Enigmatic Domination of Chemical Contaminants and Pollutants in the Measurable Life of Dhaka City


Enigmatic Domination of Chemical Contaminants and Pollutants in the Measurable Life of Dhaka City


AK Mohiuddin
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh


International Research Journal of Public Health-2D code

Background Environmental pollution and food contamination are as old as the civilization itself. It is the result of the improvement of civilization, over usage of nature, industrialization and in certainty a cost for the advancement. It is exceedingly conspicuous in Dhaka city. Air pollution is chiefly because of the vehicle emanation, modern release and consuming of non-renewable energy source. The water asset of Dhaka turns into a noteworthy wellbeing danger because of arsenic contamination, insufficient family unit/modern/restorative waste transfer and mechanical emanating the executives. Food contamination originated from the commercialism of specialists who are doing this purposely to augment benefit. Fundamental advances are to be taken to secure nature for our own reality. This paper uncovers compound pollution and contamination issues of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh.
Purpose of the Study: Brief review of chemical induced pollution and contamination, their consequences and control. Healthcare providers/Policy makers have a major role play to the concerned field. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature search followed by consulting healthcare professionals about environmental pollution and food contamination. Hospital, clinic and company personnel, newspaper journalists, NGO workers given their valuable suggestions and asked help for necessary books, journal, newsletters. A few western magazine and newspapers also observed to get the necessary concern. Projections were based on public life pattern, their food habits, pollution and contamination sources, waste disposal features of urban life as well as industry and hospital waste disposals.Results and Discussion: Pollution and adulteration are the most notorious enemy of mankind. Civilization has its own drawback that even causing destruction of itself. Very few people raised voice on this but crippled by the facts of commercialism. The scope of this article is limited to chemical pollution of air and water, medical or household waste products and food contaminants and adulterants. A few discussions based on real life experience and recent studies or reports from various journals and news articles are summarized here. Findings: Both general people and the old system, are responsible for this unlivable condition of Dhaka city. The population is not the sole for this instance. A sense of poor rules and regulation is always found everywhere. Negligence is becoming a wide spread disease contaminating illiterate to well educated, all kind of people. Research limitations: Many articles and documents found in concerned area of research, but the scope of this research is on its focus point chemical hazards and burdens of Dhaka city. Still the most important aspect is covered, but fact is less amount of recent data found in few areas. Practical Implication: The language of this article is too simple to understand by people with simple literacy. Pharmacists, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article. Social Implication: Any article or research is based on the think doing good for mankind, at least going ahead from the present situation, overcoming problems and measures. The article should create a guideline for the future policy makers of both government and other sectors to review the alarming situation of chemical pollutions and food contaminants of Dhaka, along with the whole Bangladesh. Again, world business is moving around Asian countries, Bangladesh will be an important business hub within next few decades. This article should remind policy makers that we should not forget mankind, giving places to industrialization and development.


Keywords: medical and household waste; health hazard; chemical intoxication; cancer; food poisoning; pathogen

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
AK Mohiuddin.Enigmatic Domination of Chemical Contaminants and Pollutants in the Measurable Life of Dhaka City. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2019; 3:26.


