International Journal of Animal Research

Bovine cryptosporidiosis in calves : A Review

Review Article of International Journal of Animal Research Bovine cryptosporidiosis in calves : A Review Kranti Sharmaa, Mukesh Sharmab, Sharad Mishrac Panchgavya Research And Extension Centre, Anjora, Durg- 491001 Chhattisgarh One of the culprits during this tough spring was a parasite called Cryptosporidium. It is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted primarily through water.Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of diarrhoea in young calves. It is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium,family Crptosporididae,order Eucoccidiorida,class Coccidian and phylum Apicomplexa.The parasite infects epithelial cells in the microvillus border of the gastrointestinal tract of all class of vertebrates7.and causes severe chronic and even fatal diarrhea with malabsorption and dehydration 19 Currently,there are 16 recognized species and nearly triple this number of unnamedNeonatal calves becomes infected within the first few days after birth.Feces containing eggs are a major source of infection, but calves may also spread the parasite through direct contact. Since the egg survive well in the environment, calves can also pick up infections from water,feed and soil.In addition to calves, cryptosporidiosis affects other young animals including piglets,lamb,kid,oats,foals and fawn (farmed deer). Stressors such as inadequate milk consumption,cold weather and wind may also play an important role in determining how severe the infection will be and how long it will last. Keywords: Bovine cryptosporidiosis, calves ...


Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THREE TECHNIQUES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF THE CANINE DIROFILARIOSE Rubens Pedro Lorena Silva1 *; Carlos Lopes Teixeira1; Cícero Wellington de Lima Colaço1; Yuri Souto Maior Filho1; Samuel Daniel de Sousa Filho1; José de Castro Souza Neto Júnior2. Introduction: Dirofilaria immitis is a filarid nematode that impacts dogs and other mammals worldwide, being transmitted by mosquito bites, causing heart failure without the dog that is the definitive host. The intermediate host may belong to several genera of mosquitoes such as Aedes, Anopholes and Culex. Objectives: this study aims to evaluate three techniques for the diagnosis of canine heartworm disease. Methods: it is an experimental analytical study. The tests were carried out on all wandering dogs adopted by a shelter in the city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sample collection was performed in a dog with gag, antisected with iodinated alcohol for venous puncture in cephalic vein with a 5 ml disposable syringe and transferred to tube containing anticoagulant. He samples were processed at the Pet Life laboratory in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. Three techniques were employed, such as: Alere Dirofilariose Ag test kit; direct examination - thick smear drop and modified Knott’s method (1939). Of the total of 30 shelter dogs, 9 were males and 21 females. Results: Thirteen dogs presented positivity in the Alere Dirofilariose Ag Test Kit (43.33%), being 9 females and 4 males. Of the thirteen positive animals in the immunological method, ten were positive by the Knott Method (33.33%) and five were positive in the Thick Smear Drop test (16.66%). Conclusion: the presence of canine heartworm disease caused by D. immitis in a given region suggests that there may be human contamination causing pulmonary heartworm disease. This infection should be considered in the ...

A Review on the Genetic Basis of Growth and Prolificacy Traits in Sheep

Review Article of International Journal of Animal Research A Review on the Genetic Basis of Growth and Prolificacy Traits in Sheep Abiye Shenkut Abebe1* and Mengistie Taye2 1Department of Animal Science, Debre Tabor University, P.O.Box 272, Ethiopia 2Department of Animal Production and Technology, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box, 5501, Ethiopia The performance of an animal for a particular trait is the result of its genetic merit and the effects of the environment where it exists. To set up genetic improvement in sheep, the genetic component attributed to the trait of interest need to be defined. The aim of this review was to describe major candidate genes influencing growth traits and prolificacy in sheep. Although growth and prolificacy are quantitative traits and are expected to be influenced by many genes with individual genes contributing small effects, there are major genes that have been identified with significant influence on growth and prolificacy. The CLPG, GDF8 and CAST genes are some of the major genes that have strong influence on sheep growth and carcass quality. The CLPG mutation can cause pronounced effect in the muscle found in the hindquarter and is responsible for the muscular hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. The GDF8 gene also play important role in increasing muscle depth due to mutation in the regulatory region and coding sequences. The CAST gene is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of calpain enzyme and thereby regulates the rate and extent of muscle tenderization following slaughtering. For prolificacy, BMP15, GDF9 and BMPR1B have been shown to exert significant influence on ovulation rate and litter size in various sheep breeds in the world. Both of the three genes are member of the TGF-beta family protein that encode protein product responsible for growth, differentiation and proliferation of ovarian follicles. The mechanism of action for such major genes are ...

Biochemical Changes Caused by Eimeria spp in Broiler Chickens

Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research Biochemical Changes Caused by Eimeria spp in Broiler Chickens Samrawit Melkamu1, Mersha Chanie2 and Mulat Asrat3 1School of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, ETHIOPIA 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Ethiopia 3School of Veterinary medicine, Wollo University, Ethiopia This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of coccidia infestation on biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. The experimental animals (n=100) were randomly allocated into four equal groups, group one (G-I), group two (G-II), group three (G-III) and group four (G-IV) with 25 chickens in each group. The G-I, G-II, and G-III were treatments groups challenged by different Eimeria sporulated oocysts, while G-IV served as the control group. In this study, the infective dose of E. tenella (G-I), E. acervulina(G-II) and mixed Eimeria spp (G-III)was 2x104 sporulated Eimeria oocyst inoculated orally at three weeks of age in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different plasma biochemical constituents were evaluated at interval of 5 , 7 and 9 day of post inoculation. Serum total protein values after challenge showed statistically significant decrease in group one, group two and group three in comparison with group four. Further, significant decrease total protien value was noticed on 7 day of post infection in group one and group two.The mean values of serum glucose between the infected and control group at 5, 7 and 9 day of post infection which revealed non-statistically significant difference. Coccidiosis due to E. tenella, E. acervulina and mixed identified Eimeria spp. infectionin chicken showed highly statistically significant increase in serum ALT and AST level as compared with control group. This was also significant increase in infected group on 7 day of post infection. But, no significant variation among the infected groups were on 5 and 9 day of post infection. Keywords: Coccidiosis, ...

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International Journal of animal research