Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Influence of cow manure and row spacing on growth, flowering and seed yield of Centro (Centrosema pubescens Benth.) on ferralitic soils of Benin (West Africa)
Daniel Bignon Maxime HOUNDJO1, Sébastien ADJOLOHOUN1*, Léonard AHOTON2, Basile GBENOU1, Aliou SAIDOU2, Marcel HOUINATO1, Brice Augustin SINSIN3
1Département de Production Animale, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin.
2Département de Production Végétale, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin.
3Département de l’Aménagement et Gestion des Ressources Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin.
Centrosema pubescens (Benth) is identified as a tropical forage legume of considerable promise which can improve pasture in West Africa. A study on the influence of rates of cattle manure in combination with plant row spacing on the growth, phenology and seed yield of Centro (Centrosema pubescens) was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agronomy Science of University of Abomey-Calavi in South Benin. The site is located at latitude 6° 30’ N and longitude 2° 40’ E with elevation of 50 m above sea level. The area is characterized by ferralitic soils with low fertility, rainfall range of 1200 mm with relative humidity from 40 to 95 % and means annual temperature varying between 25 and 26 °C. Field experiments were conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 seasons. Five cattle manure rates (0, 4 tons, 8 tons, 12 tons and 16 tons/ha) and 40 kg P2O5/ha in combination with three plant spacings (40cm x 40cm, 80cm x 80cm, 120cm x 120cm) were evaluated in a 6×3 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Each treatment was replicated 4 times. The growth and flowering characteristics measured in the field included number of branches 90 days after sowing, number of leaves 90 days after sowing, plant girth 90 days after sowing, flower initiation, date of first flower appearance, date of 50% flowering, pod ripping time and efficiency of flower for pod production. Seed components evaluated are pod length, pod wide, number of seed/pod, 100 seed-weight and seed weight/pod weight ratio. Seed yield were evaluated each year by harvesting pods from 4 randomly plants per plot. Pods were shelled and seed collected were weighed for seed yield calculation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine degree of variability at 5% probability level. Result obtained from data analysis showed that there was a significant influence of cropping season, row spacing, fertilizer and their three way interaction on seed production. Apart from the control treatment, seed yield was significantly higher in the second and third years (187.3 and 189.0 kg/ha, respectively) than the first (153.8 kg/ha). Influence of row spacing was observed on seed yield and plants established and 80 cm × 80 cm gave significantly more seed per ha (204.5 kg/ha) followed by 120 cm × 120 cm (179.0 kg/ha) and 40 cm × 40 cm (146.6 kg/ha). Seed yield was significantly increased due to application of cattle manure and application of 12 tons cattle manure yielded better than others. Neither row spacing nor fertilizer had significant effect on plant phenology. In contrast, efficiency of flower for seed production was influenced by fertilizer and cropping season. According to these results, it can be concluded that row spacing of 80 cm × 80 cm and 12 tons per ha cattle manure can be recommended to farmers for C. pubescens seed production in the region.
Keywords: Centrosema pubescens, organic fertilizer, plant density, growth, development, seed, West Africa
How to cite this article:
HOUNDJO et al.,. Influence of cow manure and row spacing on growth, flowering and seed yield of Centro (Centrosema pubescens Benth.) on ferralitic soils of Benin (West Africa). American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2017,2:11. DOI:10.28933/ajar-2017-10-2901
1 Adjolohoun S., Bindelle J., Adandédjan C. and Buldgen A. (2008a); Some suitable grasses and legumes for ley pastures in Sudanian Africa: the case of Borgou region in Benin. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 12(4) 405-419.
2 Adjolohoun S. (2008). Yield, nutritive value and effects on soil fertility of forage grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the Borgou region of Benin. Thèse pour l’obtention du Diplôme de Doctorat en Sciences agronomiques et Ingénierie biologique. Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux. Belgique. 101 p.
3 Adjolohoun S., Bindelle J., Adandedjan C., Seibou Toleba S., Houinato M. and Sinsin A.B. (2013). Growth and forage production of four Arachis pintoi (Kaprovickas & Gregory) genotypes in two contrasting ecological regions of Benin (West Africa). Inter. J. Agric. Innov. Res., 2(2), 170-176.
4 Adjolohoun S., Buldgen A., Adandedjan C., Decruyenaere V. and Dardene P. (2008b). Yield and nutritive value of herbaceous and browse forage legumes in the Borgou region of Benin. Trop. Grass. 42, 104-111.
5 Adjolohoun S., Dahouda M., Adandedjan C., Toleba Séibou S., Kindomihou V. and Sinsin A.B. (2013). Evaluation of biomass production and nutritive value of nine Panicum maximum ecotypes in Central region of Benin. Afric. J. Agric. Res., 8(17), 1661-1668.
6 Ajayi F.T., Babayemi O.J and Taiwo A.A. (2006). Effects of supplementation of Panicum maximum with four herbaceous forage legumes on performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in West African dwarf goats Anim. Sc. J. 79, 673–679.
7 Akanbi, W.B., Togun, A.O., Adediran, J.A. and Ilupeju, E.A.O. (2010). Growth, Dry matter and Fruit Yield components of okra under organic and inorganic sources of nutrients. American- Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4(1), 1-13.
8 Alves A.U.; Oliveira A.P.; Alves A.U.; Dornelas C.S.M.; Alves E.U.; Cardoso E.A.; Oliveira AN.P. and Cruz I.SS (2008). Lima beans production and economic revenue as function of organic and mineral fertilization. Horticultura Brasileira 26: 251-254.
