A Skipping Breakfast Everyday Keeps Well-being Away


A Skipping Breakfast Everyday Keeps Well-being Away


AK Mohiuddin

Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh


Open Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Breakfast, the first meal of the day, is considered the most important meal throughout the day. As nutritionist Adelle Davis famously put it back in the 1960s: “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper”. Breakfast is most commonly skipped meal more than lunch and dinner specifically in the young adult in the university study period and those who wake up late. Lack of time is the main reason behind skipping meals, in general, lack of appetite, inability to cook, fasting/religion, and not being hungry. Many people are used to be in a hurry for job, business, children’s’ school in the morning where a filled stomach may prevent them to walk a long way. It is obvious that the irregular omission of breakfast may be effective in energy intake reduction over the next 24 hours and in this day, exercise performance may be compromised. There is no evidence that breakfast skipping reduces overeating or prevent weight gain. Some people argue that breakfast and good health is a marketing strategy by breakfast companies.

Abbreviations: Body Mass Index (BMI); Cardiovascular Disease (CVD); Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Coronary heart disease (CHD); European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC); Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG); Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP); Helicobacter pylori (HP); Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); Institutional Review Board (IRB); Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM); Waist Circumference (WC)


Keywords: Breakfast; Meal; Appetite; Omission; Energy; Metabolism; Time; Fasting; Skipping meal

Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:
AK Mohiuddin. A Skipping Breakfast Everyday Keeps Well-being Away.Open Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2019, 2:7


References:
1. Zilberter T, Zilberter EY. Breakfast: to skip or not to skip. Front Public Health 2014; 2:59; doi:10.3389/ fpubh .2014.00059
2. Timlin MT, Pereira MA. Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases. Nutr Rev 2007; 65:268–81.
3. Marangoni F, Poli A, Agostoni C, et al. A consensus document on the role of breakfast in the attainment and maintenance of health and wellness. Acta Biomed 2009; 80:166–71.
4. Chen J, Cheng J, Liu Y, Tang Y, Sun X, Wang T. Association between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study. J Transl Med 2014; 12:348; doi:10.1186/s1296 7-014-0348-1
5. Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJP, Clark CA, Block G. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Coll Nutr 2003; 22:296–302.
6. Purslow LR, Sandhu MS, Forouhi N, Young EH, Luben RN, Welch AA, et al. Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: prospective study of 6,764 middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167:188–92.
7. Mekary RA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: breakfast omission, eating frequency, and snacking. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95:1182–9.
8. Deshmukh-Taskar PR, Nicklas TA, O’Neil CE, Keast DR, Radcliffe JD, Cho S. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110(6):869–78.
9. Smith KJ, Gall SL, McNaughton SA, Blizzard L, Dwyer T, Venn AJ. Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92(6):1316–25.
10. Pereira MA, Erickson E, McKee P, Schrankler K, Raatz SK, Lytle LA, et al. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children. J Nutr 2011; 141:163–8.
11. Haupt A. Food and Mood: 6 Ways Your Diet Affects How You Feel. Health 2011; Usnews. Available via http:// health.usnews.com/health-news/diet fitness/diet/
articles/2011/08/31/food-and-mood-6-waysyour-diet-affects-how-you-feel
12. Moschiano F, Messina P, D’Amico D, et al. Headache, eating and sleeping behaviors and lifestyle factors in preadolescents and adolescents: preliminary results from an Italian population study. Neurol Sci 2012; 33:87–90; doi:10.1007/s1007 2-012-1048-3
13. O’Neil CE, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Hayes D, Jana L, Klinger SE, Stephenson-Martin S. The role of breakfast in health: definition and criteria for a quality breakfast. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014; 114 Suppl 12:S8–26.
14. Berry MK, Russo A, Wishart JM, Tonkin A, Horowitz M, Jones KL. Effect of solid meal on gastric emptying of, and glycemic and cardiovascular responses to, liquid glucose in older subjects. Am J Physiol 2002; 284:G655–62.
