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Economic Appraisal of Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Kano State, Nigeria

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Economic Appraisal of Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Kano State, Nigeria 1Yakubu A.A., 2K.M. Baba and 3I.Mohammed 1Department of Agricultural Economics Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria; 3Agricultural Economics and Extension Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria The Kano River Irrigation (KRIP) is under the Hadejia Jamma’are River Basin Development Authourity (HJRBDA). It covers a total of 62,000.ha of land .The project was established to boost sustainable agricultural productivity of the climo-adaphic environment of the densely populated Kano in northwestern, Nigeria. The area receives a rainfall of less than 700 mm annually, this call’s for an alternative means of sustaining the population agriculturally. The general impression of irrigation project experience of Nigeria is that performance of most irrigation projects fall below pre-project expectation. Consequently irrigation project is viewed with circumspection in some quarters. The focus of the paper is to economically appraise growth of KRIP for 30 years from 1984. Modern discounting measures of Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) were used to assess the project’s four major crops: Rice, wheat, maize and tomato cultivated in the rainy and dry seasons. The result of the measures showed high positive values for both single and combined seasons. It was concluded that KRIP is the most economically viable, successful and sustainable project in Nigeria, and West Africa at large. It was recommended that remaining part of the project be completed in order to have full benefit of the project. Keywords: Economic analysis, KRIP, rainy season, dry season, combine season, NPV, BCR ...

Assessment of farmers’ utilization of Soy food in Buno Bedele and Ilu Ababora zones of Southwestern Ethiopia

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Assessment of farmers’ utilization of Soy food in Buno Bedele and Ilu Ababora zones of Southwestern Ethiopia Samuel Diro1, Beza Erko1, Efrem Asfaw1 and Misganaw Anteneh1 1 Agricultural economics research process, Jimma Agricultural research center The main objective of this study was to assess utilization of soybean based foods in Chawaka, Bedele and Darimu districts of southwestern Ethiopia. Primary data for the study was collected from 185 smallholder farmers of the districts. Descriptive, inferential and econometric models were used to analyze the data. Socio economic factors affecting utilization of soy food was identified using binary logistic model. The descriptive result of the study showed 62% of respondents use soy food at home. Concomitantly, 93.3% of female headed households use soy food. The study also pointed out only 32% of survey respondents got training on soybean food preparation. Out of the total respondents who got the training, 95.6% of them use soy food at home. Bureau of agriculture and natural resource management, Research centers and NGOs were organizations provided training on soybean food preparation. This enhanced farmers to use soy based foods such as soy milk, Dabo, Kolo and Shiro which are common on the study areas. The econometric result of the study showed that women headed households highly and significantly consume soybean food at home than male headed households. On other hands, both training on soybean food preparation and soybean production affect soy food consumption at home positively and significantly. Based on the findings, the study recommends concerning bodies including media, rural extension workers and NGOs to emphasize on creating awareness regarding nutritional importance of soybean so that production, consumption, processing and marketing of soybean will be promoted. Keywords:  Dabo, Kolo, Shiro, Soy food, Soy milk ...

Leptospirosis: Epidemiology and Public Health Significance

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Leptospirosis: Epidemiology and Public Health Significance 1Tadele Tadesse Hirpessa, 2Dr Belay Abebe Deres, 3Dr Ataro Abera Asfaw  1 Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine 2 Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine 3Dawuro Zone livestock and Fishery Resource Development Department Climate change is a complex problem involving varied interactions between the environment, natural resources (land, crops, animals and water) and peoples. Global climate change poses the threat of serious social upheaval, population displacement, economic hardships and environmental degradation (ESAP, 2009). Agriculture and livestock are amongst the most climate sensitive economic sectors in the developing countries whilst the rural poor communities are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of the climate change (Kimaro and Chibinga, 2013). Climate change may affect livestock disease through several pathways both direct and indirect. It may facilitate establishment of novel imported infectious diseases in regions that were previously unable to support endemic transmissions. Most vector borne diseases that are expected to emerge because of climate change are zoonotic diseases. Climate change may cause amplification of the parasite population and have profound effects on the host-parasite assemblages. Another aspect of climate change is that an effect on the pathogen microorganism by increasing their virulence. Climate change also modify the disease ecology by complicating the life cycles of the different hosts and vectors and the microorganism, that make vector borne diseases difficult to predict and control. Stress caused due to the effect of climate change e.g. increased temperature, increased population density; high density of biting insects or lack of food may induce suppression of the immune response and lead to increased susceptibility of organisms to opportunistic pathogens. Keywords: Leptospirosis, Epidemiology, Public Health Significance ...

