International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews


Thermodynamics of the origin of life, evolution, and aging

Review Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews Thermodynamics of the origin of life, evolution, and aging G. P. Gladyshev Russian Academy of Arts; International Academy of Creative Endeavors; N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117977 Moscow, Kosygin, 4 The main provisions of hierarchical thermodynamics created on the basis of Gibbs thermodynamics are presented. The thermodynamic theory of the origin of life, its evolution and the aging of living beings is presented. The theory considers the change in the specific Gibbs function of the formation of structures of different hierarchies, that is, the change in the comparative stability of these structures in the course of their evolutionary transformations. The described approach should be considered structural kinetic thermodynamics, which allows us not to consider any kinetic mechanisms of processes in the evolution of various hierarchical structures. It is asserted that the principle of substance stability determines the direction of the processes of the origin of life and its evolutionary transformations. The thermodynamic theory of aging and thermodynamic nutrition allows predictions concerning healthy life and its duration. It is shown that hierarchical thermodynamics is the physical foundation of expanded Darwinism. All the conclusions and predictions of the theory are confirmed by numerous observations and experimental facts. Keywords: thermodynamics, hierarchy, origin of life, evolution, chemical evolution, aging, Darwinism, natural design ...

The Unified Theory of Physics

Research Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews The Unified Theory of Physics Ding-Yu Chung Utica, Michigan, USA The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the ...

A Vortex Formulation of Quantum Physics Setting Discrete Quantum States into Continuous Space-time

Research Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews A Vortex Formulation of Quantum Physics Setting Discrete Quantum States into Continuous Space-time Fred Y. Ye 1, 2* 1 School of Information Management, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, CHINA 2 International Joint Informatics Laboratory (IJIL), UI-NU, Champaign-Nanjing Any quantum state can be described by a vortex, which is mathematically a multi-vector and physically a united-measure. When the vortex formulation of quantum physics is introduced, Hamilton principle keeps its core position in physical analysis. While the global characteristics are described by Lagranrian function for dynamics and double complex core function for stable states, Schrödinger equation and gauge symmetries reveal local characteristics. The vortex-based physics provides a new unified understanding of wave-particle duality and uncertainty, quantum entanglement and teleportation, as well as quantum information and computation, with setting discrete quantum states into continuous space-time for keeping concordance of methodology in processing micro-particle and macro-galaxy. Two fundamental experiments are suggested to correct and verify the physical formulation. Keywords: Vortex; vortex formulation; quantum mechanism; quantum state; quantum physics; space-time ...

Traction of Palatal Impacted Teeth: Description of a New Orthosurgical Technique

Research Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews Traction of Palatal Impacted Teeth: Description of a New Orthosurgical Technique Fernando Vacilotto Gomes¹, Ivan Abreu Gomes², Luciano Mayer³, Maria Cristina Rodrigo Lara4 ¹ Dentist. Oromaxillofacial Surgeon and Traumatologist and Dental Implant Surgeon. MSc in Dentistry from the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Oromaxillofacial Surgery and Trauma (CTBMF) Service of Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Sant’Ana do Livramento, Brazil. Professor Specialization in Implant Dentistry at AGOR, Porto Alegre, Brazil. ² Dentist. Orthodontist and Maxillofacial Orthopedic Dentist and Surgeon, Private Practice. ³ Dentist. Dental Implant Surgeon. PhD in Oromaxillofacial Surgery and Trauma. Course Coordinator, Specialization in Implant Dentistry at AGOR, Porto Alegre, Brazil. 4 Dentist. Specialist in Dental Radiology and Private Practice, Sant’Ana do Livramento, Brazil. Introduction: Impacted teeth are a routine finding in orthodontics and oromaxillofacial surgery, particularly impaction of maxillary teeth detected during examination of deciduous teeth and confirmed by radiographs or CT scans. This study describes a new technique for the traction of palatally impacted teeth, a procedure for which technical difficulties are often encountered. Report: A description of a new orthosurgical technique for the traction of palatal impacted teeth. Conclusion: Clinical observations revealed that this novel technique made impacted tooth traction easier, particularly for the treatment of palatally impacted teeth. Keywords: Maxilla; Orthopedic Appliances; Impacted Tooth ...

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