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Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Research Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria. *Olanipekun, Mary .K , Adewuyi, Damilare and Adedeji, Damilola. E Department, Plant Science and Biotechnology, Ekiti-State University, Ado-Ekiti. The study investigated the ethnobotanical importance, phytochemical and proximate compositions of some selected medicinal plants such as Enantia chlorantha (Annonaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Telfaria occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) and Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The review of the folk knowledge of the plants revealed that they were used in treating ailments such as gastrointestinal infections, malaria fever, typhoid, dermatitis, ringworm, jaundice, dysentery and used as antiseptic, digestive stimulant, blood tonic and blood booster. The qualitative screening of the plants revealed that all the plants contained a considerable amount of bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids and total phenols. However, Momordica charantia has the highest number of alkaloids (20.68±0.27), Saponins (11.40±0.59) while Morinda lucida and Telfaria occidentalis have the lowest number of alkaloids (6.62±0.34) and Saponins (1.24±0.09). Similarly, Enantia chlorantha has the highest amount of flavonoids (15.56±0.00) and tannins (0.44±0.05). Morinda lucida stem bark has the lowest number of tannins (0.03±0.00) and flavonoids (0.94±0.00). Morinda lucida leaf has the highest amount of cardiac glycosides (0.07±0.03) while Morinda lucida stem bark and Momordica charantia does not have cardiac glycosides. Telfaria occidentalis has Terpenoids (0.09±0.00). Similarly, total phenols are high in Morinda lucida stem bark (0.58±0.00) while is low in Momordica charantia (0.21±0.00). The proximate composition showed that Telfaria occidentalis had the highest percentage of crude protein (31.49±1.32) and lowest percentage of crude fiber (9.08±0.27). Enantia chlorantha had the highest crude fat (5.17±0.24) and carbohydrates (50.31±1.56). Momordica charantia had the lowest percentage of total ash (2.67±0.16). Morinda lucida ...

Erwinia chrysanthemi, rhizospheric earthworms, sorghum, vermicompost

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Studies on interactions among bioagents colonized vermicompost, rhizospheric earthworms and stalk rot disease of sorghum caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi Bhupendra Singh Kharayat and Yogendra Singh Centre of Advance Faculty Training in Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, PIN-263145, U.S Nagar, Uttarakhand (India) Bioagents colonized vermicompost can be a crucial alternative natural biological control of stalk rot diseases of sorghum because of the hazardous effects of agrochemicals on non-targeted organisms and soil health. To study the interaction among bioagents colonized vermicompost with stalk rot disease of sorghum caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi, and earthworms of rhizospheric soil, pre-plant soil application of bioagents colonized vermicompost @ 2.5 kg/4 m2 and chemicals viz. Blitox-50, Bleaching powder, Streptocyclin and Tetracyclin @ 2.5% were done under field conditions. In analysis of earthworm’s population dynamics, maximum numbers of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere were observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by vermicompost alone and vermicompost colonized isolate Psf-24. However, minimum number of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere was obtained with Bleaching powder. Maximum seed germination was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-R, Th-14, and Psf-12. Maximum number of earthworm’s heap of cast per plant rhizosphere was obtained in plants treated with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-19, Psf-12 and Psf-18. Significant increase in biomass yield of sorghum plants were observed among all the treatments. However, maximum biomass yield was observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-24. Maximum reduction of disease severity was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-14, Th-R and Psf-3. Present investigation suggests the effect of bioagents colonized on the dramatic increase in earthworm’s population (young and adult), earthworm’s body length, sorghum plant biomass yield and reduction in stalk rot disease severity. Our experiments have shown that bioagents colonized ...

Vulnerability of the fishery-based households to the impact of climate change

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Vulnerability of the fishery-based households to the impact of climate change in Rift valley lakes of Ethiopia: Chamo & Hawassa Hiwot Teshome*, Esayas Alemayehu* and Abebe Cheffo* *Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, National Fishery and aquatic life research center P.O.Box 64, Sebeta This study examines the vulnerability of fishery-based households in Ethiopian rift valley lakes Chamo and Hawassa. The vulnerability assessment approach used vulnerability indicator method which is composed of both biophysical and socioeconomic indicators of fishery-based households. The indicators selected were classified into exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to give weight to the vulnerability indicators. The result shows that the fishery-based households around Lake Chamo are more vulnerable to climate change than in Lake Hawassa. The result of this study stresses the immediate need for appropriate adaptation and/or mitigation measures to help the livelihood of the fishermen in the study areas. The results of this study should be considered for future decision making when mitigation and adaptation mechanisms are selected. Keywords: Vulnerability, fishery-based households, climate change, rift valley lakes ...