References

1. United Nations. 68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, says UN. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 16 May 2018, New York.
2. Megacity Challenges A stakeholder perspective. A research project conducted by GlobeScan and MRC McLean Hazel Sponsored by SiemensAG. Publisher: Siemens AG Corporate Communications (CC) Wittelsbacherplatz 2, 80333 Munich Publisher: Stefan Denigstefan.
3. Benedito B. Enhancing water security in urban areas. Euractive, Feb 7, 2018.
4. NewNation. Enhancing water security in urban areas. February 9, 2018
5. Daily Sun. SDG-6: Access to Safe Water in Bangladesh. 22 March, 2018.
6. Joal K, Wendell C, Ali M, Aaron MR. The Problem with the Megacities. Champan University Press, 2014.
7. Shishir R. Upholding corporate environmental responsibility and accountability. The Independent, 26 May, 2017
8. Jahan MAA, Akhter N and others. Characterization of tannery wastewater and its treatment by aquatic macrophytes and algae. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 49(4), 233-242, 2014
9. Timothy JI, Ara HD. Pharmacists and Public Health Chapter 7, Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy Editors David B. Troy, ‎Paul Beringer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006
10. WHO Section I Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution Frequently Asked Questions Ambient and Household Air Pollution and Health Update 2014
11. Ahmad KM, Marziat R. Dust pollution in winter. NewNation, November 2, 2018.
12. Kun Y, Jeffrey LJ, Doug A and others Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Feb; 6(2): e1483. doi: [10.1371/journal.pntd.0001483]
13. Wasim MA, Dwaipayan S and Ashim C. Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards Interdiscip Toxicol. 2009 Mar; 2(1): 1–12. Published online 2009 Mar. doi: [10.2478/v10102-009-0001-7] PMID: 21217838
14. Foodborne Illness and Outbreak Investigation Manual Kansas Department of Health and Environment Division of Health Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology 1000 SW Jackson, Suite 210 Topeka, KS 66612 March, 2008
15. Sadiqur R and Rashad A. Pollution all around A cross-section of people share their opinions with New Age Staff Correspondents NEWAGE Bangladesh Oct 26,2018
16. Azmin A. 5 Reasons Dhaka Is The Best City In The World The Daily Star July 02, 2015
17. Pooja D., What is it like to live in Dhaka, Bangladesh? Traveller Comment Quora
18. The Global Livability Index 2018 A free overview. A report by The Economist Intelligence Unit
19. Environment Desk World Bank report 18,000 died from pollution in Dhaka city in 2015: WB businessnews24 September 16, 2018
20. Chen TM, Gokhale J, Shofer S, Kuschner WG. Outdoor air pollution: nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide health effects. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Apr;333(4):249-56. PMID: 17435420 DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31803b900f
21. Daily Prothom Alo. City air pollution marks fall over one decade: Expert. UNB. Dhaka | Jun 08, 2014
22. Mohammad Z A, Eva A, Manjurul H, Joan H, Abdul Q. Air Pollutants and Their Possible Health Effects at Different Locations in Dhaka City. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2018; 9(4): 555768. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2018.09.555768
23. Stanford News. Stanford researchers discuss the reality of air pollution in the Bay Area and beyond. November 20, 2018.
24. Imtiaz S. Dhaka ranks second worst in Air Quality Index. DhakaTribune, March 2nd, 2018
25. Independent Online Desk. Dhaka awaits greater environmental hazards: Experts. The Independent 26 October, 2018.
26. DhakaTribune. Study: Deadly air pollution shortens lives by nearly 2 years. November 20th, 2018
27. Woo MK, Young ES, Mostofa MG, et al. Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9):1947. Published 2018 Sep 6. doi:10.3390/ijerph15091947
28. Ferdous AB. Focusing on overuse and pollution of water. The Financial Express, October 18, 2017.
29. Whitehead P, Bussi G, Hossain MA, Dolk M, Das P, Comber S, Peters R, Charles KJ, Hope R, Hossain MS. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Aug 1;631-632:223-232. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.038. Epub 2018 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 29525703.
30. WHO: 2011. Chapter 8. Controlling infectious diseases in the environment. Guide to Ship Sanitation. 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Copyright © World Health Organization 2011
31. UN Secretary General ‘Water-Related Diseases Responsible For 80 Per Cent of All Illnesses, Deaths In Developing World’, Says Secretary-General In Environment Meetings Coverage and Press Release Day Message Secretary-General Kofi Annan for World Environment Day, 5 June 2003
32. Malik A, Yasar A., Tabinda AB and others. Water-Borne Diseases, Cost of Illness and Willingness to Pay for Diseases Interventions in Rural Communities of Developing Countries Iran J Public Health. 2012; 41(6): 39–49. Published online 2012 Jun 30. PMID: 23113192
33. UNDP Pollution Abatement Strategies for Rivers and Wetlands in and Around Dhaka Ci ty Parliamentary Standing Committee on Ministry of Environment & Forests February 2010
34. Manoj S and Melissa A. The Dhaka Water Services Turnaround © 2017 Asian Development Bank
35. Murshed S, Ali MH, Faruque MO, Choudhury S. Analysis of WASA Supplied Drinking Water Around Dhaka City from Laboratory Analysis Perspective International Journal of Chemical and Physical Sciences IJCPS Vol. 2, No. 6, Nov-Dec 2013 Int J Waste Resour 2018, 8:1 DOI: 10.4172/2252-5211.1000320
