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Burns Inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus Healed by Leaf Sheath Extract of Pisang Ambon (Musa acuminata)

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Burns Inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus Healed by Leaf Sheath Extract of Pisang Ambon (Musa acuminata) Samsuar1, Pratika Viogenta1, Laila Susanti1, Yuli Wahyu Trimulyani1, Sutriyani1, Mohammad Kanedi2* 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Tulang Bawang University, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1.  Using parts of banana to cure diseases is a common practice for people in homeland of genus Musa. However, scientific researches on biomedical effects of a specific banana cultivar still leaves many questions. This study is intended to find out the healing effect of leaf sheath extract of pisang Ambon or Gros Michel banana, a non-Cavendish cultivar of Musa acuminata, on burn wound intentionally innoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen male rabbits were divided into six groups: P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 each consisting of three rabbits. P0 is rabbits that received no treatment as the negative control; P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively are received banana extract of 6.25%, 12.5%, 55%, and 50%; P5 are given bioplacenton ointment as the positive control. To inflict burn wound, the withers area on the animal's back were shaved and anticepted using 70% ethanol and 10% iodine. On the shaved skin, burns was made by placing a heated brass coin weighted 10 g and a diameter of 2 cm, at 200oC for 5 seconds. All treatments were given topically three times daily. The recovery of burns is measured every three days for 14 days and the healing criteria were based on wound diameter changes. The results showed the extracts of pisang Ambon at the concentration of 12.5% and 25% are able to totally heal the wound on the day 14. While extracts of 6.25 % ...

Pharmacological studies on the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus in rats

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Pharmacological studies on the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus in rats *1Ohadoma SC, 2Akah PA, 2Nworu CS, 2Okoye TC 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P.O. Box 3219, Nsukka. Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. Objective: To investigate the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus using experimental rats. Methods: Three groups comprising five rats each were used. Group II and III received 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract respectively. Group I served as negative control and received only normal saline (5 ml/kg). All administration was done once daily for 28 days. Urea and creatinine for renal effect were determined using Quimica Clinica applicado (QCA Test Kit, Spain); while hepatic marker enzymes were evaluated using Assay Kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd., United Kingdom BT 294 QY). Histopathological evaluation was carried out using light microscopy. Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Turkey-Kramer test were employed to assess significance of difference due to administration of extract and the control. Results: Treatment with extract did not produce significantly (P>0.05) changes in the hepatic marker enzymes when compared with the control. The mean creatinine levels showed non-significantly (P>0.05) differences when compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited significantly (p<0.05) elevation of blood urea levels, as well as urea: creatinine ratio, compared with the negative control. Histopathological assessment revealed that the liver architecture was preserved and no occurrence of structural changes in the kidneys. Conclusion: The leaf extracts of Lupinus arboreus are devoid of deleterious renal and hepatic effects. Keywords: Lupinus arboreus, Chikadoma, leaf extract, renal and hepatic effects ...

Sirka (Vinegar): From Traditional Use To Scientific Approach

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Sirka (Vinegar): From Traditional Use To Scientific Approach Mohd Nauman Saleem*, Mohammad Idris** *Research Associate, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi **Head, Departments of Ilm-us-Saidla and Ilm-ul-Advia, A & U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi Review method: Single-blind; Peer reviewer comments: 1. Traditional medicine is the summation of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs and experiences which are indigenous to different cultures. Sirka (Vinegar) has a long historical background and besides its usage as a common condiment, food ingredient, preservative, flavoring and culinary agent it has also been extensively exploited as a potent medicinal substance. The use of vinegar to fight infections and other acute conditions dates back to Hippocrates who recommended a vinegar preparation named sikanjabeen for cleaning ulcerations and for the treatment of sores. Sikanjabeen was also used in conventional system of medicine by the name of oxymel. According to Unani classical literature, it is obtained after fermentation of various substances such as grapes, sugarcane, dried grapes, figs, jamun, honey, onions, grains etc and prepared by a specific procedure in which the juice of ingredient is taken in a vessel and kept in sunlight, until proper fermentation of that liquid takes place. Various actions and clinical indications have been elaborated in the Unani classical literature and some properties namely Anti-infective, Antihypertensive, Cardio-protective, Antitumor, Antiglycemic, Antioxidant and Antitubercular activities have been revalidated in the light of recent scientific researches. A number of clinical researches have also been performed to explore medicinal properties of Sirka (Vinegar). This review provides significant information on Sirka (Vinegar) as a traditional asset and furthers the scientific validation of pre existing facts. Keywords:  Sirka, Vinegar, Unani System of Medicine ...