Plant parasitic nematode associated with sweet potato in Nigeria

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Plant parasitic nematode associated with sweet potato in Nigeria Timothy Ipoola Olabiyi1, Oluwatoyin A. Fabiyi2, Jonathan Jeremiah Atungwu3 and Isaiah Oluwasesan Adepoju4 1 Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 2 Department of Crop Protection, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria, 3Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria 4 Department of Crop Production and Protection, University of Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. Survey of plant parasitic nematodes were carried out in some sweet potato growing areas of Nigeria. The research was design to assess the plant parasitic nematode pests of sweet potato in sweet potato growing areas in Nigeria. Soil samples and sweet potato tubers were randomly sampled from selected farm sites in Oyo, Osun, Kaduna, Kwara, Kogi, Abia, Cross Rivers, Benue, Taraba and Plateau States of Nigeria. Plant parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil and sweet potato tubers following standard methods and identification key for agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes was used for the nematode identification. Nematodes were extracted and identified in the laboratory. The plant parasitic nematodes identified in the soil samples and sweet potato tuber were root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, lesion nematode Pratylenchus species, brown ring nematode Ditylenchus destructor and D. dipsaci, stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus spp. and dry rot nematode Scutellonema bradys. Plant parasitic nematodes infected sweet potato tubers have unappealing appearances, cracks, internal lesions and dry rot. Keywords: Sweet potato, plant parasitic nematodes, Nigeria ...

Compost production of rice husks with chicken bones and its effects in soil pH

Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research Rapid composting of rice husks with chicken bones to produce compost rich with calcium and the effect of product compost in the increase of soil pH value Rabah S. Shareef 1, 2,  Awang soh3, Zakaria Wahab4 and Ibni Hajar Rukunudin 5 1College of Education-Al-Qiam, University of Anbar, Iraq. 2 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis,   Perlis,, Malaysia. 3 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis,   Perlis,, Malaysia. 4 School of Biosystem Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis,   Perlis,, Malaysia. 5 School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis,   Perlis,, Malaysia. Compost production is considered an economic and environmentally friendly means to reduce the waste going into landfill. It is a novel study of compost production from raw materials which are available in Malaysia, especially the northern region to get a high percentage of carbon and calcium to be used in the treatment of soils that suffering from leached very high amounts of calcium and magnesium because heavy precipitation particularly in the tropical soils. Compost application can improve soil quality and productivity as well as sustainability of agricultural production by replenishing soil organic matter and supplying nutrients. The results indicated an increase in ratio of calcium, also increase ratio of nitrogen and pH. Keywords: Compost production, rice husks, chicken bones, calcium, pH ...

Interactive effect of water deficiency, gibberellic acid and proline on maize

Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research The interactive effect of the water deficiency, gibberellic acid and proline on the growth of maize MUSTAFA. R. AL-SHAHEEN1,2 Muaiad Hadi Ismael1 1Department of Field Crop, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq 2School of Bioprocess Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia A field experiment was conducted in Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia from 15/2/2014 and 15/2/2015 two seasons. In each year, the experiments have been implemented in order to study the effect of three levels of irrigation water (25% (no stress), 50% (moderate deficit), 75% (water deficit) of field capacity), and five concentrations of GA3(0, 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm) and five concentrations of proline (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 ppm) on the yield and productivity of maize.The results showed a significant influence of sprayed GA3on the maize leaves, where excellence sprayed 300ppm GA3 with a high rate of all the study characteristics with sprayed 300ppm of gibberellic acid except cobs per plant. The results of the interaction between GA3and water deficit showed the clear influence of water deficit in reducing all characteristics of study where excelled the interactions (300ppm GA3 and 25% from field capacity) with a high rate of majority study characteristics, but these increases were not sufficient. Concluded from the results of the study great positive impact of sprayed proline on the all of the growth characteristics, it characterizes the concentration of 400ppm with the highest rate of majority study characteristics. The study results showed into increased the rate of protein, chlorophyll content, and oil, with sprayed 400ppm of proline. Keywords: water stress, proline, gibberellic acid, corn growth, irrigation level ...