Review Article of Research Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dengue Protection and Cure: Bangladesh Perspective
World University, Plot: 5 – 8, Avenue 6 & Lake Drive Road, Sector: 17/H, Uttara, Dhaka – 1230, Bangladesh
Up to 50-100 million infections are now estimated to occur annually in over 100 endemic countries, putting almost half of the world’s population at risk. Bangladesh is one of the countries that are affected by dengue viruses. Dengue is a viral infection caused by four types of viruses (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4) belonging to the Flaviviridae family. These mosquitoes thrive in areas with standing water, including puddles, water tanks, containers and old tires. Lack of reliable sanitation and regular garbage collection also contribute to the spread of the mosquitoes. The disease has probably been known since the Chinese described it in 420 AD. Outbreaks are increasing although there is no human-to-human transfer, only mosquito-to-human viral transfer. Africans described “ka dinga pepo” as cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit. The Spanish may have changed “dinga” to dengue since it means fastidious or careful in Spanish, which describes the gait of people trying to reduce the pain of walking. With the number of patients rising, hospitals outside Dhaka are facing huge challenges to cope with the pressure, mostly due to lack of diagnosis chemicals, kits and other medical support.
Keywords: Dengue protection; topical essential oils; misconceptions with Dengue; Dengue vaccines; mosquito repellents; neem oil
How to cite this article:
AK Mohiuddin. Dengue Protection and Cure: Bangladesh Perspective.Research Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2019, 2:6
1. Ryan SJ, Carlson CJ, Mordecai EA, Johnson LR. Global expansion and redistribution of Aedes-borne virus transmission risk with climate change. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(3):e0007213. Published 2019 Mar 28. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007213
2. Alam H. Dengue Patients: August sees more than 19-yr total 50,974 cases recorded in 30 days. The Daily Star, August 31, 2019.
3. Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Thomas SJ, Ruxrungtham K. Dengue vaccine: Global development update. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2019 Jan 13. doi: 10.12932/AP-100518-0309.
4. TEMPO.CO. Dengue Fever Vaccine Available in Indonesia. Sci & Tech, 17 October 2016.
5. Bharati, Minu, and Dhiraj Saha. “Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) from dengue endemic districts of sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India.” PloS one vol. 13,9 e0203207. 10 Sep. 2018, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0203207
6. Achee, Nicole L et al. “Alternative strategies for mosquito-borne arbovirus control.” PLoS neglected tropical diseases vol. 13,1 e0006822. 3 Jan. 2019, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006822
7. Muturi, Ephantus J et al. “Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Garlic and Asafoetida Essential Oils Against West Nile Virus Vectors.” Journal of insect science (Online) vol. 18,2 (2018): 43. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iey036
8. Heubeck E. Are You a Mosquito Magnet? WebMD, Allergies Feature Stories, January 31, 2012.
9. Shirai O, Tsuda T, Kitagawa S, Naitoh K, Seki T, Kamimura K, Morohashi M. Alcohol ingestion stimulates mosquito attraction. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2002 Jun;18(2):91-6.
10. Ewald, D Rose, and Susan C J Sumner. “Blood type biochemistry and human disease.” Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine vol. 8,6 (2016): 517-535. doi:10.1002/wsbm.1355
11. Ndenga, Bryson Alberto et al. “Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.” PloS one vol. 12,12 e0189971. 19 Dec. 2017, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0189971
12. Wong, Rebecca S Y. “Role of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in Cancer Prevention and Cancer Promotion.” Advances in pharmacological sciences vol. 2019 3418975. 31 Jan. 2019, doi:10.1155/2019/3418975
