EFL Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in Addis Ababa Primary Schools: Needs and Challenges

EFL Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in Addis Ababa Primary Schools: Needs and Challenges

Abrar kedir

Addis Ababa University, English department

This study was intended to examine continuous professional development needs and challenges of primary schools English language teachers in the city administration of Addis Ababa. Mixed method design was employed to gather information in the study. This method was selected because it gave opportunity to compensate the weaknesses of using an instrument and corroborate information from the other tools. The data was collected from teachers, principals and trainers. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data pertinent to answer the research questions. Two types of questionnaires were employed in the study. One was self-designed which was applied to survey the teachers’ continuous professional development needs and challenges. The other was adapted questionnaire and used to collect information about the teachers’ perceived English language proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing. Hence, 50 randomly selected primary school English language teachers filled in the self-designed and adapted questionnaires. Interview was conducted with 5 volunteer English language teachers who participated in the interview. 4 principals and 3 trainers were interviewed to corroborate the data collected from the English language teachers. Based on the information collected from the instruments, explanatory (Quan-qua) method was employed to analyze the data. First quantitative data from the surveys were analyzed using version SPSS 21. Then the qualitative data were analyzed thematically and combined with the survey results to answer the research questions. As a result it was found that primary English language teachers (the participants) were at high need of continuous professional development in English language proficiency especially in speaking skills and teaching methodology. Furthermore, the teachers had institutional and personal challenges to enhance their professional knowledge through participating on going professional development activities.

Keywords: EFL Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development;  Addis Ababa Primary Schools

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Abrar kedir. EFL Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in Addis Ababa Primary Schools: Needs and Challenges. Open Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2021, 4:14.