15. Betts JA, Chowdhury EA, Javier T, Gonzalez JT, Judith D, Richardson JD, et al. Conference on ‘Roles of sleep and circadian rhythms in the origin and nutritional management of obesity and metabolic disease’ Cuthbertson Medal Lecture. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? Proc Nutr Soc 2016; 75:464–74.
16. de Castro JM. Accommodation of particular foods or beverages into spontaneously ingested evening meals. Appetite 1994; 23:57–66.
17. Betts JA, Thompson D, Richardson JD, Chowdhury EA, Jeans M, Holman GD, et al. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP)—examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726]. Trials 2011; 12:172–84.
18. Ruge T, Hodson L, Cheeseman J, Dennis AL, Fielding BA, Humphreys SM, et al. Fasted to fed trafficking of Fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94:1781–8.
19. Dubois L, Girard M, Kent MP, Farmer A, TatoneTokuda F. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(01):19–28.
20. Silliman K, Rodas-Fortier K, Neyman M. A survey of dietary and exercise habits and perceived barriers to following a healthy lifestyle in a college population. Cal J Health Promot 2004; 18:281.
21. Sakamaki R, Toyama K, Amamoto R, Liu CJ, Shinfuku N. Nutritional knowledge, food habits and health attitude of Chinese university students–a cross sectional study–. Nutr J 2005; 4(1):1.
22. Gross SM, Bronner Y, Welch C, Dewberry-Moore N, Paige DM. Breakfast and lunch meal skipping patterns among fourth grade children from selected public schools in urban, suburban, and rural Maryland. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(3):420–3.
23. Savige G, MacFarlane A, Ball K, Worsley A, Crawford D. Snacking behaviours of adolescents and their association with skipping meals. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2007; 4(1):36.
24. De Bate RD, Topping M, Sargent RG. Racial and gender differences in weight status and dietary practices among college students. Adolescence 2001; 36(144):819.
25. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: Nutrition First Results—Foods and Nutrients, 2011–12. Australian Government, Canberra, Australia, 2014.
26. Pendergast FJ, Livingstone KM, Worsley A, McNaughton SA. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2016; 13:125.
27. Mulye TP, Park MJ, Nelson CD, Adams SH, Irwin CE Jr, Brindis CD. Trends in adolescent and young adult health in the United States. J Adolesc Health 2009; 45(1):8–24.
28. Betts NM, Amos RJ, Keim K, Peters P, Stewart B. Ways young adults view foods. J Nutr Educ 1997; 29(2):73–9.
29. Jabs J, Devine CM. Time scarcity and food choices: an overview. Appetite 2006; 47(2):196–204.
30. Afolabi W, Towobola SK, Oguntona CR, Olayiwola IO. Pattern of fast food consumption and contribution to nutrient intakes of Nigerian University students. Int J Educ Res 2013; 1(5):1–10.
31. Ukegbu PO, Uwaegbute AC, Usonka VA. Contribution of snacks to energy and nutrient intake of undergraduates in a Nigerian university. Malaysian J Nutr 2015; 21(1):15–23.
32. Eldisoky ST. Interactive relation between dietary habits and spread of malnutrition diseases. Ann Agric Sci (Cairo) 2003; 48(2):663–75.
33. Shaw ME. Adolescent breakfast skipping: an Australian study. Adolescence 1998; 33(132):851–61.
34. Danquah AO, Odjoji Y, Graham-Acquaah S, Steiner-Asiedu M. A pilot study of the dietary and physical activity behaviours of international students: implications for health promotion. Afr J Food Sci 2010; 4(3):86–92.
35. Yao CZ, Shun ML, Guo LX, Hui MS, Jian CW. Influences of protein to energy ratios in breakfast on mood, alertness and attention in the healthy undergraduate students. Health 2011; 3:383–93; doi:10.4236/health.2011.36065
36. Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006; 3:16.
