Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences


Evaluation of Fungicides with the combinations of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties to Manage Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary) in Highlands of Guji Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Research Article of Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences Evaluation of Fungicides with the combinations of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties to Manage Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary) in Highlands of Guji Zone, Southern Ethiopia Arega Amdie, Solomon Teshome, Tekalign Afeta, and Tekile Bobo Oromia Agriculture Research Institute (IQQO); Bore Agricultural Research Center (BOARC); Horticulture and Spice Team Bore, P.O. Box 21, Guji, Ethiopia. Potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) is one of the most devastating plant diseases world-wide and is feared globally by farmers and industry. There is little information on the type of fungicide to be sprayed to control late blight for optimum production of the crop in the study area. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at Bore Agricultural Research Center, Southern Ethiopia during the 2015 and 2017 cropping season to evaluate fungicides with the combination of Potato varieties to manage late blight and to assess the cost and benefits of different fungicides on Gudanie and Jalenie potato varieties. The treatments consisted of two (2) Potato varieties Gudanie and Jalenie currently under production but differ in their late blight reaction and three (3) fungicides Ridomil Gold MZ 63.5%WP, Mancozeb 80% WP2 and Matico and one (1) unsprayed treatments were used as experimental materials. The experiment was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement and replicated three times per treatment. The improved potato varieties called Gudanie and Jalenie were planted as the test crop in a plot size of 3 m * 2.1 m with intra and inter-row spacing of 0.30 and 0.75 m respectively. Data were collected on growth, yield, yield components and disease incidence and severity. The two years combined data analysis results revealed that the interaction effect of fungicides and potato varieties had ...

Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Ethiopia: Progress and Prospects

Research Article of Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Ethiopia: Progress and Prospects Belay Zerga1, 2, Bikila Workineh 1, 3 , Demel Teketay4 , Muluneh Woldetsadik5 1.Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University; 2.Department of Natural Resources Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Wolkite University; 3.Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University; 4.Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (BUAN); 5.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University This paper critically reviewed the status of Participatory or Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) in the case of Ethiopia. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa between 3o and 15o North latitude and 33o and 48o east longitude. The country covers 1.13 million square kilometers, with a wide altitudinal variation ranging from 110 meters below sea level (b.s.l.) in Kobar Sink (Dallol) to 4,620 meters above sea level (a.s.l.) at Ras Dashen (Ras Dejen). The Great African Rift Valley runs diagonally across the country from northeast to southwest separating the western and southeastern highlands. This physiographic feature enabled the ecosystems to host a great diversity of flora and fauna resources. The flora of Ethiopia is estimated to comprise about 6,500-7,000 plant species; 12 per cent of these plant species considered as endemic. Forests provide numerous ecosystem services, products for human consumption, and habitat for countless species. Unfortunately, deforestation has occurred at alarming scales and its effects have threatened environmental and livelihood sustainability. In Ethiopia, for the most part, forests have been managed under the support of national agencies, often with the exclusion or outright removal of local people. No sustainable forest management program has been put in place ...

MILK PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION IN WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION: A REVIEW

Review Article of Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences MILK PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION IN WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION: A REVIEW Kubkomawa, H.I. Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria The objective of this paper was to review milk processing techniques and consumption rate in West African Sub-Region. The Nigerian dairy industry represents an important component of the agribusiness sector of the economy with great economic, nutritional, and social benefits. Processing of fresh milk is achieved by local techniques into various traditional milk products. About 47kg of liquid milk per individual is consumed per year in Nigeria compared to an average of 25kg for the sub-Saharan Africa region. Consumers display strong preference for locally produced and processed products such as nono (sour milk), kindirmo (sour yoghurt), maishanu (local butter), cuku (Fulani cheese) and wara (Yoruba cheese). The choice of preference is based on flavour, perceived nutritional value and regional customs and beliefs. Similarly, the local products are believed to be cheaper than their imported counterparts. Sour milk and local butter accounted for over 30% of all dairy products consumption. Urban household consume about 20% more dairy products than rural household. Pastoralists are mostly the producers, but consume less of the products. Modern milk processing techniques and higher consumption rate should be encouraged in West African Sub-Region to ensure improved human and animal productivity in the region. Keywords:   Milk Processing Techniques, Consumption Rate, Nutritional Benefits, West Africa ...

Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis and Associated Risk Factors in Jimma Municipal Abattoir

Research Article of Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis and Associated Risk Factors in Jimma Municipal Abattoir Ataro Abera Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma, Ethiopia Haemonchus contortus is a blood sucking nematode parasite of sheep all over the tropics and subtropics which causes retarded growth, lower productivity and even mortality in young animals. A cross sectional study was conducted from April, 2018 to May, 2018 in sheep slaughtered at Jimma municipal abattoir in Jimma town conducted using purposive. Purposively, sheep were selected during ante-mortem examination and the necessary information was recorded in data collection format. In the present study, a total of 384 sheep (217 males and 167 females) were slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir and inspected for the presence or absence of the parasite. Accordingly, the findings of this study revealed that an overall prevalence of 33.1% was recorded. High prevalence of disease occur in poor body condition score 117/245(47.8) and low prevalence occur in good body condition score 10/139 (7.2%) and there was statistically significant differences (P= 0.000) between body condition scores. Among the male and female slaughtered sheep, 70 (32.3%) and 57 (34.2%) were found to be positive for H. contortus, respectively; and shows no statistical significant difference (P >0.05) between sex. Based on age group, prevalence of haemonchosis was 57 (30.5%) and 70 (35.5 %), in young and adult, respectively. The result from the present study indicated that there was no statistical significance (P > 0.05) among age groups. There is no statistical significance difference (P > 0.05) between urban and rural origin of sheep. In the present study, moderate prevalence of H. contortus was observed in sheep during the study period. Therefore, strategic prevention and control measures should be implemented to decrease the burden of the ...

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Journal of Theoretical and Applied sciences

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