Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy

Physicochemical properties of Chitosan from SevenDifferent Wild Edible Nigerian Mushrooms

Research Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Physicochemical properties of Chitosan from SevenDifferent Wild Edible Nigerian Mushrooms Elem, R. C1., Uraku, A. J2 1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria 2Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Chitosan are characteristically free powders consisting of polymers and copolymers derived from the deacetylation of chitin, biodegradable in nature. Chitosan has unique properties which make it useful as adhesives, flocculating aid, viscosity control agent and in paper-strengthening agent. The industrial production of chitosan from crustacean shells, lobsters, shellfish waste and shrimps, is associated with several drawbacks; the problems with limited and seasonal supply, product variability and confined production locations, and the high cost associated with the chemical conversion of chitin to chitosan shows the limited potency in industrial acceptance of those polymers. The search for an alternative source becomes necessary. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated quality and quantity of chitosan from different wild edible Nigerian mushrooms. Chitosan were prepared from seven wild edible Nigerian mushrooms by deproteinisation and deacetylation of chitin. Results The results of physicochemical properties assayed included: Yield (7.18 - 61.11%),), Degree of deacetylation (89.60 - 91.10%), Acetylation degree (1.94 - 10.40%), Molecular weight (6039.70 - 6914.18g/mol, Viscosity (5.03 - 5.62cPs), Solubility (30.00 - 60.00%), Moisture (9.00 - 34.00%) and Ash content (5 - 28%). Conclusions: The production of chitosan from wild mushrooms could be a cheap alternative to that of shrimps. Keywords: mushroom meal, nutrition, chitosan, polymer, copolymer ...

Phytochemical & nutritional of aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of alchornea cordifolia

Research Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Phytochemical and nutritional evaluation of aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of alchornea cordifolia 1Ebenyi L. N and 2Uraku, A.J 1Department of Biotechnology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. 2Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. Background: Alchornea cordifolia is a strangling shrub or small evergreen plant used by traditional healers to treat different ailments. Materials and Methods: The evaluation of phytochemical and nutritional contents of aqueous and ethylacetate leaf extracts of Alchornea cordifolia were performed using standard methods. Results: The results of the phytochemical analysis revealed that both extracts of the plant contained verse amounts of the phytochemiacls in the order of alkaloids> tannins> flavonoids> saponins> phenols>cyanogenic glycosides while the proximate compositions were in the order of moisture> carbohydrates> protein> ash> lipids> crude fibre. Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C, E and K were found present in comparable proportions while minerals Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu, Na, Se and Zn were found in the extracts in varying degrees. Conclusions: The prosperous chemical compositions of A. cordifolia leaf extracts might justify its use in the prevention and treatment of diverse ailments. Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, phytochemicals, proximates, vitamins, minerals and diseases ...

Insulin response of methanol fraction of Hensia crinita extract

Research Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Phytochemical profiling, oral glucose tolerance, body weight changes and insulin response of methanol fraction of Hensia crinita extract on Wistar Rats Iwara A. Iwara*, Godwin O. Igile, Eyong Ubana Eyong, John M. Edward, Collins Igajah and Patrick .E. Ebong Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115, Calabar, Nigeria. Phytochemical profiling, oral glucose tolerance, body weight changes and insulin response fraction of Hensia crinita (H.C) leave extract was investigated in this study. Using  Gas Chromatography –mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical method for phytochemicals analysis, the methanol fraction of H.C showed the presence of fourteen compounds and revealing with respect to percentage abundance, high levels of Oleic acid (27.13%), Hexadecanoic acid (11.5%), ethylbenzene(9.92%), nonane (9.85%), 7-oxalic{4.1.0}heptane (9.83%), 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene (8.05%), Oxalic acid (7.42%)  as well as other compounds. Body weight showed significant increase (P<0.05) treated groups when compared to the control. Oral glucose tolerance level was also increased in the extract treated groups. A significant increase (P<0.05) in serum insulin level was observed in extract treated compared to diabetic control. Both ethanol crude extract and methanol fraction showed positive responses to oral glucose test, body weight changes and insulin levels activity and therefore may be incorporated in herbal decoctions in the management of diabetes. Keywords: Phytochemical, antidiabetic, Oleic acid, Hensia crinita ...

Xylanase on feed efficiency and serum biochemistry in broilers

Research Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Effect of supplementation of xylanase on feed efficiency and serum biochemistry in broilers) Abida Niazi1, Amber Khan1, Zunaira Alina2, 3, Anam Asghar3, Bushra Ishfaq 3, Shaneel Kousar2, Laiba Riaz2, Ramsha Abbas2, Faiza Naseer*3 1University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan 2Institue of pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 3Department of Pharmacy, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan To study the working mechanisms for non-starch polysaccharides’ to improve the growth performance of broiler chickens, a 35-day feeding trial was conducted. Two dietary treatments were included: 1) wheat diet (the control); 2) wheat+xylanase diet .There were 5  groups with 3 replicates ,each replicates having 8 birds each for each treatment and the experimental diets were given to birds from hatch.  Group A was control and group B was treated with Xylanase concentration of 250IU/Kg feed, Group C was treated with Xylanase concentration of 500IU/Kg feed, Group D was treated with Xylanase concentration of 750IU/Kg feed and Group E was treated with Xylanase concentration of 1000IU/Kg feed.FCR and body weight were measured weekly. The vaccination was done according to schedule. Fresh Water provided at free labitum. The shed was properly maintained with respect to temperature and humidity. The Fumagination was properly and thoroughly done before the start of experiment. The xylanase supplement increased (p<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the end of the experiment but non-significant results were observed on serum biochemistry (p>0.05) by xylanase. (Key Words: Xylanase, weight gain, Serum biochemistry. Keywords: Xylanase, weight gain, Serum biochemistry ...

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Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy

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1. Avinaba Mukherjee, Sourav Sikdar, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a) pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0013. 
2. Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal, Junaid Niazi, Kamlesh Kohli, Pankaj Ghaiye. Anti-anxiety Activity of Citrus paradisi var. duncan Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice-A Preclinical Study. Journal of Herbal Medicine Research, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0006.

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Dr. B. Thangagiri
Assistant Professor (Senior Grade), Department of Chemistry, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College

Dr. Kaptain Kishor Bajpayee
Associate Professor & Head, Center for Research in Ethno & Medicobotany, Dr. R.M.L. Degree College (C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY )Allipur, HARDOI 241001 INDIA.

Dr. Dhruba Pathak
The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 855 Monroe Avenue, Suite 515, Memphis, TN 38163

Dr. Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
School Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usm, Penang, Malaysia

Dr. Hamzah Maswadeh
Associate Prof. Head of Department of Pharmaceutics College of Pharmacy – Qassim University -KSA

Dr. Theophine Akunne
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria

Dr. Kasim S. Abass
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Kirkuk

Dr Yusra Habib Khan
University Sains Malaysia

Dr Charles Fokunang
Professor& Director of Student’ Affairs, The University of Bamenda; Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Dr. Gelase Fredy Nsonde Ntandou
Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University