International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy


Pharmacist-Patient Relationship: Commitment to Care

Review Article of International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Pharmacist-Patient Relationship: Commitment to Care AK Mohiuddin Dr. M. Nasirullah Memorial Trust, Tejgaon, Dhaka Pharmacy practice has changed substantially in recent years. The professionals have the opportunity to contribute directly to patient care in order to reduce morbimortality related to medication use, promoting health and preventing diseases. Healthcare organizations worldwide are under substantial pressure from increasing patient demand. Unfortunately, a cure is not always possible particularly in this era of chronic diseases, and the role of physicians has become limited to controlling and palliating symptoms. The increasing population of patients with long-term conditions are associated with high levels of morbidity, healthcare costs and GP workloads. This has raised questions about the role of many community pharmacists who traditionally have not had access to important data needed for the first step of the patient care process that defines a valid patient-practitioner relationship. However, community pharmacies are accessible and convenient primary care venues with long opening hours and non-appointment-based services. Community pharmacists are increasingly clinically trained healthcare professionals whose skills and knowledge could be further utilized. Medical professionals have traditionally abided by a set of ethical tenets including autonomy, justice, beneficence and non-maleficence. Much emphasis is often placed in medicine on non-maleficence, or “do no harm,” but the other ethical tenets deserve further consideration when discussing the right-to-refuse legislation. Pharmacists have an obligation to do what is in the best interest of their patients (beneficence), to treat patients justly or fairly (justice), and to respect a patient’s decision to know and do what is best for them (autonomy). To put a pharmacist’s autonomy above the ethical commitments owed to the patient is fraught with challenges, regardless of legal protections for pharmacists provided through legislation such as the conscience clauses. To transition to patient-centered care, ...

PREPARATION AND VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN PHARMACEUTICAL ORIENTATION

Research Article of International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy PREPARATION AND VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN PHARMACEUTICAL ORIENTATION Flávia Patrícia Morais de Medeiros1*, Aline Dayse da Silva1,2, Ana Rodrigues Falbo1, Elisângela Christiane Barbosa da Silva Gomes1 Introduction: The pharmacist rescued patient care, being necessary to develop the skills to communicate well. Poor communication may be the main factor resulting from non-adherence to drug treatment, resulting in severe clinical conditions. In health care, the pharmaceutical and patient relationships are essential and must be effective, from the reception, needs verification, pharmaceutical anamnesis, realization and information record, considering life context and its integrality. However, there are still few publications about effective communication between the pharmacist and the patient. Objectives: Elaborate an instrument for evaluation of communication competencies in pharmaceutical orientation and to evaluate how this professional is reaching health services. This was approved by CAAE 83290518.2.0000.5569. Methodology: A survey was carried out in the literature in databases, from 1997 to 2017 on the topic, followed by the elaboration of the evaluation instrument that addressed the communicational competences. For validation of content, the instrument was evaluated by a panel of experts: 01 scientific method; 01 psychometric scales; 01 linguistics and 02 the subject covered. The Semantic Validation / FACE, newly graduated pharmacists (up to 2 years) participated, who work providing pharma-ceutical orientation to the patients. For Content and Semantic Validation, the change criterion used was 80% consensus. To finalize this step, the instrument for obtaining the final consensual version was returned to the expert panel. Results: The elaboration of the instrument contemplated the dimensions of knowledge, skills and communicational attitudes in the pharmaceutical orientation. The 24 questions will be answered through Likert model’s agreement scale, with 05 op-tion levels (1) Strongly disagree up to (5) I fully agree. The ...

Prevalence of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria and the Antenatal Health Care Utilization for Prevention Among Pregnant Women in a Secondary Health Facility in Enugu State, Nigeria

Research Article of International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Prevalence of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria and the Antenatal Health Care Utilization for Prevention Among Pregnant Women in a Secondary Health Facility in Enugu State, Nigeria Maureen Ogochukwu Akunne*, Ebere Emilia Ayogu, Juliana Obianuju Idoko. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria Pregnant women in endemic areas are highly susceptible to malaria, and both the frequency and severity of the disease are higher in pregnant women than non- pregnant women.[1] In pregnancy, there is a transient depression of cell mediated immunity that allows foetal allograft retention but also interferes with resistance to various infectious diseases. Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. It affects approximately 24 million pregnant women.[2] In the area of Africa with stable malaria transmission, plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is estimated to cause as many as 10,000 maternal death each year, 8-14% of all low birth weight babies and 75,000-200,000 of all infant death.[3] In Nigeria, there is an estimated 25-30% of mortality in children under the age of five and 300,000 death each year due to malaria.[3] Studies have shown that 40% of pregnant African women start attending antenatal clinics in the first and second trimester of their pregnancy. [3] In addition, pregnant women are at immense risk of malaria due to natural immune depression in pregnancy. [4] The symptoms and complications of malaria during pregnancy differ with the intensity of malaria transmission and thus with the level of immunity the pregnant woman acquired. [5] Malaria cases and death have been increasing in the country mainly due to injudicious use of anti-malaria drugs, delayed health seeking and reliance on clinical judgment without laboratory confirmation in most of the ...

The New Era of Pharmacists in Ambulatory Patient Care

Review Article of International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy The New Era of Pharmacists in Ambulatory Patient Care AK Mohiuddin Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Pharmacy is evolving from a product-oriented to a patient-oriented profession. This role modification is extremely healthy for the patient, the pharmacist, and other members of the health-care team. However, the evolution will present pharmacists with a number of new challenges. Now, more than in the past, pharmacists must make the acquisition of contemporary practice knowledge and skills a high priority, to render the level of service embodied in the concept of pharmaceutical care. Pharmacy educators’ organizations and regulatory bodies must all work together to support pharmacists as they assume expanded health-care roles. Pharmacy and the health-care industry must work to ensure that the pharmacist is compensated justly for all services. But before this can happen it will be necessary for pharmacy to demonstrate value-added to the cost of the prescription. Marketing of the purpose of pharmacy in the health-care morass and of the services provided by the pharmacist is needed to generate an appropriate perceived value among purchasers and users of health-care services. Pharmacists should view themselves as dispensers of therapy and drug effect interpretations as well as of drugs themselves. Service components of pharmacy should be identified clearly to third party payers and be visible to consumers, so that they know what is available at what cost and how it may be accessed. In the future, pharmacy services must be evaluated on patient outcome (i.e., pharmaceutical care) rather than the number of prescriptions dispensed, and pharmacy must evolve toward interpretation and patient consultation, related to the use of medication technologies. Keywords: Community pharmacist; Provider; Medication; Outpatient; Care ...

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International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

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