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Pearl millet landraces: variability, yield components, grain and panicle quality

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] landraces from south Algeria: variability, yield components, grain and panicle quality Rahal-Bouziane1 H., Semiani2 Y. 1, 2: National Agronomic Research Institute of Algeria, INRAA of Baraki The millet is one of the most important cereals for food and feed in the world. Through this study, the behavior of 15 autochthonous cultivars of pearl millet in presence of one Nigerian control was done in Mitidja’s conditions (sub-humid region in Algeria) to assess the variability using pheno-agro-morphological traits, grain and panicle quality. Analysis of variance showed the existence of a large variability between landraces, revealed by very highly significant differences among the following characters: plant height, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Differences were significant for stem diameter and panicle weight and high significant for dry matter content of panicles. Principal component analysis showed that four components explained 81.03 % of variation. The greatest variability was explained by the following traits: panicle weight, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Significant correlations existed between many traits studied which are promising for breeding works. Keywords: Autochthonous cultivars; Nutritional quality; Performance; variability ...

Influence of Poultry Feed Dynamism on Eggs Production

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Influence of Poultry Feed Dynamism on Eggs Production in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria Onabajo A. O.1, Adamu C. O.1, Oyediran W. O.1, Onabajo, B. O.2, Adeyanju Y .T.1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria Department of Agricultural Science, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria This study was carried out to assess the influence of poultry feed dynamism on eggs production in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview guide. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select ninety respondents. The result revealed that 78.90% of the respondents were male, 91.10% of them were married with mean age of 37 years. The results also showed that 95.6% of the respondents did not have access to extension agents to obtain information. The finding also shows that all (100%) the respondents practiced feed dynamism because of poor feed scarcity. The result of the correlation revealed that poultry feeding practices had significant but inverse relationship on eggs production (r= -0.25 p<0.05). Chi-square result also showed that the high cost of feed (ϰ2=8.72, 0.03), limited availability of feed (ϰ2=15.8, 0.00), and age of birds (ϰ2=11.62, 0.02) were positively significant to egg production. The study concluded that feeding practices had significant influence on eggs production. The study therefore recommend that Government should promote poultry farmers’ education through adequate finding of extension service in the study area. Keywords: influence, poultry, feed dynamism, eggs, production ...

A Panacea For Food Security And Sustainable Rural Development

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Mechanizing Postharvest Processing Operations: A Panacea For Food Security And Sustainable Rural Development *ONU, O. O., A. C. ONYENWOKE, K. J. SIMONYAN Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B 7267, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. Food security and sustainable rural development are indispensible ingredients in attaining the Millennium Development goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. The reduced time for food preparation and the increasing demand for processed food heighten the need for developing healthy, affordable food products, and appropriate processing systems to provide food to the rapidly growing population in developing countries. Mechanizing postharvest activities has not attracted much attention from international research organizations, while research on the improvement of agricultural production has received considerable attention and funding. However, there is an emerging consensus on the critical role that postharvest systems can play in meeting the overall goals of food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable agriculture particularly in developing countries. This study focuses on the trends in mechanizing various postharvest processing operations, and its impact in attaining food security and sustainable rural development. It also highlights the set-backs to mechanization of postharvest systems. Keywords: Mechanizing, Postharvest, Food Security, Rural Development, Processing Systems ...

Traditional to Smart Irrigation Methods in India: Review

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Traditional to Smart Irrigation Methods in India: Review Sirisha Adamala Applied Engineering Department, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research University, Vadlamudi-522213 Guntur, Andhra Pradesh Irrigation is the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements that are not satisfied by the rainfall. Crop irrigation is vital throughout the world in order to provide the world's ever-growing populations with enough food. Many different irrigation methods from traditional to smart ones are used over worldwide, including: surface, sub-surface, sprinkler, drip, and advanced or smart to satisfy the plants thrust. In this paper efforts have been made to present the basics of different irrigation systems adapted by the Indian farmers to grow their crops. Keywords: Irrigation methods, wireless sensor networks, sprinkler, drip, surface, India ...

Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Melon (Egusi) Production

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Melon (Egusi) Production In Rural Farming Households Of Southwest, Nigeria Oyediran, W. O.1, Omoare, A. M.2 and Ajagbe, B. O.3 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Science Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Primary Education Studies, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria Melon crop plays important roles in the farming system and in the nutritional diet and economic well-being of West African rural dwellers. However, there has been continuous decline in the melon yield in last two decades. Also, cultivation of melon is not without challenges like every other arable crop in southwest Nigeria. Hence, this paper focused on factors affecting melon (egusi) production in rural farming households of southwest, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 108 respondents from twenty villages in three LGAs of Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide and analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 80.10% of melon farmers were males and 87.04% were married with a mean age of 41 years. Many (47.20%) of the melon farmers did not have formal education while 36.10% attended primary school. The mean year of farming experiences was 16 years. The farmers cultivated melon seeds obtained from their previous harvest (81.0%) and purchase seeds from the open markets (19.0%). Melon output declined from 376.53kg/ha in 2012 to 280.70kg/ha in 2014. Result of regression analysis showed that production input and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (t = 0.19) have significant influence on melon output at p < 0.05. The study concludes that melon yield is declining in the study area. Hence, it is recommends that extension agents should teach the melon farmers ...

Histopathological Changes Of Cerebral Vessels Secondary To Drug Abuse

Research Article of Journal of Stroke Research Histopathological Changes Of Cerebral Vessels Secondary To Drug Abuse Zogopoulos Panagiotis, Theocharis Stamatios, Kotakidis Nikolaos, Patsouris Efstratios, Agapitos Emmanouel  First Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Drug abuse has been associated with a number of cerebrovascular adverse effects, such as hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Heroin, cocaine and amphetamines are the most commonly abused substances but a systematic pathology study of their effects on human cerebral vessels has not been conducted to date. We present a post-mortem, comparative, pathology study on the brains of drug addicts and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to determine the pathological changes of the vascular lumen, vascular wall and perivascular areas observed in the post-mortem brain of drug addicts compared to those of non-drug addicts healthy controls. Keywords: drug abuse, vascular changes, brain, pathology ...