37. Munmun SB, Shatabdi G. Fast food preferences and food habits among students of private universities in Bangladesh. South East Asia Journal of Public Health 2013;3(1):61-64
38. Austin GL, Ogden LG, Hill JO. Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals: 1971–2006. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93(4):836–43; doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.000141 [Epub 2011 Feb 10]
39. Astbury NM, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Breakfast consumption affects appetite, energy intake, and the metabolic and endocrine responses to foods consumed later in the day in male habitual breakfast eaters. J Nutr 2011; 141(7):1381–9.
40. Leidy HJ, Ortinau LC, Douglas SM, Hoertel HA. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/ obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):677–88; doi:10.3945/ ajcn.112.053116
41. Levitsky DA, Pacanowski CR. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiol Behav 2013; 119:9–16; doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.006
42. McCrory MA. Meal skipping and variables related to energy balance in adults: a brief review, with emphasis on the breakfast meal. Physiol Behav 2014; 134:51–4.
43. Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, Astrup A. Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes 2000; 24:38–48.
44. Clayton DJ, Barutcu A, Machin C, Stensel DJ, James LJ. Effect of breakfast omission on energy intake and evening exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015a; 47:2645–52.
45. Clayton DJ, Stensel DJ, James LJ. Effect of breakfast omission on subjective appetite, metabolism, acylated ghrelin and GLP-17–36 during rest and exercise. Nutrition 2016; 32(2):179–85.
46. Clayton DJ, Stensel DJ, Watson P, James LJ. The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and energy intake. Appetite 2014; 82:173–9.
47. James LJ, Funnell MP, Milner S. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack. Appetite 2015; 95:132–7.
48. Clayton DJ, James LJ. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance. Proc Nutr Soc 2016; 75(3):319–27; doi:10.1017/S0029665115004243
49. Jovanovic A, Leverton E, Solanky B, Ravikumar B, Snaar JE, Morris PG, et al. The second meal phenomenon is associated with enhanced muscle glycogen storage in humans. Clin Sci 2009; 117:119–27.
50. Gonzalez JT, Veasey RC, Rumbold PLS, Stevenson EJ. Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males. Br J Nutr 2013; 110:721–32.
51. Yoko W, Isao S and others. Skipping Breakfast is Correlated with Obesity. J Rural Med. 2014; 9(2): 51–58. doi: [10.2185/jrm.2887] PMID: 25648986
52. Thompson-McCormick JJ, Thomas JJ and others. Breakfast skipping as a risk correlate of overweight and obesity in school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010; 19(3): 372–382. PMID: 20805082
53. Burazeri G, Hyska J, Mone I, Roshi E. Breakfast Skipping Is an Independent Predictor of Obesity but not Overweight Among Children in a Southeastern European Population. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 Jun;86(3-4):242-248. PMID: 28806888 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000272
54. Isgin K, Bellikci-Koyu E and others. Journal of the academy of Nutrition and Dietetics September 2017 Volume 117, Issue 9, Supplement, Page A19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2017.06.352
55. Ana S. The effects of skipping breakfast depend on your weight. MedicalNewsToday 29 November 2017, Powered by TrendMD
56. Chika H, Satoru K and others. Skipping breakfast and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian and Pacific regions: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine Volume 53, Issues 4–5, October–November 2011, Pages 260-267 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.08.030
57. Huang C, Hu H, Fan Y and others. Associations of breakfast skipping with obesity and health-related quality of life: evidence from a national survey in Taiwan. International Journal of Obesity volume 34, pages 720–725 (2010)
58. Danielle Z. Skipping breakfast to lose weight can INCREASE the risk of obesity and heart disease, a study claims. Dailymail.co.uk 2 October 2017
59. Nora B, Fiona R and others. Breakfast Skipping and overweight/obesity among European adolescents, a cross-sectional analysis of the HELENA dataset: a DEDIPAC study. [version 1; referees: 1 approved with reservations]. HRB Open Res 2018, 1:19 (https://doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.12847.1)
60. Sharma K, Shah K, Brahmbhatt P, Kandre Y. Skipping breakfast and the risk of coronary artery disease. QJM. 2018 Oct 1;111(10):715-719. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy162. PMID: 30016512