Pearl millet landraces: variability, yield components, grain and panicle quality

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] landraces from south Algeria: variability, yield components, grain and panicle quality Rahal-Bouziane1 H., Semiani2 Y. 1, 2: National Agronomic Research Institute of Algeria, INRAA of Baraki The millet is one of the most important cereals for food and feed in the world. Through this study, the behavior of 15 autochthonous cultivars of pearl millet in presence of one Nigerian control was done in Mitidja’s conditions (sub-humid region in Algeria) to assess the variability using pheno-agro-morphological traits, grain and panicle quality. Analysis of variance showed the existence of a large variability between landraces, revealed by very highly significant differences among the following characters: plant height, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Differences were significant for stem diameter and panicle weight and high significant for dry matter content of panicles. Principal component analysis showed that four components explained 81.03 % of variation. The greatest variability was explained by the following traits: panicle weight, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Significant correlations existed between many traits studied which are promising for breeding works. Keywords: Autochthonous cultivars; Nutritional quality; Performance; variability ...

Influence of Poultry Feed Dynamism on Eggs Production

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Influence of Poultry Feed Dynamism on Eggs Production in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria Onabajo A. O.1, Adamu C. O.1, Oyediran W. O.1, Onabajo, B. O.2, Adeyanju Y .T.1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria Department of Agricultural Science, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria This study was carried out to assess the influence of poultry feed dynamism on eggs production in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview guide. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select ninety respondents. The result revealed that 78.90% of the respondents were male, 91.10% of them were married with mean age of 37 years. The results also showed that 95.6% of the respondents did not have access to extension agents to obtain information. The finding also shows that all (100%) the respondents practiced feed dynamism because of poor feed scarcity. The result of the correlation revealed that poultry feeding practices had significant but inverse relationship on eggs production (r= -0.25 p<0.05). Chi-square result also showed that the high cost of feed (ϰ2=8.72, 0.03), limited availability of feed (ϰ2=15.8, 0.00), and age of birds (ϰ2=11.62, 0.02) were positively significant to egg production. The study concluded that feeding practices had significant influence on eggs production. The study therefore recommend that Government should promote poultry farmers’ education through adequate finding of extension service in the study area. Keywords: influence, poultry, feed dynamism, eggs, production ...

A Panacea For Food Security And Sustainable Rural Development

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Mechanizing Postharvest Processing Operations: A Panacea For Food Security And Sustainable Rural Development *ONU, O. O., A. C. ONYENWOKE, K. J. SIMONYAN Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B 7267, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. Food security and sustainable rural development are indispensible ingredients in attaining the Millennium Development goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. The reduced time for food preparation and the increasing demand for processed food heighten the need for developing healthy, affordable food products, and appropriate processing systems to provide food to the rapidly growing population in developing countries. Mechanizing postharvest activities has not attracted much attention from international research organizations, while research on the improvement of agricultural production has received considerable attention and funding. However, there is an emerging consensus on the critical role that postharvest systems can play in meeting the overall goals of food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable agriculture particularly in developing countries. This study focuses on the trends in mechanizing various postharvest processing operations, and its impact in attaining food security and sustainable rural development. It also highlights the set-backs to mechanization of postharvest systems. Keywords: Mechanizing, Postharvest, Food Security, Rural Development, Processing Systems ...