Treatment of Gangrene in Homeopathy

Review Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Treatment of Gangrene in Homeopathy E. Komali, Ch. Venkataramaiah and W. Rajendra* Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University- Tirupati The review article focus on Gangrene and its associated amputations are clinically challenging, but Homoeopathy offers therapy options. In this case are presented, in which the homoeopathic treatment prevented amputation of a body part. Homoeopathy stimulates the body’s ability to heal through its immune mechanisms; consequently, it achieves wound healing and establishes circulation to the gangrenous part. Instead of focusing on the local phenomena of gangrene pathology, treatment focuses on the general indications of the immune system, stressing the important role of the immune system as a whole. The aim was to show, through case reports, that homoeopathic therapy can treat gangrene without amputing the gangrenous part, and hence has a strong substitution for consideration in treating gangrene. Keywords:  Gangrene, Homoeopathy, Immune system ...

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Shigru Patra Churna

Research Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Shigru Patra Churna Dr. Abhijeet D. Kumbhar1*, Dr. Vamsikrishna G. K.1, Dr. Surekha Khot2. 1*P. G. Scholar; 1 Professor & HOD; 2Associate Professor; Department of Post Graduate studies in Dravyaguna, Shri Shivayogeeshwar Rural Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Inchal, Tahsil Soundatti, Dist. Belgavi. Background: Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) is a well known drug in Ayurveda used for its Krimighna activity (ability to kill the pathogens). Acharya Charaka had mentioned Shigru in Krimighna Mahakashaya1. Nighantus had specifically mentioned Krimighna activity of Shigru Patra viz. Kaiyadeva Nighantu2, Raj Nighantu3 and Shaligram4 Nighantu. Therefore Patra churna (powder of leaves) is selected for evaluation of anti bacterial activity on the strains which affects a large number of population. Methods : Shigru Patra churna at different concentrations viz. 5µl, 10µl, 25µl, 50µl and 75µl were tested for anti bacterial activity by Disc Diffusion method for 2 strains of Gram positive and 2 strains of Gram negative bacteria each, with DMSo (Dimethyl Sulphoxide) a neutral solvent. Zone of Inhibition was calculated. Result : Shigru Patra inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli at higher concentrations of 50µl and 75µl and is resistant to Streptococcus mutans at all concentrations. Zone of inhibition was 13mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 12mm for Pseudomonas auringinosa and 15mm for Escheria coli and activity index were 0.86, 0.40 and 0.50 respectively. Conclusion : Shigru Patra possess good anti bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli. Keywords:  Shigru, Moringa oleifera Lam, Zone of Inhibition, Anti bacterial, Activity Index, Bacteria ...

Boron-zinc interaction in the absorption of micronutrients by cotton

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Boron-zinc interaction in the absorption of micronutrients by cotton ÉRICA DE OLIVEIRA ARAÚJO University Federal of Great Dourados, MS, Brazil B-Zn interaction modifies the nutritional dynamics of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in cotton. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of B and Zn concentrations on the absorption of Cu, Fe and Mn in cotton plants cultivated in nutrient solution. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to four concentrations of B (0, 20, 40 and 80 µM L-1) and five concentrations of Zn (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 µM L-1). At 115 days after emergence, the plants were collected, divided into roots, shoots and fruits, and subjected to chemical analysis. The results allowed to conclude that the Cu content and total Cu in the fruit, total Cu in the roots, Cu use efficiency, Fe content in the roots, Fe absorption efficiency, Mn content in the fruit and Mn absorption efficiency of cotton are influenced by the concentrations of B in the solution. The interaction between B and Zn affected total Fe in the roots, Fe content and total Fe in the fruit, Fe transport efficiency, total Mn in the shoots and Mn transport efficiency; in addition, Zn acts differently according to the supply of B and vice versa. Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum L., micronutrients, nutritional efficiency ...