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Alterations in the Glutamate metabolism and Aminotransferases (AAT, ALAT) during PTZ induced Epilepsy: Protective role of Bacopa monnieri

Research Article of Journal of Herbal Medicine Research Alterations in the Glutamate metabolism and Aminotransferases (AAT, ALAT) during PTZ - induced Epilepsy: Protective role of Bacopa monnieri E. Komali, Ch. Venkataramaiah and W. Rajendra* Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University- Tirupati Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by repeated, spontaneous seizures, also known as seizure disorder. Seizure related neuronal injury has been assumed to be mediated by glutamate, the excitatory amino acid, in the central nervous system that causes a sudden imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory signals in the brain with glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Since long term usage of antiepileptic drugs cause high incidence of pharmacoresistence and untoward side effects, attention has been paid in recent years to screen bioactive compounds from natural medicinal plants for treatment of several neurological disorders including Epilepsy. Keeping in view of relative importance of natural medicinal plants, the present study is mainly focused to characterize the anti-convulsant effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM), an Indian herb which is being extensively used in Ayurvedic treatments related to neurological complications. The present study is designed to assess the neurotoxicity of Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ), an epileptic compounds, on the Glutamate metabolism and Amino transferases in different brain regions (Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Pons medulla and Hippocampus) of rat and to explore the possible antiepileptic effect of different extracts (Ethanol, n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol and Aqueous extracts) of BM in comparison with Diazepam (DZ) (Reference control).  The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine content were decreased in different regions of brain during PTZ induced epilepsy which were increased in epileptic rats pretreated with different extracts of Bacopa monnieri except EAE and AE. Glutaminase activity was increased in PTZ induced epilepsy and decreased on pretreatment with ...

The Unified Theory of Physics

Research Article of International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews The Unified Theory of Physics Ding-Yu Chung Utica, Michigan, USA The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the ...

Chemical profiling of Solanum lycopersicum

Research Article of Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews Chemical profiling of Solanum lycopersicum Neji, P. A1 *Ushie O. A2, Neji, H. A3 Opara, I. J2 and Ojong, O. O4 1Dept of Chemical Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar Nigeria 2 Dept of Chemical Science, Federal University, Wukari Nigeria 3 Dept of Science Education, University of Calabar, Calabar 4Dept of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar Consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads and drinks, tomato is the edible, often red berry type fruit of the nightshade solanum lycopersicum commonly known as tomato plant. Extreme health disorders suffered as a result of insufficient vitamins, unbalanced diets and malnutrition have severe or may lead to severe health consequences or diseases in humans. Planning/attempts to resolve such health inbalances as bleeding from the gums, joint pains, low concentration of ascorbate in plasma, blood, or leukocytes, which is commonly attributed to scurvy, all rely on the knowledge of the concentration of vitamins in the diets of the patient. One cannot tell to what extent a feed is both nutritious and medicinal if some analysis are not carried out on the feed. This is why the assessment of vitamin C, phytochemical and proximate evaluations of commercial fruits, using tomato is necessary, so as to know their vitamin C percentages, which medicinal properties they possess and qualitatively, the different macro nutrients they contain. In the view of the problem above, the aim of this paper was to assess the concentration of ascorbic acid, medicinal and macronutrients in commercial fruit – tomato, carrying out significant calculations tilted toward achieving the right proportions of significant nutrient constituents in the samples of tomato. Keywords: Chemical profiling, Solanum lycopersicum ...

Application of Ratio Derivative Spectrophotometry for Simultaneous Determination of Clonazepam and Paroxetine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form

Research Article of Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews Application of Ratio Derivative Spectrophotometry for Simultaneous Determination of Clonazepam and Paroxetine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Jalpa U. Patel*1, Himani Dalwadi2 ,Dr. Purvi Shah3 1Indukaka Ipcowala College of Pharmacy, Beyond GIDC, P.B. No. 53, Vitthal Udyognagar 388 121, Gujarat, India. 2Indukaka Ipcowala College of Pharmacy, Beyond GIDC, P.B. No. 53, Vitthal Udyognagar 388 121, Gujarat, India. 3Anand Pharmacy College,Near town hall,Anand-388001 Ratio derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. In this method, the overlapping spectra of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride were well resolved by making use of the first-derivative of the ratios of their direct absorption spectra. The derivative ratio absorbance of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride were measured at 312.28 nm and 304.88 nm, respectively for their quantification. Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride were determined in the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml and 10-60 µg/ml respectively. The linear regression analysis for the calibration plots produced r2= 0.9956 and r2= 0.9994 for Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride respectively. The precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The results indicate that the method is suitable for the routine quality control testing of marketed tablet formulations. Keywords: Simultaneous determination, Clonazepam, Paroxetine hydrochloride, Ratio derivative spectrophotometric method ...

Development and Validation of Rp-HPLC Method for Analysis of Raloxifene in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Research Article of Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews Development and Validation of Rp-HPLC Method for Analysis of Raloxifene in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Venu Manukonda1, Shaheen Sultana2*, Amit Singh3, Maria Khan2, Mohammad Yusuf2, Ibrahim Abdullah Maghrabi2 1RV Northland Institute;2Taif University, Saudi Arabia;3RV Northland Institute The aim of present work was to develop and validate a simple, fast and reliable isocratic HPLC method for determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic Separation was achieved by using Agilent technologies model G4288A. Gradient HPLC-1120 , Compact low pressure binary Gradient Pump Consisting Of vacuum in built degasser unit non-PDA UV-vis detector equipped with a manual injection system with 50 uL loop and the eluted analytes for drug was traced by UV detection at 287nm. The method was found to be linear over a wide concentration range (0.1-20 µg/mL) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9995. The LOD and LOQ were 21 and 63 ng/mL for RLX. These results indicate that method is sensitive enough for therapeutic assay. The % RSD values for three selected concentrations were found to be 0.14, 0.51 and 0.75% revealed the high system accuracy. The relative standard deviations (RSD) obtained at three concentrations (n = 6) in the range of 8-10 µg/mL was 0.016-0.018 % for the intraday assay and 0.016-0.024% for interday assay revealed good precision. The specificity was demonstrated that drugs were free of interference from potential impurities. % RSD, theoretical plates and Rmin were not significantly affected when the experimental parameters (such as flow rate, gradient program) were altered and thus concluded that the method was robust. Keywords: Raloxifene; HPLC, linearity, robustness ...

Medicinal plants used to treat the disease of gout –an overview

Review Article of Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews Medicinal plants used to treat the disease of gout –an overview R.Ramasubramania raja M.Sekar, P.Lathasri,I.Paula Preethi,M.Suma Bhavana,T.Swathi Department of Pharmacognosy, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, A.P Gout also called as hyper uricemia. Gout is characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, redness and tenderness in joints, often the joint at the base of big toe. Gout is a condition that develops when Uric acid is not properly excreted from the blood through urine .Excess uric acid builds up in the body and when not removed by the kidneys, it deposits in the form of crystals in the joints, primarily in hands and feet and especially in the joint of big toe. The risk of developing gout increases as the Serum uric acid level rises [>7 mg/dl]. In our focus medicinal plants used to treat the gout for the reason in the allopathic system of medicine is not cure the disease of gout, its only controlled. So few medicinal plants we reviewed this paper. Keywords: Gout, uricemia, pain, serum, medicinal plants ...