1. Al Asmari,A (2016).Continuous Professional Development of English Language Teachers: Perception and Practices. Accessed from URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.3p.117. Vol. 7 No. 3.
2. Bailey, K. D. (2008). Methods of Social Research. New York, NY: The Free Press.
3. Bailey, K., Curtis, A., & Nunan, D. (2001). Pursuing professional development: The self as source. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
4. Borg, S. (2009) .Language teacher cognition. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.) ,The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 163–171). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
5. Borg, S. (2015). Overview – beyond the workshop: CPD for English language teachers. In S. Borg (Ed.), Professional development for English language teachers: Perspectives from higher education in Turkey (pp. 5-12). Ankara: British Council.
6. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2). pp. 77-101. ISSN1478-0887
7. Butler, Y.G., 2004. What level of English proficiency do primary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL? Case studies from Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 38 (2), 245–278. doi:10.2307/3588380.
8. Clark, C. M. (1992).Teachers as designers in self-directed professional development. In Hargreaves & M. G Fullan (Eds.), Understanding teacher development (pp. 75–84). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
9. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
10. Cohen, L.; Manion, L.; Morrison, K. (2010). Research Methods in Education. New York: Routledge.
11. Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
12. Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research: planning, conducting and evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative research (4th ed.).Boston: Edwards Brothers, Inc
13. Creswell, J., Goodchild, L., & Turner, P. (1996) Integrated qualitative and quantitative research: Epistemology, history, and designs. In J. Smart (Ed. Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, 11: 90–136. New York: Agathon Press.
14. Cumming, C.( 2011) CPD: Support strategies for professional learning, national initiative and major curriculum reform.
15. Craft, A. (2000). Continuing Professional Development: A practical guide for teachers and schools. London, Routledge Falmer.
16. Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Teacher learning that supports student learning. Educational Leadership, 55(5), 6 – 11.
17. Darling-Hammond, etal (2009).Professional Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development in the United States and Abroad.
18. Day, C.(1999) Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. London, England Falmer Press.
19. Day, C. and Sachs, J. (2004) Professionalism, performativity and empowerment: discourse in the politics, policies and purposes of continuing professional development, in C. Day and J. Sachs, J. (Eds) International Handbook on the Continuing Professional Development of Teachers, Maidenhead, Birks, Open University Press
20. Diaz-Maggioli, G. (2003) Professional development for language teachers. Eric Digest. Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on 23 June2017 from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0009diaz.html
21. Diaz-Maggioli, G. (2004). A passion for learning: Teacher-centered professional development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Su¬pervision and Curriculum Development.
22. Diaz-Maggioli, G. (2018). Effective professional development. Caambridge University Press.
23. Day, C. & Sachs, J. (Eds.). (2004). International handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers. England: Open University Press.
24. Doroyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford university press.
25. Eksi,G and Aydin, Y.(2012). English instructors’ professional development need areas and predictors of professional development needs.www.sciencedirect.com 675 – 685
26. Evans, E. (1988). Current approaches and future directions in training teachers of ESL. In E. Arnold (Ed.), Current issues in TESLA: Teaching English as a second language. (pp. 183- 187). Great Britain: Sandra Nicholls and Elizabeth Hoadley-Maidment.
27. Farrell, T. S. (2007). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice. London, England: Continuum.
28. Farrell, T. (1998). Reflective teaching. English Teaching Forum, 36(4), 10-17.
29. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1037–1055.
30. Freeman, D. (1996) The “unstudied problem”: Research on teacher learning language teaching.
31. Freeman, D. (2004). Knowledge architectures: some orienting references. TESOL
32. Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998) Re-conceptualizing the knowledge language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 397–417.
33. Freeman, D., and Cornwell, S. (Eds.). (1993). New ways in teacher education. Virginia: TESOL Inc.
34. Fullan, M. (1991) Professional development of educators. In M. Fullan (Ed.), The new meaning of educational change (pp. 315–344). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
35. Fullan, M., & Hargreaves, A. (2002). Teacher development and educational change. New York: Routledge.
36. Giraldo, F. (2014). The impact of a professional development program on English language teachers’ classroom performance. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 16(1), 63-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/profile.v16n1.38150
37. Guba, E. G., and Lincoln, Y. S. (1994) Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research. In: N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
38. Guskey, T. (1999). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks: Sage Corwin.
39. Guskey, T. R. (2002).Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching : Theory and Practice, 8(3/4), 381-391.
40. Guskey, T. (2003).Results-oriented professional development. In A. C. Ornstein, L. S. Behar-
41. Hargreaves, A. (2001). The three dimensions of educational reform. In J. Oelkers (Ed.), Futures of education: Essays from an interdisciplinary symposium (pp. 267–279). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
42. Hargreaves, A., Lieberman, A., Fullan, M., & Hopkins, D. (2010). Second international handbook of educational change. New York, NY: Springer.
43. Herzallah, A.(2011). Professional development obstacles facing primary English language teachers in Northern Gaza. Unpublished MA Thesis.
44. Heugh, K. et al. (2007). Study on Medium of Instruction in Primary Schools in Ethiopia Commissioned by the Ministry of Education: Final Report. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education.
45. Hismangolu,M. (2010). Effective professional development strategies of English language teachers. Accessed from www.sciencedirect.com. (2010) 990–995