61. Leah EC, Stephanie EC and others. A Prospective Study of Breakfast Eating and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in a Cohort of Male U.S. Health Professionals. Circulation. 2013 Jul 23; 128(4): 337–343. doi: [10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001474] PMID: 23877060
62. Sakata K, Matumura Y and others. Relationship between skipping breakfast and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the national nutrition survey data. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2001 Oct;48(10):837-41. PMID: 11725527
63. Cayres SU, Júnior IF and others. Breakfast frequency, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors as markers in adolescents. Cardiol Young. 2016 Feb;26(2):244-9. doi: 10.1017/S1047951115000050. Epub 2015 Feb 10. PMID: 25668394
64. Jung SJ, Park SH and others. Beneficial effects of Korean traditional diets in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients. J Med Food. 2014 Jan; 17(1):161-71. PMID: 24456367 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2013.3042
65. Uemura M, Yatsuya H and others. Breakfast Skipping is Positively Associated With Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence From the Aichi Workers’ Cohort Study. J Epidemiol. 2015; 25(5): 351–358. doi: [10.2188/jea.JE20140109] PMID: 25787236
66. Rania AM, Giovannucci E and others. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: breakfast omission, eating frequency, and snacking. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May; 95(5): 1182–1189. doi: [10.3945/ajcn.111.028209] PMID: 22456660
67. Maki KC, Phillips-Eakley AK, Smith KN. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Adv Nutr. 2016 May; 7(3): 613S–621S. doi: [10.3945/an.115.010314] PMID: 27184288
68. Iqbal K., Schwingshackl L., Gottschald M., Knüppel S., Stelmach-Mardas M., Aleksandrova K., Boeing H. Breakfast quality and cardiometabolic risk profiles in an upper middle-aged German population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017;71:1312–1320. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.116
69. Mekary R.A., Giovannucci E., Cahill L., Willett W.C., van Dam R.M., Hu F.B. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: Breakfast consumption and eating frequency. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013;98:436–443. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.057521.
70. Mekary R.A., Giovannucci E., Willett W.C., van Dam R.M., Hu F.B. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: Breakfast omission, eating frequency, and snacking. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012;95:1182–1189. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.028209.
71. Sakurai M, Yoshita M. Skipping breakfast and 5‐year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Japanese men and women. Obes Sci Pract. 2017 Jun; 3(2): 162–170. doi: [10.1002/osp4.106] PMID: 28702211
72. Nas A, Mirza N and others. Impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of energy balance and metabolic risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun;105(6):1351-1361. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151332. PMID: 28490511
73. Hoyland A, Dye L, Lawton CL. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutr Res Rev. 2009;22(2):220–243. doi: 10.1017/S0954422409990175.
74. Sunram-Lea SI, Foster JK, Durlach P, Perez C. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults. Behav Brain Res. 2002;134(1-2):505–516. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(02)00086-4.
75. Scholey AB, Harper S, Kennedy DO. Cognitive demand and blood glucose. Physiol Behav. 2001;73(4):585–592. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9384(01)00476-0.
76. Messier C. Glucose improvement of memory: a review. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;490(1-3):33–57. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.02.043.
77. Morohoshi E, Adachi S. Effect of the different types of interventions on meal aimed to control the postprandial blood glucose levels: profiles of young healthy women monitored by the self measuring method. J Jpn Health Med Assoc. 2015;23:279–288.
78. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;149(1):63–71. doi: 10.1007/s002139900335.
79. Veasey RC, Gonzalez JT, Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Stevenson E. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect appetite, cognitive performance and mood later in the day. Appetite. 2012;59(2):636–641. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.05.103.
80. Wesnes KA, Pincock C, Richardson D, Helm G, Hails S. Breakfast reduces declines in attention and memory over the morning in schoolchildren. Appetite. 2003;41(3):329–331. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2003.08.009.
81. Hoyland A, Lawton C, Dye L. Influence of breakfast on cognitive performance, appetite and mood in healthy young adults. Appetite. 2008;50(2):560–566. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.09.036.
