International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research


Magnitude and associated factors of goiter, and iodized salt utilization among adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia

Research Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Magnitude and associated factors of goiter, and iodized salt utilization among adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia Abayneh Birlie Department of Public Health, College of health Science, Debre Birhan University Background: Iodine deficiency disorder is a common and preventable global public health problem that causes irreversible mental retardation. IDD is more prevalent in developing countries, especially in mountain areas. Therefore this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of goiter among adolescent girls. The knowledge and utilization of iodine-rich foods and iodized salt of adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia was also assessed. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 5, 2018, to December 30, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 477 adolescent girls from 12 schools. A pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measure and thyroid gland examination were used for data collection. The collected data were entered into Epi Data 3.1 software and analyzed using Anthro plus and SPSS version 21 software. Results: The overall prevalence of goiter was 50.4% of which 35.4% were palpable and 15.0% were visible goiter. Being post-menarche (AOR=3.241, 95% CI= (1.288-8.152)) and thin (AOR=1.124, 95% CI= (1.068-14.680)) adolescent girl increased the risk goiter. Two hundred seventy (60.8%) adolescent girls had awareness about salt iodization and 54.5% girls said it is important to prevent goiter. Though packed salt was used by 58.2% only 30.6% of households of adolescent girls add salt immediately before the end of cooking or after cooking. Conclusions: Goiter is a serious health problem that affects about half of adolescent girls in the study area. The risk of developing goiter was higher among girls who initiated menstruation and suffered from thinness. There is low ...

Compositional analysis of genetically modified soybeans placed on Taiwan market

Research Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Compositional analysis of genetically modified soybeans placed on Taiwan market Huan-Yu Lin1, Jen-Tao Chen1, Mei-Li Chao1, Bo-Chou Chen1, Jo-Chi Wang1, Hsuen-Chun Liao1, Hui-Wen Chang1, Hsin-Tang Lin2 and Wen-Shen Chu1* 1Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan; 2Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei 115, Taiwan(Present: Graduate Institute of Food Safety, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan) Soybean is an important protein source for consumers in Taiwan. Soybean production in Taiwan is not self-sufficient. Taiwan imports 2.5 million tons of soybeans annually. More than 90% of the imported soybeans are genetically modified (GM). To provide an objective assessment on safety of GM soybean and for post-market monitoring, we conducted a comparative assessment on key component compositions between imported GM soybean and local non-GM soybean from Taiwan. All the soybean samples were purchased from the local market to simulate the status of Taiwanese consumers in purchasing soybeans. The GM soybean samples were herbicide-tolerant soybeans. The content of the proximate, the amino acid composition, the fatty acid composition, vitamins, minerals, antinutritional factors, and isoflavones of soybean samples were analyzed. Most contents of the key components of the GM soybean had no significant difference with those of the non-GM soybean. However, the contents of ash, crude protein, amino acids, myristic acid, behenic acid, phosphorus, iron and phytic acid were significantly lower in the GM soybean samples, and the contents of crude fat, margaric acid, and stearic acid were significantly higher in the GM soybean samples. But they were all within the range of reference values. A total of 314 pesticide residues in each of the samples were analyzed. Glyphosate residue was detected only in GM soybean samples, but it is well below the threshold ...

HPLC profiling, in vitro antisickling and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracts from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) used in the management of sickle cell disease in the West Region of Cameroon

Research Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research HPLC profiling, in vitro antisickling and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracts from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) used in the management of sickle cell disease in the West Region of Cameroon Nkenmeni D. C.1, Kotue T. C.1*; Kumar P.2; Djouhou F. M.1 ;Ngo S. F.3; Pieme A. C.4; Kansci G1; Fokou E.1; Arumugam N.2 1Laboratory for Food Science and Metabolism - Department of Biochemistry – Faculty of Science – University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon; 2Department of Biotechnology – University of Pondicherry, India;3Hematological Service at the Central Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon.; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry, Physiology and Pharmacology - Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science / UHC– University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon. Natural molecules from food have been used to manage sickle cell crises. As a genetic blood disorder, treatment is complex and expensive. This study was carried out to establish the phenolic compounds profile of black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus. L) commonly used by some families in the Western Region of Cameroon to manage sickle cell disease and to evaluate their in vitro antisickling, membrane stability and antioxidant properties. Free, bound and total phenolic contents were estimated to be 0.1±0; 0.108±0 and 0.212±0 mg EAG/g of sample respectively. Free phenolic compounds contain ferulic acid (0.013 μg/g), while bound phenolic compounds contain gallic acid (2.13 μg/g) and ferulic acid (0.037 μg/g). Free phenolic compounds had the higher rates of inhibition (82.26±2%), reversibility (69.86±3%) of sickling and the best effect on membrane stability of erythrocytes. Phenolic extracts from black bean seeds also showed a high global antioxidant activity with free phenolic compounds (28.42± 0 mgFeII/100g). Total phenolic compounds showed a better activity on DPPH radical with a IC50 of 2.42±1µg/µL while free phenolic compounds showed a better activity on scavenging hydroxyl radical with a IC50 of 1.5±0.5µg/µL ...

Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

Research Article of International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders Obiegbuna, J.E*., Nwankwo, J.A., Ozue, J.O. and Okolo A.C. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (10.17%), fiber (8.00%), iron, zinc, potassium and sodium contents than MBA and PMBA. The carbohydrate content of PMBA (69.27%) was higher (p < 0.05) than that of MBA (66.20%) and SBA (66.30%). PMBA had the lowest protein (7.55%) and MBA the lowest fiber (3.97%) content. The fat (6.27%) and ash (4.67%) of PMBA were significantly higher than that of SBA with 5.47% and 2.00%, respectively. Only the ash, carbohydrate, iron and sodium contents of multigrain akamu differed significantly (p<0.05) with Blend1 having higher carbohydrate and iron values but lower ash and sodium values. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of PMBA (1.87 g/g) was lower (p<0.05) than other single and multi grain samples. MBA had lowest emulsion activity (EA) (44.33%) but highest emulsion stability (ES) of 77.43% while SDA had the highest EA (50.00%). The ES of PMBA ...

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International journal of food and nutrition research

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