexed in the SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The following keywords were selected in English: Dysphagia, Speech-Language Pathology, Elderly and Nutrition. Results: The elderly is prone to nutritional problems due to physiological and social factors, the occurrence of chronic disease, the use of various medications, feeding problems, chewing and swallowing, as well as changes in mobility with functional dependence. The swallowing impairment can result in dysphagia, since it is not alerted, the risk of aspiration is immense causing pneumonia and if untreated ...

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international journal of aging research