International Journal of Trade and Policy

Hygienic-sanitary Conditions of Fish Markets Commercialized in the Municipality of Maceió

Introduction: The search for a healthier diet has led to a worldwide increase in fish consumption in recent years. This also brought a growth of diseases transmitted by this type of food, when outside the quality standards and poor hygienic-sanitary conditions of the establishments in which they are sold. This study aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of fish commercialized in the city of Maceió – Alagoas, contributing to define a microbiological profile of this product. Methodology: Fish samples from six commercial points were collected from commercial establishments, with two replicates at different periods, totaling 12 samples. Microbiological analyzes were performed for total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive), following methodology according to the legislation. . Results and Discussion: Turbidity and gas production were observed in 75% of the total coliform samples and 66.66% of positivity for the samples in the EC tubes, indicating the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Salmonella spp was absent in all samples. In the Staphylococcus aureus analyzes, only one sample (8.33%) was uncontaminated by this microorganism, however, 91.67% of the samples were contaminated. Conclusion: The sum of these results suggests possible fecal contamination, evidencing unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions of manipulation of the fish commercialized in the evaluated establishments of the city of Maceió-AL.

Towards Economic Survival and Self-sufficiency: a Historical Exploration of Nigeria’s Indigenisation Policy, 1972 and 1977

Indigenisation was a major strategy employed by the Nigerian government in the 1970s to exercise more control over the nation’s economy. It was indeed a bold attempt to enhance the economic survival and self-sufficiency of the nation. This study therefore interrogates the rationale, methods and impact of Nigeria’s indigenisation policy on the country’s economic welfare then and beyond. It notes that indigenisation was proposed from four different angles: ownership, technology, control and manpower. The paper took a critical look at the indigenization policy’s provisions in Nigeria’s National Development Plan of 1970-1974, the Nigeria Enterprises Promotion Decree of 1972, as amended, and the extent to which their goals were achieved. It concludes that though indigenization was applauded, it failed to achieve the desired goals of promoting economic stability and survival of the Nigerian nation.

Micro Insurance in India: an analysis of the perceptions, problems and opportunities

India is a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It is estimated that 37% of the total population live below poverty line (BPL). Social security for BPL people is a matter of concern for the nation. To answer the question, why should the poor insure? We should have answer for the questions like, what happens when a poor family’s breadwinner dies, when a child in a disadvantaged household is hospitalized, or the home of a vulnerable family is destroyed by fire or natural disaster? Every serious illness, every accident and every natural disaster threatens the very existence of poor people and usually leads to deeper poverty. That’s where “microinsurance” comes in. To cope with the risks such as health problems, crop failure, loss of livestock, death of a family member, loss of asset, income and employment is much harder on the part of poor and low- income groups than others. Many poor households involve in activities of smaller scale but carrying higher degree of risk and uncertainty. The objective of the present study is to examine different risks faced by the poor and low-income groups, their current coping mechanisms. The present study aims to analyse outreach of microinsurance because of its increasing popularity. The study identifies the problems and issues relating to microinsurance such as product design, pricing, claim settlements. It also studies the gender specific demand for micro insurance products in India. The study attempts to suggest the ways in which microinsurance services can become more inclusive to enhance risk management capability of the poor. The study attempts to indicate that access to microinsurance by the poor and disadvantaged population can contribute significantly to the achievement of the development goals of the country, particularly the goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, promoting gender equality and empowering women.

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International Journal of Trade and Policy