46. Jackson, P. W. (1992). Helping teachers develop. In A. Hargreaves and M. G. Fullan (Eds.), Understanding teacher development. New York: Teachers College Press, 62-74
47. Jasper, M. (2006). Professional development, reflection, and decision-making. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
48. Johnson, K. E. (1992). Learning to teach: Instructional actions and decisions of pre-service ESL teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 507-535.
49. Johnson, K. E. (1996).Portifolio assessment in second language teacher education. TESOL. Journal,6(2),11-14.
50. Johnson, K. E. (2008). Trends in second language teacher education. In A. Burns & J. C.
51. Johnson, K. E. (2009).Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective. New York.
52. Johnson, K. and Freeman, D. (2001). Teacher Learning in Second Language Teacher Education: A Socially-Situated Perspective. Rev. Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, v .l, n . 1,53-69, 2001
53. Johnston, B. (2009).Collaborative teacher development. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education.(pp. 241–249). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
54. Karaaslan, D. (2003).Teachers’ perceptions ofself-initiated professional development: A case study on Baskent University English language teachers
55. Koc, S.(1992)Teachers on-line: An alternative model for in-service teacher training in ELT, ELT and Teacher Training in the 1990s. Tradition and Innovation, 1, 47 – 53.
56. Koc, E. (2015). A General Investigation of the In-Service Training of English Language Teachers at Elementary Schools in Turkey. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2016, 8(3), 455-466
57. Kohl, A. G. (2005).The professional development needs of K-12 ESL and foreign language teachers: a descriptive study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Chapel Hill
58. Little, J. W. (1999). Organizing Schools for Teacher Development. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice pp. 233-262). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
59. Lange, D. E. (1990). A blue print for teacher development. In J. C. Richards & D. Nunan (Eds.), Lee, H. (2004-2005). Developing a professional development program model based on teachers’ needs . Professional Educator, 27(1-2), 39-49.
60. Lue , M. ( 2004). Innovative Teaching. Showcase: C.B University Publishing Press.
61. Li Yun & Xu Jinfen. (2015). The Foreign Language Teacher’ Professional Development from the Perspective of EFL Teacher. The Adult Education of China, 23: 127-129.
62. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985) Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
63. Little, J.W. (1993).Teachers’ professional development in a climate of educational reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(2), 129-151.
64. Little, J. (2001) Teachers’ work at the turn of the century. In J. Oelkers (Ed.), Futures of education: Essays from an interdisciplinary symposium (pp. 281–303). New York, NY: Peter Lang
65. Mann, S. (2005). The language teacher’s development. Language Teaching, 38, 103-118.
66. McCarthy, J., & Riley, S. (2000). A new vision for teacher professional development. Leadership, 30 (2), 34-36.
67. Mertens, D. (2007). Transformative Paradigm Mixed Methods and Social Justice. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3): 212‐225.
68. Nunan, D. (1992). Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
69. Onwuegbuzie, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003) A framework for analyzing data in mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori& C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 351–383). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
70. Richards J. (2005) Professional Development for Language Teachers: Strategies for Teacher Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
71. Richards, J. C.(2017). Competence and Performance in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.
72. Richards, J.C. (1997) (ed). From Reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and Strategies for Second Language Classrooms. U.S.A.: Cambridge University Press.
73. Richards, J. C., & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms: Cambridge University Press.
74. Richards, J., Gallo, P., & Renandya, W. (2001) Exploring teachers’ beliefs and the processes of change. PAC Journal, 1(1), 41–58.
75. Richards, J. C. (2011) Competence and performance in lan¬guage teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
76. Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2005) Professional devel¬opment for language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
77. Safie, etal (2014).The Erosion of EFL Teachers’ Content and Pedagogical- Content Knowledge Throughout the Years of Teaching Experience. Accessed from www.sciencedirect.com1599 – 1605.
78. Sachs, J. (1999).Using teacher research as a basis for professional renewal. Journal of In-service Education, 25 (1), 39-53.
79. Sachs, J. (2003).Teacher Professional Standards: Controlling or developing teaching?, Teachers and Teaching, 9:2, 175-186, DOI: 10.1080/13540600309373.
80. Sachs, J. (2006). Learning to improve or improving learning: the dilemma of teaching continuing professional development. Macquarie University. http://www.fm-kp.si/zalozba/ISBN/978- 961-6573-65-8/009-020.pdf
81. Sekran, U.(2003). Research methods for business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
82. Singh, G., & Richards, J. C. (2009). Teaching and learning in the course room. In A. Burns &J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 201–208). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
83. Sparks, D. (2002). Designing powerful staff development for teachers and principals. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.
84. Sparks, D., & Loucks-Horsley, S. (2003). Five models of staff development for teachers. In A. C.Tomlinson, B. (1988). In-service TEFL – is it worth the risk?//The Teacher Trainer Volume 2/2
85. Tomlinson, H., (2004). Educational leadership: Personal growth for professional development. London: Paul Chapman.
86. Valladares and Roux (2014). Professional Development of Mexican Secondary EFL Teachers: Views and Willingness to Engage in Classroom Research. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n9p21. Vol. 7, No. 9; 2014.
87. Villegas-Reimers,E. (2003).Teacher professional development: An international review of the literature. Retrieved from www.unesco.org/liep.
88. Wallace, M. (1991).Training foreign language teachers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
89. Wallace, M.J. (1998). Action Research for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.