Research Article of Open Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Esophageal cancer in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso): epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic and anatomopathological aspects
Mâli Koura1, Ollo Roland Somé2, Damien Z Ouattara3, P. Delphine Napon-Zongo4, Valentin Konségré5, Sosthène K Somda6, Aboubacar Coulibaly6, Nogognan Zouré1, Euloges B Kamboulé1, Christiane C Béré6, Inès N Compaoré7, Appolinaire Sawadogo1.
1Hepato-gastroenterology department, Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2General and Digestive Surgery Department, Oncology Unit, Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Hepato-gastroenterology department, Regional University Hospital Center, Ouahigouya, Burkina Faso; 4Department of Medicine, Bogodogo University Hospital Center, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 5Department of Anatomy, Pathology and Cytology, Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 6Gastroenterology Department, Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital Center, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.7Medical Department, El Fatel Suka Clinic, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
Introduction. Our study aims to strengthen the literature on esophageal cancer in Burkina Faso by assessing its endoscopic frequency and describing its epidemiological, anatomical-clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2018. Included in this study were all patients who had upper gastrointestinal fibroscopy (UGIF) with biopsy, and in whom esophageal cancer was confirmed histologically. The variables studied were: age, sex, main circumstance of diagnosis, endoscopic appearance, and histological type, as well as risk factors. Results: During the study period, 29 cases of esophageal cancer were diagnosed, with an average endoscopic incidence of 8.3 cases/year. The average age was 58.34 years. There were 17 (58.6%) males, or a sex ratio of 1.5. The definite risk factors of alcohol consumption and active smoking were present in 31.0% of patients. The average duration of consultation was 65.8 days, and the main symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (72.4%). The preferred location was the lower third for nearly three-quarters of tumors; and the budding form was dominant (56.3%). At histology, squamous cell carcinoma was the dominant type (65.5%). Conclusion: This study shows us an increase in the average annual incidence of esophageal cancer in Bobo-Dioulasso. It mainly affects males from the age of 50, with clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics similar to those found in the literature. The great delay in diagnosis limits the therapeutic options for this cancer with a formidable prognosis.
Keywords: cancer, esophagus, epidemiology, endoscopy, histology, Bobo-Dioulasso.
How to cite this article:
Mâli Koura, Ollo Roland Somé, Damien Z Ouattara, P. Delphine Napon-Zongo, Valentin Konségré, Sosthène K Somda, Aboubacar Coulibaly, Nogognan Zouré, Euloges B Kamboulé, Christiane C Béré, Inès N Compaoré, Appolinaire Sawadogo.Esophageal cancer in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso): epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic and anatomopathological aspects.Open Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2019, 2:23. DOI: 10.28933/ojgh-2019-11-0705
1. Benamouzig R., Ezratty V., Munoz N. Epidemiological factors and mechanism of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus. Gastroenterol Clin Biol,1994, 18: 26-32
2. Vioque J., Barber X., Bolumar F., Porta M., Santibáñez M., García de la Hera M., and al. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking a case-control study in Spain. BioMed Central Cancer 2008; 8:221.
3. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in Globocan 2012. International Journal of Cancer 2015; 136: 359 – 386.
4. Hepato-gastroenterology, digestive surgery. Collegial College of Academics in Hepato-Gastroenterology, 4th edition, Elsevier Masson, 2018; pp.369 -370.
5. Zeitoun J.D., Chryssostalis A., Lefevre J. Hepato-gastroenterology, digestive surgery, 6th edition, Venazobres-Grego, 2017: pp.96 -97.
6. Alliance des Ligues francophones africaines et méditerranéens. Cancer in French-speaking Africa. 2017, www.aliam.org.
7. Bagny A., Bouglouga O., Djibril A.M., M’ba B.K., Kaaga L., Lawson A.L, and al. Esophageal cancer: epidemiological, clinical and histological aspects at the CHU Campus in Lomé (Togo). J. Afr. Hepatol. Gastroenterol, 2012, 6:24-27.
8. Bouglouga O., Lawson Ananissoh L.M., Bagny A., Kaaga L., Redah D. Descriptive and analytical study of esophageal cancer in Togo. Pan African Medical Journal, 2014; 19:315.
9. Maiga Y.M., Diallo G., Dembélé M., Ndiaye M., Ongoiba N., Sanogo Z. Esophageal cancer: epidemiological, clinical and prognostic aspects. Acta Endoscopica 2002; 32(1): 455-9.
10. Dia D, Bassène M.L., Ndiaye-Bâ N., Halim A., Diallo S., Fall S., and al. Endoscopic aspects of esophageal cancer in Dakar (Senegal): study of 76 observations. Med Trop 2011; 71: 286 -288.
11. Ntagirabiri R., Karayuba R., Ndayisaba G., Nduwimana A., Niyondiko J.C. Esophageal Cancer: Epidemiological, Clinical and Histopathological Aspects over a 24-Years Period at Kamenge University Hospital, Bujumbura, Burundi. Open Journal of Gastroenterology 2016; 6, 106-110.
12. Wakhisi J., Patel K., Buziba N., Rotich J. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. African Health Sciences 2005; 5(2): 156-163.
13. Sawadogo A., Ilboudo P.D., Durand G., Peghini M., Branquet D., Sawadogo B.A., et al. Epidemiology of digestive tract cancers in Burkina Faso: contribution of 8000 endoscopies performed at the SANOU Souro National Hospital Center (SSNHC) in Bobo-Dioulasso. Black African Medicine 2000, 47 (7): 342 – 345.
14. Kaboré A.M. Esophageal pathology in a hospital setting in Ouagadougou. Five years of upper digestive endoscopy. Thesis Med. Ouagadougou 1999; n°10: pp 83 -85.
15. Hema-Soudré S., Zoungrana S.L., Ouattara Z.D., Coulibaly A., Somda K.S., Koura M., Guingané N.A., Somé-Béré C.C., Béni-Da H.N., Salou N.R., Bougouma A. Cancers of the upper digestive tract in hospitals in Ouagadougou. Annale de l’Université Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO Series D, 2018, 21: 149 -159.
16. Mengesha B., Ergete W. Staple Ethiopian diet and cancer of the esophagus. East Afr Med J 2005, 7:353–8
17. Peghini M., Rajoanarison P., Pecarrere J.L., Razafin-Dramboa H., Richard J., Morin D. Epidemiology of digestive tract cancers in Madagascar: contribution of 14000 endoscopies performed at the Soav i n a n driana Hospital in Antananarivo. Black African Medicine 1997; 44 (10): 518-521.
18. Thiam I., Doh K., Dial C., Gaye A.M., Kammoun C., Woto-Gaye G. Morpho-epidemiological profiles of cancers of the elderly subject in Dakar. Ger Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2014; 12(4): 354-60;
19. Faivre J., Lepage C., Bouvier A.M. Recent data on the epidemiology of esophageal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2005; 29:534-9
20. Williams J.H., Grubb J.A., Davis J.W., and al. HIV and hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas related to consumption of mycotoxin-prone foods in sub-saharian Africa. Am J Clin Nutr 2010, 92:154–60
21. Dia D., Mbengue M., Bassene M.L., Diouf M.L. Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Epidemiological and Clinical Review. Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System, 2013, S6: 007.