82. Rachel CV, Haskell-Ramsay CF and others. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women. Nutrients. 2015 Jul; 7(7): 5712–5732. doi: [10.3390/nu7075250] PMID: 26184302
83. Keski-Rahkonen A., Kaprio J., Rissanen A., Virkkunen M., Rose R.J. Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003;57:842. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601618.
84. Lee SA, Park EC, Ju YJ, Lee TH, Han E, Kim TH. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status. Appetite. 2017 Jul 1;114:313-319. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.007. Epub 2017 Apr 8. PMID: 28400301
85. Katie A, Lawton CL, Louise D. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 425. doi: [10.3389/fnhum.2013.00425] PMID: 23964220
86. Tanaka M, Mizuno K, Fukuda S, Shigihara Y, Watanabe Y. Relationships between dietary habits and the prevalence of fatigue in medical students. Nutrition. 2008 Oct;24(10):985-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2008.05.003. Epub 2008 Jun 17. PMID: 18562170
87. Witbracht M, Keim NL, Forester S3, Widaman A, Laugero K. Female breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure. Physiol Behav. 2015 Mar 1;140:215-21. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.044. Epub 2014 Dec 27. PMID: 25545767
88. Helwa HAA, Mitaeb AA. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and predictors of its pain intensity among Palestinian female university students. BMC Womens Health. 2018; 18: 18.doi: [10.1186/s12905-018-0516-1] PMID: 29334974
89. Fujiwara T. Skipping breakfast is associated with dysmenorrhea in young women in Japan. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Nov;54(6):505-9. PMID: 14522696 DOI: 10.1080/09637480310001622369
90. Fujiwara T, Sato N, Awaji H, Sakamoto H, Nakata R. Skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 6:23-31. PMID: 19468949 DOI: 10.1080/09637480802260998
91. Choung RS, Locke GR. Epidemiology of IBS. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011;40:1–10.
92. Chang L, Heitkemper MM. Gender differences in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1686–1701.
93. Kanazawa M, Fukudo S. Effects of fasting therapy on irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Behav Med. 2006;13(3):214-20. PMID: 17078771 DOI: 10.1207/s15327558ijbm1303_4
94. McKenzie YA, Bowyer RK, Leach H, Gulia P, Horobin J, O’Sullivan NA, Pettitt C, Reeves LB, Seamark L, Williams M, et al. British Dietetic Association systematic review and evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update) J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016;29:549–575.
95. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management. Clinical Guideline [CG61]. Published: February 2008. Last updated: February 2015. Cited 2017-01-03. URL: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg61/resources/irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management-975562917829.
96. Jenny H. Women would rather do their hair than eat breakfast: One in three skip meal in order to get ready for the day dailymail.co.uk 25 January 2014
97. Weinhouse B. Beauty 18 Bad Habits That Are Thinning Your Hair. Reader’s Digest URL: https://www.rd.com/health/beauty/bad-habits-that-cause-thinning-hair/
98. RANI H et al (2015) ‘Oral malodour among adolescents and its association with health behaviour and oral health status’, International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2015
99. Verdalet-Olmedo M, Sampieri CL and others. Omission of breakfast and risk of gastric cancer in Mexico. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2012 Nov 15; 4(11): 223–229. doi: [10.4251/wjgo.v4.i11.223] PMID: 23444276
100. Su-Lin L, Canavarro C and others. Irregular Meal Timing Is Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastritis. ISRN Nutr. 2013; 2013: 714970. doi: [10.5402/2013/714970] PMID: 24967249
101. Cindy H. Skipping Meals & Stomach Cramps. www.livestrong.com Aug. 14, 2017.
102. Gabriel EN. Gallstones. Niger J Surg. 2013 Jul-Dec; 19(2): 49–55. doi: [10.4103/1117-6806.119236] PMID: 24497751
103. Acalovschi M. Cholesterol gallstones: from epidemiology to prevention. Postgrad Med J 2001;77 :221–229