International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment

Alternative Measures to Chronic Pain Management

Review Article of International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment Alternative Measures to Chronic Pain Management Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, Secretary & Treasurer Dr. M. Nasirullah Memorial Trust, Tejgaon, Dhaka “No pain no gain” still is one of the most widely used inspiring quote. With that spirit, chronic pain sufferers should find heaven on earth at some point of life. However, chronic pain is a widespread and complex set of conditions that are often difficult and expensive to treat. The Institute of Medicine (US) estimated that chronic pain affects over 100 million Americans [1] and is associated with $874 billion in healthcare costs annually [2]. Of this, close to 10% ($78 billion) is associated with the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse and dependency [3]. Pain increases depression 3-5-fold [4-6] and 50–90% of chronic pain patients report insomnia that warrants clinical attention [7-10]. Conventional pain killers are usually associated with a variety of adverse side effects, such as constipation, urinary retention, nausea, sedation, respiratory depression, low platelet count, sexual dysfunction and hyperalgesia [11-14]. Pain affects more than 65% cancer patients [15], distressing or intolerable in more than one‐third of patients [16]. Although, WHO described opioids as essential medicines for pain control but distribution shows substantial inequity, 10% of the world’s population consuming more than 90% of the world’s supply [17], 80% opioids consumed by US alone [18-23]. Famous celebrities like Bruce Lee, Chris Penn, Elvis Presley, Heath Ledger, Anna Nicole Smith died from opioid overdose. Also, some 85% of primary care physicians perceived their training in pain management to be inadequate in a Pan-European survey [24,25]. Along with these, fear of dependence, prescription diversion, regulatory scrutiny, withdrawal symptoms, opioid-related adverse events and deaths limit its use. Although, abuse and availability of medical cannabis are big issues, several studies support use of ...


Review Article of International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment THE ROLE OF BASIC ATTENTION IN THE ACCOMPANIMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN Manoel Pereira da Silva Junior, Edvany Mendonça da Silva, Veronica Barbosa de Andrade, Clayton Gustavo dos Santos, Ianne Roberta Sales dos Santos, Ana Paula Miyazawa INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain can be considered a pathology and not just a symptom, which negatively influences people’s quality of life, leading to a decrease in autonomy, isolation and impact on social life. In this context, considering the pain related to chronic health problems, it can be affirmed that Basic Care represents a strategic service due to its high capillarity and potential to identify health needs of the population by subsidizing the organization of care throughout the network. health services. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of Primary Care in the management of patients with chronic pain. METHOD: This is a descriptive study of a qualitative approach, carried out through literature review. DISCUSSION: Social determinants can be considered to have a strong impact on the prevalence of chronic diseases as well as their reflexes, such as pain. Social inequalities, differences in access to goods and services, low level of schooling and inequalities in access to information generally determine a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and diseases caused by these diseases. In this context, Primary Care plays a fundamental role because it represents a strategic service with high capillarity. CONCLUSION: Primary care has great potential to identify the health needs of the population by subsidizing the organization of care throughout the health services network, contributing to factors that negatively impact the health of the population, causing pain and suffering. Keywords: Pain, Primary Health Care, Health Care ...

Complimentary Care: Non-Pharmacological Pain Management

Review Article of International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment Complimentary Care: Non-Pharmacological Pain Management Abdul Kader Mohiuddin Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh; 151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh Aristotle (4th century B.C.) described pain as emotion, being the opposite of pleasure. Whereas, Buddha stated “Pain is the outcome of sin”, as evidence that an individual was possessed by demons. In some religions it is the cost of attachment. Spiritual counseling thus may be more of a priority than medical management. Many non-physiologic factors (psychological, familial and societal attitudes, life stressors, and cultural or spiritual) contributing to the experience of and response to pain. Emotional stress such as anxiety and depression play a key role in experience of pain. Chronic pain is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and insomnia regardless of disability status. it has both modifiable factors (mental health, co-morbidities, smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical activity/exercise, sleep, nutrition, economic status and occupational) and non-modifiable factors (age, sex, cultural and socioeconomic background, history of trauma/ injury/ interpersonal violence, heritage). The relationship between increased BMI and chronic pain in adults seems intuitive and may be related, in part, to increased weight-bearing on joints, reduced physical activity and deconditioning. Patient with physical disabilities may have co-occurring chronic pain, but the prevalence and specific associated factors are unknown. Neuropathic pain (NeP) can be the result of a variety of conditions, including metabolic disease, infection, malignancy, trauma, medications, and toxins; estimates of 60% among those with chronic pain. Chronic pain affects 20% of the European population and is commoner in women, older people, and with relative deprivation. Its management in the community remains generally unsatisfactory, partly because of lack of evidence for effective interventions. Also, family and caregivers’ beliefs and attitudes towards pain, either positively and negatively to tolerate ...

Chronic Pain in Patients With HIV / AIDS: a Literature Review

Review Article of International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment Chronic Pain in Patients With HIV / AIDS: a Literature Review Maria Gabriella de Melo¹*, Bianca de Fátima Ramos Souza², Marília Fernanda de Andrade Silva Correia³, Thalyta Roberta Silva Bastos4, Brígida Maria Gonçalves de Melo Brandão5, Fátima Maria da Silva Abrão6 Introduction: In the current context of health in Brazil, pain has been one of the main reasons for care in patients with HIV by health professionals. Objective: To investigate the topics covered in online journals about factors related to pain in patients affected by HIV / AIDS. Methodology: Review of the literature in October 2018 in the Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library (VHL), using as descriptors “HIV”, “CHRONIC PAIN”, “DISEASE” and using as temporal cutback the last ten years. Results: The study sample consisted of 8 original articles, divided into three thematic categories: “Pain management”, “Pharmacological treatment” and “Consequences of pain”. Con-clusion: It is important that the multiprofessional health team is attentive and committed to iden-tify the factors related to chronic pain in PLHIV, since this way they can provide assistance aim-ing at the well being and comfort of the patient. Keywords: HIV, Chronic Pain, Diseases ...

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International Journal of Pain Research and Treatment