eSciPub Journals

Top Journals

Integrated weed (Orobanche crenata) management on faba bean

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Integrated weed (Orobanche crenata) management on faba bean Mekonnen Misganaw Sirinka Agricultural Research Center, North Wollo, Ethiopia In Ethiopia pulse crops are widely grown and Faba bean (Vicia faba L., 2n=12) is an old world grain legume of the family Leguminasae. This crop is one of the major pulses grown in the highlands of Ethiopia ranging from 1800-3000 m.a.s.l receiving an annual rainfall of 700-1100 mm, and the country is now considered as one of the secondary centers of genetic diversity. In eastern Amhara region high lands, faba bean is cultivated widely and thought to be an area for the largest collection of faba bean landraces. The production of faba bean is declined from year to year due to various production constraints such as diseases, soil acidity and weeds, particularly root parasitic weeds Broomrape (Orobanche species). These parasitic weeds cause very high levels of crop damage in terms of both yield and quality. Yield losses due to Orobanche weed ranges from 5 to 100% depending on the level of infestation and environmental conditions. Orobanche species are root parasitic flowering plants lack of leaves and totally dependent on their hosts for their life cycle. The parasitic is on a wide range of food legumes such as faba bean, field pea, lentil, vetch, Solanaceae crops, oil crops and root crops. The severe invasion of legume crops, especially faba bean and field pea are by Orobanche crenata. The physical attachment and the damage of the weed are under ground. The weed disperses by wind, flood, birds, animals, crop seeds, humans and farm machinery. It is propagated by seeds which can remain dormant and survive and able to viable in the soil for more than 20 years. Due to the complete devastation of faba bean by Orobanche crenata, ...

Organoleptic Properties And Proximate Composition Of Some Potato Genotypes

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Organoleptic Properties And Proximate Composition Of Some Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Genotypes Kelechukwu, E. C.1; Onu, O. O.2 and Ojimelukwe, P. C.3 1 National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike Nigeria 2 Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria 3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria The outstanding features of Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) are the nutritional and sensory versatility in terms of its micronutrient contents and wide range of colours, taste and mouth feel. This study was carried out to evaluate the organoleptic properties and proximate composition of some Orange-fleshed sweet potato genotypes viz: Umuspo1, Umuspo3 and Ex-Igbariam. Estimation of moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, protein and energy value was conducted using standard AOAC procedures. Twenty-eight sensory assessors were used to evaluate some sensory (organoleptic) attributes such as colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel and general acceptability of chips and shake made from the OFSP genotypes. Proximate analysis result showed that moisture content varied from 68.137 - 61.235%, 4.23 - 5.54% for protein, 0.542 - 1.265% for fat, 1.22 -2.25% for crude fibre, and 1.189 - 1.677 % for ash. The energy value ranged from 392.906 %- Umuspo1 to 390.74%-Ex-Igbariam. % moisture content and dry matter differed significantly with varieties (P < 0.05). The highest values of vitamin C, B3 and B2 were 24.03 mg/g (Umuspo3), 0.324 mg/g (Umuspo3) and 0.028 mg/g (Ex-Igbariam), respectively. The experimental OFSP genotypes had higher value of calcium than the other mineral content. Chips and shake prepared from the experimental OFSP genotypes were generally accepted for consumption and could serve for use as chips and shake. Keywords: Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato, Proximate Composition, Energy Value, Organoleptic Properties ...