13. Tribune Desk. DGHS: 607 more hospitalized for dengue in 24hrs. Dhaka Tribune, 07 September, 2019.
14. Alam H. Dengue Situation: Now alarming also outside the capital. The Daily Star, August 19, 2019.
15. Alam H, Mollah S. Hospitals struggling. The Daily Star, July 28, 2019.
16. Tribune Desk. Nearly 51,000 dengue patients hospitalized in August only. Dhaka tribune, 30 August, 2019.
17. Independent Online/ UNB. Dengue cases still on the rise. The Independent 01 August, 2019.
18. Maia, Marta Ferreira, and Sarah J Moore. “Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing.” Malaria journal vol. 10 Suppl 1,Suppl 1 S11. 15 Mar. 2011, doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-S1-S11
19. Lee, Mi Young. “Essential Oils as Repellents against Arthropods.” BioMed research international vol. 2018 6860271. 2 Oct. 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/6860271
20. Reichert, William et al. “Repellency Assessment of Nepeta cataria Essential Oils and Isolated Nepetalactones on Aedes aegypti.” Scientific reports vol. 9,1 1524. 6 Feb. 2019, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-36814-1
21. Abiy, Ephrem et al. “Repellent efficacy of DEET, MyggA, neem (Azedirachta indica) oil and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) oil against Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector in Ethiopia.” Malaria journal vol. 14 187. 3 May. 2015, doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0705-4
22. Muema, Jackson M et al. “Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds.” Parasites & vectors vol. 10,1 184. 17 Apr. 2017, doi:10.1186/s13071-017-2122-8
23. Kimutai, Albert et al. “Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.” BMC research notes vol. 10,1 98. 15 Feb. 2017, doi:10.1186/s13104-017-2396-0
24. Swale, Daniel R et al. “Neurotoxicity and mode of action of N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET).” PloS one vol. 9,8 e103713. 7 Aug. 2014, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103713
25. Chen-Hussey, Vanessa et al. “Assessment of methods used to determine the safety of the topical insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).” Parasites & vectors vol. 7 173. 3 Jun. 2014, doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-173
26. Msangi S, Kweka E, Mahande A. Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide) against Man-Biting Mosquitoes. J Trop Med. 2018 Jan 9;2018:9037616. doi: 10.1155/2018/9037616.
27. Kaura, Taruna et al. “Utilizing larvicidal and pupicidal efficacy of Eucalyptus and neem oil against Aedes mosquito: An approach for mosquito control.” Tropical parasitology vol. 9,1 (2019): 12-17. doi:10.4103/tp.TP_35_18
28. Udeinya IJ, Mbah AU, Chijioke CP, Shu EN. An antimalarial extract from neem leaves is antiretroviral. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;98(7):435-7.
29. Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka et al. “Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model.” Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine vol. 3,9 (2013): 720-4. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60145-8
30. Gadhwal AK, Ankit BS, Chahar C, Tantia P, Sirohi P, Agrawal RP. Effect of Carica papaya Leaf Extract Capsule on Platelet Count in Patients of Dengue Fever with Thrombocytopenia. J Assoc Physicians India. 2016 Jun;64(6):22-26.
31. Subenthiran, Soobitha et al. “Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM vol. 2013 (2013): 616737. doi:10.1155/2013/616737
32. Charan, Jaykaran et al. “Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” International journal of applied & basic medical research vol. 6,4 (2016): 249-254. doi:10.4103/2229-516X.192596
33. Pandita, Aakash et al. “Use of papaya leaf extract in neonatal thrombocytopenia.” Clinical case reports vol. 7,3 497-499. 1 Feb. 2019, doi:10.1002/ccr3.2025
34. Ahmad, Nisar et al. “Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.” Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine vol. 1,4 (2011): 330-3. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60055-5
35. Srikanth BK, Reddy L, Biradar S, Shamanna M, Mariguddi DD, Krishnakumar M. An open-label, randomized prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever in pediatric subjects. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2019 Jan 17;10:5-11. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S176712.
36. Lugun, Onila et al. “Evaluation of Antithrombotic Activities of Solanum xanthocarpum and Tinospora cordifolia.” Pharmacognosy research vol. 10,1 (2018): 98-103. doi:10.4103/pr.pr_80_17
37. Adebiyi A, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model. Br J Nutr. 2002 Aug;88(2):199-203
38. Leonard J. How can I increase my platelet count naturally? Medical News Today, 31 August 2018.