International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications

Simulation of the Dendritic Growth Velocity for Binary Alloy Al-Cu in the Undercooled System

Research Article of International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications Simulation of the Dendritic Growth Velocity for Binary Alloy Al-Cu in the Undercooled System A. F. Ferreiraa,*, M. A. Oliveira a, D.M. Silva a, M.M.V. Valentea, J.J. Passos and A.R.B. Costa a a Graduate Program on Metallurgical Engineering, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 27255-125, Volta Redonda, Brazil. The phase-field model was applied to simulate the solidification kinetics to undercooled Al-Cu alloy. The relationships between material properties and model parameters are presented. The diffusivity of solute in the solid region and liquid and liquidus temperature are calculated during the simulation of solidification process. As an example, the two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al–Cu binary alloy have been performed. The dendritic morphology calculated by phase-field model showed features that are commonly found in experiments on the solidification. The concentration profiles of solute calculated in the solid region and liquid are not completely horizontal, showing evidence of microsegregation. The velocity of the dendrite tip and solute concentration at the interface front are calculated. It is found that the tip velocity is greatly concentration dependent around interface. In order to validate the growth kinetics predicted by this model tests have been performed for comparison with Stefanescu’s model. The present work based results show good agreement with those obtained by Stefanescu. The dependence of growth velocity on the initial concentration and super-cooling are also demonstrated. Keywords: Solidification; Undercooling; Kinetics; Phase-field model; Al-Cu ...

Enhancing the liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in both aqueous and organic mixtures

Research Article of International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications Enhancing the liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in both aqueous and organic mixtures a,* M.P. Lavin-Lopez, a J.L. Valverde, a L.M. Dominguez-Delgado, a L. Sanchez-Silva and a A. Romero a Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela 12, Ciudad Real, Spain, 13071 Two different solvent mixtures, aqueous and organic, were used in the graphite liquid phase exfoliation. These solvent mixtures were selected through a detailed study of Hansen Solubility Parameters. Different operational sonication parameters (sonication temperature, cycle, amplitude and time) were studied in order to analyze their influence over the exfoliation process. Exfoliated graphite obtained after different sonication conditions were further characterized by RAMAN spectroscopy and thermogravimetric techniques. Obtained results showed that, among all the studied sonication parameters, time is the most important one due to its influence over characteristics of the final exfoliated product. Thus, it was evidenced the defect formation at higher sonication times, being dominant the growth of bulk defects in the structure of exfoliated samples at sonication times superior to 5 hours. As consequence, a careful tuning of the sonication parameters is necessary in order to obtain exfoliated samples with low disorder. Keywords: Graphite, exfoliation, Hansen Solubility Parameters, aqueous solvents, organic solvent ...

Role of Dispersion and Functionalization on Mechanical Properties in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

Research Article of International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications Role of Dispersion and Functionalization on Mechanical Properties in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites Sai Praveen Kumar Medisetti1 and Dr. Nicholas Roberts1 1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Designing composites that employ CNTs as the reinforcing or filler material offer the potential to create bulk materials with greatly enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. Unfortunately, the resulting property enhancement in CNT, and other carbon nanomaterial, enhanced composites vary greatly. In macroscale composites, like carbon fiber/epoxy composites, the large interface area and relatively low surface area to volume ratio of the carbon fiber/epoxy results in excellent transfer of load or thermal energy across the interface, thus allowing the carbon fiber to enhance the mechanical or thermal properties of the composite. In nanocomposites, the high surface area to volume ratio between the reinforcing and matrix materials requires tightly coupled interactions at the interface. Additionally, due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial filler, there is added difficulty in ensuring the reinforcing materials are uniformly dispersed. These two major differences between macroscale and nanoscale composites results in the existing predictive models failing to predict the effective composite properties. To improve the understanding of the roles that interface bonding and the dispersion of the reinforcing material play on the effective properties, we present the results of a detailed experimental study. To study the role of the reinforcing material/matrix interface bonding, we fabricate CNT/polymer composites where the CNTs are functionalized with different functional groups. To study the role of the nanoparticle filler dispersion, we fabricate CNT polymer composites with different dispersing techniques. This work shows that CNT dispersion is critical for fabricating CNT composites with enhanced ...

Eutectic Carbides in Damascus steel Ledeburite Class (Wootz)

Research Article of International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications Eutectic Carbides in Damascus steel Ledeburite Class (Wootz) D.A. Sukhanov1, L.B. Arkhangelsky2 1ASK-MSC Company, Moscow, 117246, Russia 2President Union Smiths, Moscow, 111033, Russia Considered the nature of the change of the morphology of excess carbides in Damascus steel (Wootz), depending on the degree of supercooling of the melt, heat treatment and plastic deformation. Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called "eutectic carbide". It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed ...

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International Research Journal of Materials Sciences and Applications