Journal of Plant and Environmental Research

Assessment of Biological iron Removal from the Ground Water

Review article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research Assessment of Biological iron Removal from the Ground Water Baby AbrarUnnisa Begum*1, Dr. N. Devanna2, Dr. P. Ramesh Chandra3, Razia Sultana4 1Associate Professor, Chemistry Department, SWCET, Hyderabad, Telangana, India 2Professor & Head, Chemistry Department, JNTUA, Anantapuram, A.P., India 3Retd. Senior Environmental Scientist, Pollution Control Board, A.P, India 4 Retd Director of EPTRI Telangana Hyderabad, India Iron can be removed from groundwater through the process of chemical oxidation followed by a rapid sand filtration. Different mechanisms (physicochemical and biological) contribute for the iron removal in filters but the dominant mechanism depends on physical and chemical characteristics of the water and which the process conditions applied. Now there are number of methods of biological iron removal which are reported to be much more efficient and cost effective than conventional physicochemical iron removal method. The mechanism of iron removal in filters could be solely biological the physicochemical iron removal mechanisms under certain specific conditions. The paper reviews that the theoretical background of biologically mediated iron removal, the advantages and limitations of the method and a few case studies. A literature review revealed that biological iron removal is not suitable when pH and oxygen concentrations are high and/or NH+4, H2S and Zn are present. Physico chemical removal mechanisms can achieve the same removal efficiency under the conditions that are reported to be favorable for biological iron removal. Biological iron removal is likely to be supplementary to conventional physico chemical iron removal. Keywords: groundwater, filtration, iron removal, biological oxidation, ...

Nitrogen Release Dynamics of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei litters as Influenced by Polyphenol, Lignin and Nitrogen Contents

Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research Nitrogen Release Dynamics of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei litters as Influenced by Polyphenol, Lignin and Nitrogen Contents Abebe Abay Central Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Centre, P. O. Box 31037, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Litter mineralization is a crucial process in providing nutrients through decomposition to plants, which also depends in the chemical composition of the litter and soil properties as well. Decomposition rate of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei in Luvisol was investigated in relation to their nutrient release dynamics such as NH4+ and NO3- in relation to their initial concentrations of lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content and their ratios. The dynamic was followed in an incubation pot experiment, CRD design in replication. Erythrina abyssinian has an average of 4.05%, 9.7% and 2.04% TN, lignin and total polyphenol content respectively. Erythrina brucei has also an average of 3.05 %, 12.63 % and 1.05 % content of TN, lignin and total polyphenol respectively. The samples of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei were ground and incorporated with Luvisol in pots. Each treatment and control were sampled and analyzed on weekly basses to determine the amount of ammonium and nitrate released. The lignin and total polyphenol was significantly positively correlated with the release of NH4+, while the NO3- showed significant negative correlations with the release of ammonium. From the experiment it was observed that the Erythrina abyssinian with lower content of lignin and high in TN has released the nutrients faster where as Erythrina brucei with high lignin and low total polyphenol content released slowly. In general, these leguminous trees released NH4+and NO3- easily because of their high total nitrogen content and low lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content. They attained their half-life within 2–3 weeks. Therefore, Erythrina abyssinica and Erythrina ...

Element content, growth and metabolic changes in Cu- and Cd- stressed Phaseolus vulgaris plants

Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research Element content, growth and metabolic changes in Cu- and Cd- stressed Phaseolus vulgaris plants Mahmoud E. Younis *, Shaimaa M. N. Tourky and Shaimaa E. A. Elsharkawy Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt A large-scale pot experiment was accomplished for investigation of the varied effects of different concentrations of Cu and Cd on certain growth and metabolic attributes of roots and shoots of Phaseolus vulgaris plants, over a period of three weeks. Plants supplemented with Cu and Cd at the concentrations of 10-6 and 10-3 M, showed increased levels of Cu and Cd in both shoots and roots, above those levels in controls. However, Cu or Cd accumulation was lower in shoots than in roots. As compared with control levels, the low (10-6 M) concentration of Cu induced either a significant or an insignificant increase in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, PS II activity, glucose, proline and glycine contents in both roots and shoots. Otherwise, insignificant decreases in fructose, sucrose, polysaccharides, total saccharides, total soluble-N, protein –N, DNA and RNA contents, in the same test plant parts, were obtained. A reverse situation was however observed with the high concentration (10-3 M) of Cu as well as with the low and high concentrations (10-3 and 10-6 M) of Cd. In general, the observed adverse effects were more pronounced with Cd at (10-6 M) as compared with those maintained with Cu at the same concentration. Furthermore, the most detrimental adverse effects were apparent upon administration of the high (10-3 M) concentration of Cd. The prominence of the above mentioned changes in growth and metabolism to stress tolerance in common bean is discussed. Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Cu, Cd, growth parameters, photosynthetic components, carbohydrate and nitrogenous constituents and nucleic acids ...

Effectof Soil Factors on Net N-Mineralization and Decomposition Rate of Organic Nutrient Sources

Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research Effectof Soil Factors on Net N-Mineralization and Decomposition Rate of Organic Nutrient Sources Abebe Abay Central Ethiopia Environment and Forest Research Institute Rate of Mineralization for Organic Nutrient Sources (ONS) depends on temperature, soil moisture, soil chemical, physical, biological properties as well as the chemical composition of the ONS. Erythrinaabyssinica (EA), Erythrinabrucei(EB) and Enseteventricosum(EV) (ONS) were randomly collected from Sidama and Wolaita zones of southern Ethiopia. Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) depths were also collected from Cambisols of Wolaita and Luvisol of Sidama areas. Physicochemical properties of the composite soils were analyzed following standard analytical methods. For the greenhousemineralization potexperiment, 21 treatments for each week were designed for EA, EB and EVin Luvisol and Cambisols. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The incubation was carried out in green house for five consecutive weeks., the average TN contents of EA, EB and EV were 4.05, 3.35 and 2.56%, respectively. Based on the TN contents, the amount of ONS equivalent to 100 kg urea + 100 kg DAP ha-1, was calculatedand incorporated into 200g of each soil type separately. The pots were watered to field capacity every day or two.In general, the study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil chemical and physical properties such as pH, particle size, organic carbon and total nitrogen content on rate of mineralization of these ONS. Each week determination of OC and TN contents were conducted. The results of mineralization revealed that the TN concentration was highest in the first week and became low and constant at the third to fifth week. The same trend was followed by OC constant declining in both soil types. There was a reduction of C/N ratio in both soil types. The ONS had medium ...

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Journal of Plant and Environmental Research