Behavior of improved varieties and creoles of rice at the Baixada Maranhense

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Behavior of improved varieties and creoles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the Baixada Maranhense Ivaneide de Oliveira Nascimento1*, Antônia Alice Costa Rodrigues1, Raimunda Nonata Santos de Lemos1, Maria Rosangela Malheiros Silva1, Francisco de Assis dos Santos Diniz1, Leonardo de Jesus Machado Gois de Oliveira1 and Erlen Keila Cândido e Silva1  1 Post-Graduation Program of Agroecology, Maranhão State of University, Campus São Luís, São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the different varieties of creole and improved seeds of rice regarding the productive aspects and disease resistance in the experimental field of the Farm School of São Benedito and in area of farmer in Arari -MA. It was used improved seeds of rice (Primavera, Emeralds, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba), and creoles (Palha Murcha, Rice Vermelho and Come Cru), which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design with four replications, plots of 10 m2 useful area of 2.70 m2. In the aspect of grain yield, the creole varieties Palha Murcha and Rice Vermelho presented respectively mean grain yield (x= 1.472 kg ha-1; x=1.374 kg ha-1), within the average expected for Maranhão and equal to the variety improved Arariba, in the municipality of Arari. In São Bento, the varieties Palha Murcha, BR Irga 420, Arariba, Sertaneja, Esmeralda and Primavera produced above average (1.580 kg ha-1) for Maranhão. As for the resistance to diseases, all varieties were moderately resistant to diseases brown spot and Grains spots. The varieties Primavera, Esmeralda, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba and Palha Murcha had a high susceptibility to leaf scald in São Bento. There was incidence of narrow spot at the improved varieties Arariba and Br Irga 420, with behavior moderately resistant, the other varieties were resistant to this disease in Arari. Therefore, ...

Impacts of climate change on crop production and its adaptation

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research A Review on Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Production and its Adaptation in Sub-Saharan Africa Margaret Njeri Mwangi Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O. Box, 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya Climate change, which is inevitable, has a large impact on economies and livelihoods of many people. Therefore, the need to mitigate its impacts is paramount. Consequently, this has motivated a substantial body of research on the matter. The central issues that have been addressed are the impacts of climate change as well as the adaptation strategies that can be employed. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature on the above issues with a focus on smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Adaptation strategies identified include; adjustment in land use, change in technology, farm diversification and risk management. Some environmental, economic and institutional factors are revealed to hinder farmers from adopting these strategies. The study recommends emphasizes on polices enhancing adaptation by smallholder farmers. Additionally, future studies on climate change should widen the range of variables used so as to capture the current global food prices and adaptation transition costs. Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; smallholder farmers; Ricardian model ...

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica

Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Ushie O.A*, Egwaikhide, P.A and Longbab B.D *Department of Chemical Science, Federal University, Wukari Nigeria The method of cold maceration was used in the extraction by serial exhaustive extraction method which involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compound could be extracted. The phytochemical screening of crude yields of the chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins are present in all the extracts are present in all the leaf extracts. Activity of the crude hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate acetone and methanol extracts from the leaf of Tamarindus indica were tested on five clinical isolates; Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and penicillium spp Augmentin and mycotin were used as control drugs. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antibacterial activity against all the bacteria pathogens tested with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 26 mm. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antifungal activity against Penicillium Spp with a diameter that ranged between 8 - 13 mm but did not show significant inhibition against A. niger. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 100 mg/ml in all the extracts against the tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 200 mg/ml in almost all the extracts for the tested fungi. Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial Activity, Tamarindus indica ...

Herbal, Drug and Food Interaction

Review Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Homeopathy and Mental Health Dr. Alok Kumar Shukla* & Dr. Papiya Bigoniya *Department of Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Radharaman Group of Institutions, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. All medicines were derived from natural materials in the ancient time (1).  Most of those early medicines are described under the broad heading “herbs,” although that term may prove misleading.  Even though people often think of herbs as plants or plant-derived materials, several commonly used items were obtained from animals and minerals.  Further, although the term “herbs” suggests something that is beneficial and has little potential for harm, numerous toxic materials were used, such as foxglove, deadly nightshade, and jimson weed (Datura).  Herbalists sometimes processed the herbs to change them from their original form. As the science developed the researchers attempted and succeeded to isolate some active constituents from herbs, so that the end products were not as nature presented them.  For example, aconite was processed extensively in China to reduce its toxicity so that it could more readily be used, and borneol, the active constituent found in a few tropical plants, was isolated centuries ago in relatively pure form, a translucent crystal, for both internal and external use.   The use of potent and toxic substances and the intentional alteration of natural substances are characteristics of production of modern drugs.  Thus, some issues that arise today about interactions of herbs and drugs may have already been encountered in earlier times when herbs were combined with each other (2). The ancient Indian system of Ayurveda is practicing in India since 1500 BC, the main aim of this system is to preservation of normal health and curing the diseased one. Ayurveda has focused on patient safety and benefits. In fact it is known that drug safety is a very ...