International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine


Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans

Review Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Review on the Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans Fitsum Tessema* Fitsum Tessema, Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 2126, Hawassa, Ethiopia Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that belongs to coagulase positive staphylococcus. It is widely distributed in the environment and causes diseases due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by the bacteria. The prevalence of S. aureus ranges from 4% to 83% in different countries of the world from samples of food producing animals and their products. In Ethiopia the lowest and highest prevalence is reported as 4.2% and 48.75%, respectively. All mammals and birds are susceptible to colonization with S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus can be treated with a wide range of antibiotics but there are efficient and inefficient antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance tests that have been conducted in different countries revealed that S. aureus were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin and less susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin. The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animal and human has become a worldwide problem. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Prevalence, Drug resistance, Food producing animal ...

Thaumatococcus daniellii Benn. (Marantaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract Possessed Hepatoprotective Effect Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Thaumatococcus daniellii Benn. (Marantaceae)  Leaf Methanol Extract Possessed Hepatoprotective Effect Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats Ukwubile CA, 2Musa YD and  2Troy SM 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Biology Unit, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. [Background]Acetaminophen or Paracetamol is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic or antimalarial drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity. [Objective]This present study demonstrates the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of Thaumatococcus daniellii against acetaminophen induced liver toxicity. [Methods] Acetaminophen- induced liver injury was evaluated by an increase in serum AST (or SGOT), ALT (or SGPT), ALP activity and bilirubin level accompanied by significant decrease in albumin level. [Results] Acetaminophen hepatoxicity was manifested by an increase in lipid peroxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in liver tissue. Oral administration of the plant extract protects the rats against acetaminophen induced liver injury by increased lipid peroxidation, restored altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant level to normal liver morphology.[Conclusion]The results showed that T. daniellii leaf extract displayed significant liver healing efficacy against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The result further affirm the use of the plant as an ethno-medicinal prescription for liver related injury. Keywords: Acetaminophen, hepatoprotective, Thaumatococcus daniellii, liver injury. Abbreviations Used: ALT = Alanine aminotransaminase or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AST = Aspartate aminotransaminase or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, ALP = alkaline phosphatase ...

Soluble fibrin as a biomarker for intrahepatic microthrombosis in acute-on-chronic liver failure

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Value of soluble fibrin as a biomarker for intrahepatic microthrombosis and its sequel acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis C patients Ehab F. Mostafa, Waleed A. Ismail, Amr Elhwary1, Ayman M. Marei 2. 1. Internal medicine department, Hepatology divison, Zagazig University. 2. Microbiology department, Zagazig University. Background: There is a lack in finding the precipitating factor in acute –on chronic liver failure (ACLF)insult in large number of patients and either this factor is hepatic or extra hepatic origin. Aim of the work : Our study aiming to evaluate the potential usefulness of a new plasma soluble fibirin polymer (SF) assay for diagnosing the possibility of occurrence of intrahepatic microthrombosis as a cause of ACLF in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Patients & Methods: The study was carried out in Zagazig University Hospital, internal medicine department in collaboration with microbiology department from February 2015 tell November 2015. 50 patients having chronic hepatitis c virus was enrolled in this study with ACLF developing new onset ascitis in 15 patient encephalopathy in 12 patients, jaundice in12 and elevated INR in 11 patients all having regular follow-up in hepatology clinic in Zagazig university Hospital with stable clinical course in the previous three months. Control subject was classified as normal subject 20 and 30 patients with compensated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. All patients and control groups were subjected to full history, complete clinical examination and laboratory tests including CBC, INR, serum albumin, serum bilirubin, liver enzymes, ascitic fluid examination and culture, blood culture, alpha-fetoprotein, d D-dimer, thrombin generation and soluble fibrin polymer., abdominal ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound for portal vein. Results: Our results showed significant difference between patients group and both  control groups regarding SF and D-dimer, also there were significant differences in patients group ...

Optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia ZH-1 using response surface methodology

Research Article of International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine Optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia ZH-1 using response surface methodology LI Li, Feng HE, Jian-Guo XU and Qing-Ping HU * College of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi 041000, China [Background] It has been studied that the yield of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) producing strains is low and does not meet the requirements of industrial production of 2,3-BD. [Objective] It was important to improve the production of 2,3-BD by Klebsiella pneumonia ZH-1 in shaking flask. [Methods] The effects of temperature, pH and rotating speed on the production of 2,3-BD were studied by single factor test and response surface method. [Results] The optimal cultivation conditions stimulating the maximal production of 2,3-BD were as follow: initial pH, 7, temperature, 37 oC and rotating speed, 140 r/min. Under this optimized conditions, the predicted maximal 2,3-BD yield was 21.54 g/L, whereas the yield of 2,3-BD can reach to 22.04 g/L after the application of response surface methodology. [Conclusion] Response surface methodology was a promising method for optimization of 2,3-BD production. Keywords: K. pneumonia ZH-1, response surface methodology, 2,3-butanediol ...

Dr Charles Fokunang
Professor&Director of Student’ Affairs, The University of Bamenda; Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1.

Dr. Moustafa M. Zeitoun
Professor, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University

Dr.Prakash.MMS.Kinthada
Professor, Department Of Chemistry, Sri Vidya Nikethan Engineering College.Tirupathi ,INDIA

Dr Viraj H Mankar
Assistant Professor, Lovely Professional University

Dr Kasim S. Abass
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Kirkuk

Dr Shriram Kunjam
Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Government V.Y.T. P.G. Autonomous College

Dr. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Professor Titular, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Dr. Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon
Associate Professor, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University

Dr. Dhananjay Kumar Singh
Molecular Bio-prospection Department, CSIR-CIMAP

Dr Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Dr. Parichat Phumkhachorn
Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University

Dr. Vandna Kukshal
Department of Internal medicine, Washington University School of Medicine

Dr. Ritika Das 
Skirball Institue for Biomolecular Science at NYU Langone Medical Center

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1.Kaouthar Samarat, Sho Hanida, Shigeru Ishikawa, Kazunori Kotani, Teruo Matsuzawa. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Chimpanzee Nasal Airflow for Different Respiratory Modes. International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine, 2018; 2:8. DOI: 10.28933/ijbm-2018-06-2001.
2.Feng HE, Mi-mi ZHANG, Li-hong ZHANG and Qing-ping HU. Response surface methodology for the optimization of chlorpyrifos-degrading conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1. International Journal of Bioscience and Medicine, 2018; 2:7. DOI: 10.28933/ijbm-2018-01-0801

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