36. Daily Asian Age. Rethinking urban ecology for sustainable development. 11 November, 2018
37. Inam A, Refayet UM. Water: Garments’ invisible price. The Daily Star September 22, 2017.
38. Shishir R, Is there enough water? DhakaTribune November 20, 2018.
39. Mitali P and Anwara B. Organic Solid Waste Management and the Urban Poor in Dhaka City. Int J Waste Resour 2017, Vol 8(1): 320 DOI: 10.4172/2252-5211.1000320
40. Akter T, Jhohura FT, Akter F, et al. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2016;35:4. Published 2016 Feb 9. doi:10.1186/s41043-016-0041-5
41. Abu HM. Medical, chemical and radioactive waste: Whose responsibility is it anyway? DhakaTribune, February 14, 2018.
42. Ak Mohiuddin. Medical Waste: A Nobody’s Responsibility After Disposal. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2018; 15(2): 555908. DOI:10.19080/IJESNR.2018.15.555908
43. Mohammad GR, Islam F, Mohammad MKH. Environmental pollution generated from process industries in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 28, Nos. 1/2, 2006. Copyright © 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
44. Manzurul MH, Shafiul AA and others. Pattern of medical waste management: existing scenario in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 36. doi: [10.1186/1471-2458-8-36] PMID: 18221548
45. Simonsen L, Kane A and others. InFocus Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1999, 77 (10) © World Health Organization 1999 Page 789-800
46. Hashem MA, Nur MS and others. Heavy metal assessment of polluted soil around Hatirjheel Lake of Dhaka city, Bangladesh Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 52(1), 61-66, 2017
47. Mahmudul IM. Toxicity of Heavy Metals In Soils And Crops And Its Phyto-Remediation Dissertation For Phd Department Of Soil, Water And Environment university Of Dhaka, Dhaka -1000 May, 2015
48. Rahaman, A., Afroze, J., Bashar, K., Ali, M. and Hosen, M. (2016) A Comparative Study of Heavy Metal Concentration in Different Layers of Tannery Vicinity Soil and Near Agricultural Soil. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 7, 880-889. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2016.712075.
49. Rafiqul MI, Jahiruddin M and others. Consumption of Unsafe Foods: Evidence from Heavy Metal, Mineral and Trace Element Contamination June 2013 Study supported by NFPCSP National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Program USAID FAO
50. Zubair KL, Mohiuddin AK, Bake MA. Food Contaminants: Bangladesh Perspective January 2013 Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1570
51. Nasreen S, Ahmed T. Food adulteration and consumer awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011. J Health Popul Nutr. 2014;32(3):452-64.
52. Park K. Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine. 18th ed. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot; 2005. p. 481.
53. Staff Correspondent. Food adulteration rings alarm bell STAR-RDRS roundtable told most food items adulterated, pose lethal risks to public health. The Daily Star August 11, 2011
54. Mirza FIC Evaluating Position of Bangladesh to Combat ‘Adulterated Food’ Crisis in Light of Human Rights IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 19, Issue 3, Ver. VI (Mar. 2014), PP 45-54e e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p ISSN: 2279-0845.
55. News Desk. Over 75% pasteurised milk unsafe for direct consumption in Bangladesh: icddr,b study. bdnews24.com, 16 May, 2018.
56. Editorial. Food Adulteration. The Independent 25 May, 2017.
57. Kamruzzaman M. Formalin Crime in Bangladesh: A Case Study. European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences 2016; 2(5): 39-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20160205.12
58. Staff Correspondent, bdnews24.com. Govt study finds faecal bacteria in 97 percent ‘filtered’ water jars in Dhaka. December 28, 2017.
59. Star Business Report. 36 Ramadan food items fail BSTI tests. The Daily Star May 16, 2018.
60. Zamir M. What you eat during Ramadan. DhakaTribune June 17th, 2017.
61. Ishita M., Nurun NN, Mustafa M and others. Children living in the slums of Bangladesh face risks from unsafe food and water and stunted growth is common Acta Pædiatrica 2018 107, pp. 1230–1239 ISSN 0803-5253
62. Mohammad S. Heavy Metal’ in Imported Fish: Samples sent for retest. The Daily Star March 18, 2018
63. Arifur MR, Zakir MS and others. Food Adulteration: A Serious Public Health Concern in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 18(1): 1-7, 2015
64. Nishat TS. Food adulteration: A serious health risk for Bangladesh. risingbd.com February 09, 2017.
65. A. Noman Mohammad Atahar. Ali, and Food safety and public health issues in Bangladesh: a regulatory (2013) 8 (1) E uropean Food and Feed Law Review 31-40 [University of Wollongong research Online]
66. Nehreen M, Isreq MHR and others. Food Adulteration and Bio-Magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh. Front. Environ. Sci., 18 May 2016
67. Shafkat R. Letters To The Editor Urea in puffed rice. The Daily Star August 27, 2013
68. Rajib KR. Cover Unsafe Food Unhealthy Life. Daily Sun 3 July, 2015.
69. Editorial. LOOK FOR THE FLIES- THE FUTURE AHEAD! Bangladesh J Medicine 2014; 25: 40-41
70. Mahboob MS. Food Adulteration: The Bangladesh Paradox. Law Journal Bangladesh, [Vol. 2, Jan – Jun, 2015] Published On – June 18, 2015