International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine


Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Chimpanzee Nasal Airflow for Different Respiratory Modes

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Chimpanzee Nasal Airflow for Different Respiratory Modes Kaouthar Samarat1*, Sho Hanida2, Shigeru Ishikawa3, Kazunori Kotani4, Teruo Matsuzawa4 1Ishikawa Resin Industry Co., Ltd., Ta 1-8 Utani, Kaga-shi, Ishikawa 922-0312, Japan; 2Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi-shi, Ishikawa 921- 8501, Japan; 3Kanazawa Municipal Hospital, 3-7-3 Heiwamachi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa 921-8105, Japan; 4Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi-shi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan In this study, we investigated the airflow and air-conditioning within an anatomically accurate computer model of the nasal airways belonging to a healthy adult chimpanzee. The finite volumes method was used to compute unsteady turbulent flows with physiological flow rates of 2.2 sin (2πt/3.4) [m/s], 1.8 sin (2πt/1.6) [m/s], and 4.4 sin (2πt/1.4) [m/s], mimicking breathing at rest state, shallow breathing under light stress, and a sniffing phase, respectively. Turbulent k-omega model was used to simulate unsteady respiratory phases whereas the turbulent k-epsilon model was used to simulate the sniffing phase. Simulation results argued that assuming a steady laminar inhalation state to investigate the air-conditioning performance within chimpanzee nasal cavity may be exaggerated. The outcomes of this study might potentially contribute in accumulating standardized biological information on healthy chimpanzee, and so increasing the ability to care for it as an endangered species. Keywords: Chimpanzee nasal computer model, Chimpanzee nasal airflow, Computational fluid dynamics, Different breathing modes, Nasal air-conditioning, Turbulent unsteady flow ...

Response surface methodology for the optimization of chlorpyrifos-degrading conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Response surface methodology for the optimization of chlorpyrifos-degrading conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1 Feng HE 1, Mi-mi ZHANG 2, Li-hong ZHANG1 and Qing-ping HU 1* 1College of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, China 2Modern College of Humanities Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, China The removal of pesticides in the environment mainly depends on natural degradation, especially on microbial degradation. Biodegradation has many advantages, such as complete degradation, no secondary pollution, quick effect and wide spectrum. Based on the single-factor experiments and Box-Benhnken design, the effect of four factors on the degradation of chlorpyrifos by P. stutzeri ZH-1 was investigated. The four factors, including temperature (°C) , oscillator speed (rpm), inoculum concentration (%) and pH, and their interactions on the degradation of chlorpyrifos were studied through the use of response surface analysis.The optimal conditions of chlorpyrifos-degrading were as follows: temperature 36.7°C, oscillator speed 130.00rpm, inoculum concentration 7%, pH 7. Under these conditions,the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was 96.48%. Moreover, P. stutzeri ZH-1 could be used efficiently for remediation of contaminated soils. Keywords: response surface methodology; chlorpyrifos-degrading; Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1 ...

Environmental Enrichment in the ISS Rodent Habitat Hardware System

Review Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Environmental Enrichment in the ISS Rodent Habitat Hardware System Sophie Orr1, Rhonda Weigand2, Tanner Adams2, Raycho Raychev3 & Yuri Griko4 1 University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA 2 Redlands Community College, El Reno, OK, USA 3 Space Challenges Program, EnduroSat Inc. Sofia, Bulgaria 4 Division of Space Biosciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Responses of animals exposed to microgravity during in-space experiments were observed via available video recording stored in the NASA Ames Life Sciences Data Archive. These documented observations of animal behavior, as well as the range and level of activities during spaceflight, clearly demonstrate that weightlessness conditions and the extreme novelty of the surroundings exert damaging psychological stresses on the inhabitants. In response to a recognized need for in-flight animals to improve their wellbeing we propose to reduce such stresses by shaping and interrelating structures and surroundings to satisfying vital physiological needs of inhabitants. A Rodent Habitat Hardware System (RHHS) based housing facility incorporating a tubing network system, to maintain and monitor rodent health environment with advanced accessories has been proposed. Placing mice in a tubing-configured environment creates more natural space-restricted nesting environment for rodents, thereby facilitating a more comfortable transition to living in microgravity. A sectional tubing structure of the RHHS environment will be more beneficial under microgravity conditions than the provision of a larger space area that is currently utilized. The new tubing configuration was found suitable for further incorporation of innovative monitoring technology and accessories in the animal holding habitat unit which allow to monitor in real-time monitoring of valuable health related biological parameters under weightlessness environment of spaceflight. Keywords: Environmental Enrichment, ISS Rodent Habitat Hardware System ...

Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans

Review Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Review on the Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans Fitsum Tessema* Fitsum Tessema, Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 2126, Hawassa, Ethiopia Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that belongs to coagulase positive staphylococcus. It is widely distributed in the environment and causes diseases due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by the bacteria. The prevalence of S. aureus ranges from 4% to 83% in different countries of the world from samples of food producing animals and their products. In Ethiopia the lowest and highest prevalence is reported as 4.2% and 48.75%, respectively. All mammals and birds are susceptible to colonization with S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus can be treated with a wide range of antibiotics but there are efficient and inefficient antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance tests that have been conducted in different countries revealed that S. aureus were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin and less susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin. The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animal and human has become a worldwide problem. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Prevalence, Drug resistance, Food producing animal ...

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International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine

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