Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research
Secondary Metabolism and Therapeutic Efficacy of Medicinal Plants
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Medicinal plants constitute main resource base of almost all the traditional healthcare systems. Most of the herbal drugs produced currently in majority of the developing countries lack proper quality specification and standards. Herbal drugs used in traditional medicine may contain a single herb or combinations of several different herbs believed to have complementary and/or synergistic effects. Both the raw drugs and the finished herbal products manufactured contain complex mixtures of organic compounds, such as fatty acids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, terpenes etc. The quality of the finished product is based on the quality of the raw materials. As many as 35% of the medicinal plants used in Indian systems of medicine are highly cross pollinated which indicate the existence of a wide range of genetic variability in the populations of these medicinal plant species which in turn reflected in the variations in the composition of secondary metabolites. Ecological and edaphic as well as seasonal variations also cause changes in the chemical composition of medicinal plants. These facts have to be considered while developing quality parameters! standards of medicinal plants and their finished products.Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of factors that influence secondary metabolism of plants and their impacts on therapeutic efficacy.Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful observation may explore facts behind therapeutic efficacy of these plants.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, herb magazines, journals, and many other sources. Health professionals like qualified doctors, herbal specialists, folk healers, alternative medicine specialists given their valuable suggestions. Research limitations: The limitation lies with the unlimited information about traditional medicines. Validity of those are very hard to prove. Only data obtained from books, newsletters, national and international research-based articles are given here along with surrounding facts mostly visible. A few many plant medicine books consulted earlier but article has fewer scope to add from them.Practical Implication: the article is based on plant medicine which is a specialized topic. Students, researchers and professionals may acquire much from this article.
Keywords: Medicinal Plants; Organic Compounds; Secondary Metabolite; Pollens; Biosynthesis
How to cite this article:
AK MOHIUDDIN.Secondary Metabolism and Therapeutic Efficacy of Medicinal Plants. Journal of Herbal Medicine Research, 2019,4:28.
1.Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 6th Edition David. L. Nelson & Michael. M. Cox Publisher: W.H. Freeman, 2013
2.Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, Charlotte W. Pratt Publisher: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
3.Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy William Charles Evans, Daphne Evans, George Edward Trease Publisher: St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences UK, 2014.
4.Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology Author: James E Robbers; Marilyn K Speedie; Varro E Tyler Publisher: Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, ©1996.
5.Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Author: Michael Heinrich; Joanne Barnes; Simon Gibbons; Elizabeth M Williamson Publisher: Churchill Liv-ingstone, 2012.
6.Medicinal Plants: Ethno-Uses to Biotechnology Era Author: Aly Farag El Sheikha Affiliation: Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamil-ton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
7.Medicinal Plants: Chemistry and Properties M Daniel Publisher: CRC Press, Apr 19, 2016
8.Giweli, A. A., Džamić, A. M., Soković, M., Ristić, M., Janaćković, P., and Marin, P. 2013. “The Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia fruticosa Growing Wild in Libya.” Archives of Biological Sci-ences 1 (65): 321-9.
9.Bruno Leite Sampaio, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel and Fernando Batista Da Costa Ef-fect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 29265. doi: [10.1038/srep29265]
PMCID: PMC4935878 PMID: 27383265
10.Claire Brittain, Claire Kremen, Andrea Garber, Alexandra-Maria Klein Pollination and Plant Resources Change the Nutritional Quality of Almonds for Human Health PLoS One. 2014; 9(2): e90082. doi: [10.1371/journal.pone.0090082] PMCID: PMC3937406 PMID: 24587215
11.Koppert Biological System Why do pollinators visit flowers? URL: https://www.koppert.com/pollination/natural-pollination-bumble-bees/why-do-pollinators-visit-flowers/
12.Ferris Jabr Farming a Toxin to Keep Crops Healthy Scientific American The Sci-ences September 3, 2013 URL: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/farming-a-toxin/
13.Forest Health Handbook North Carolina Forest Service 3rd Edition Publisher: Ryan A. Blaedow September 2011
14.Crop Scouting Manual 2010 Field Crop Integrated Pest Management Program – University of Wisconsin-Extension – Cooperative Extension Service
15.Douglas J. Futuymaa, and Anurag A. Agrawalb Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 27; 106(43): 18054–18061. doi: [10.1073/pnas.0904106106] PMCID: PMC2775342 PMID: 19815508
16.Marcia O. Mello and Marcio C. Silva-Filho Plant-insect interactions: an evolution-ary arms race between two distinct defense mechanisms Braz. J. Plant Physiol. vol.14 no.2 Londrina May/Aug. 2002 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202002000200001
17.Plant Evolutionary Biology Copyright Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht Infor-mation Springer Science+ Business Media B.V. 1988 DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1207-6
18.Neeraj Jain, Rajani S. Nadgauda Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari—A Natu-ral Source of Guggulsterone: Facing a High Risk of Extinction in Its Natural Habi-tat American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 6A, 2013, pp. 57-68. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.46A009.
19.Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja, Jyoti Choudhary, Preeti Sharama, Nidhi Sharma and Suresh C. Joshi A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Com-miphora mukul A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Com-miphora mukul. Journal of Plant Sciences, 7: 113-137. DOI: 10.3923/jps.2012.113.137
20.MEDICINAL PLANTS Utilisation and Conservation 2nd Revised and Enlarged
Edition Editor Prof. Pravin Chandra Trivedi Publisher: Aavishkar Publishers, Dis-tributors
Jaipur 302 003 (Raj) India
21.Schäfer H, Wink M. Medicinally important secondary metabolites in recombinant microorganisms or plants: progress in alkaloid biosynthesis Biotechnol J. 2009 Dec;4(12):1684-703. PMID:19946877 DOI: 10.1002/biot.200900229
22.Michael Wink Chapter 11 Importance of plant secondary metabolites for protection against insects and microbial infections Advances in Phytomedicine Volume 3, 2006, Pages 251-268 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-557X(06)03011-X
23.Michael Wink Plant breeding: importance of plant secondary metabolites for pro-tection against pathogens and herbivores Theoretical and Applied Genetics Janu-ary 1988, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 225–233 |
24.Fumihiko Sato Plant Secondary Metabolism DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001812.pub2
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.