9 Saïdou A., Bokossa J.H.K., Fiogbé E.D. and Kossou D.. (2016). Kinetic of pigs’ manures decomposition and nutrient release pattern in ferralitic soil of Benin (West Africa). J. Soil Sc. Env. Manag., 7(6), 73-80.
10 Ayoola, O.T. and Adediran, O.N. (2006). Influence of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in South West Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 1336-1392.
11 Budiman N., Tanrigiling R. and Muhammed Y. (2016). The effects of bio-slurry fertilizer on sorghum bicolor and Centrosema pubescens planted with inter-cropping. Transylvanian Review, 24(10), 2552-2560.
12 Chang C., Sommerfeldt T.G. and Entz T. (1993) Barley performance under heavy applications of cattle feedlot manure. Agron. J., 85:1013–1018
13 Clements R.J. and Williams R.J. (1980). Genetic diversity in Centrosema. In “Advances in Legumes Science” (eds. R.J. Summerfield and H. Bunting). Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 559-567.
14 Cook B.G., Pengelly B.C., Brown S.D., Donnelly J.L., Eagles D.A., Franco M.A., Hanson J., Mullen B.F., Partridge I.J., Peters M. and Schultze-Kraft R. (2005). The Production of Tropical Forages : An alternative selection tool. Available <http://www.tropicalforages.info> accessed on [15/10/2017].
15 Cruz E.D. and Simão Neto M. (1995). Produção de sementes de Centrosema na regiáo Bragantina, Pará, Bresil. Pasturas Tropicales, 17(1), 18-23.
16 Eifediyi, E.K. and Remison, S.U. (2010). Growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.) as influenced by farm yard manure and inorganic fertilizer. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 2(7): 216-220.
17 Farfán, C. (1974). Efecto de prácticas culturales en la producción de semilla de plantas forrajeras tropicales. Thesis. Universidad Tecnica de Manabi, Ecuador.
18 Ferguson J.E., Hopkinson J.M., L. R. Humphreys L.R. and de Andrade R.P. (1990). Seed production of Centrosema species. In Eds Centrosema: Biology, Agronomy, and Utilization. Schultze-Kraft, R. and Clements, R. J., CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical). 1990. Cali, Colombia. 668 p.
19 Gambo, B. A., Magaji, M. D., Yakubu, A. I. and Dikko, A. U. (2008). Effects of Farm yard Manure and weed interference on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). Journal of sustainable Agriculture and Environment 3(2): 87-92.
20 Gbenou B., Adjolohoun S., Daniel Bignon Maxime Houndjo D.B.M., Saïdou A., Houinato M., Ahoton L., Sinsin B.A. (in press). Animal dung availability and their fertilizer values in a context of low soil fertility conditions for forage seed and crops production in Benin (West Africa).
21 Hamma, I.L., Ibrahim, U. and Haruna, M. (2012). Effect of poultry manure on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.) in Samaru, Zaria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 8(1):94-98.
22 Houndjo D.B.M., Adjolohoun S., Gbenou B., Houndjo D.B.M., Saïdou A., Ahoton L., Houinato M., Seibou Toleba S. and Sinsin B.A. (in press). Benin: socio-demographic and economic characteristics, crop-livestock production systems and issues for rearing improvement. A review. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sc.
23 Keller-Grein G., Schultze-Kraft R., Franco L.H. and Ramirez G. (2000). Multilocational agronomic evaluation of selected Centrosema pubescens Germplasm on acid soils. Trop. Grass. 34, 65-77.
24 Lampkin N. (1990). Organic farming. Ipswich, UK: Farming Press. pp 214 – 271
25 Matsi T., Lithourgidis A.S. and Gagianas A.A. (2003) Effects of injected liquid cattle manure on growth and yield of winter wheat and soil characteristics. Agron J 95:592–596.
26 Muhammed I.R., Kallah M.S., Tanko R.J., Balarabe A. (2002). Forage yield of irrigated centro as influenced by stages of maturity in lowland areas of Zaria, Nigeria. In: Aletor V.A., Onibi E (eds), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production 17–21 March, 2002, Akure, Nigeria, pp. 214–216. Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Akure.
27 Nworgu F.C., Egbunike G.N. and Osayomi O.J. 2001. Performance of growing rabbits fed a mixture of leaf meals and concentrates. Tropical Animal Production Investigation 4, 34–48.
28 Ojeniyi, S.O. 2000. Effect of goat manure on soil nutrients and okra yield in a rain forest area of Nigeria. Applied Tropical Agric.5:20-23.
29 Rivière R. 1991. Alimentation des ruminants domestiques en milieu tropical, La Documentation Française.
30 Salinas J.G., Kerridge P.C. and Schunke R.M. (1990). Mineral nutrition of Centrosema. In Eds Centrosema: Biology, Agronomy, and Utilization. Schultze-Kraft, R. and Clements, R. J., CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical). 1990. Cali, Colombia. 668 p.
31 Ferguson J.E., Hopkinson J.M., Humphreys L.R., and de Andrade R.P. (1990). Seed production of Centrosema pubescens. In Eds Centrosema: Biology, Agronomy, and Utilization. Schultze-Kraft, R. and Clements, R. J., CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical). Cali, Colombia. 668 p.
32 Saha S., Appireddy G.K., Kundu S. and Hari S. Gupta H.S. (2007). Comparative efficiency of three organic manures at varying rates of its application to baby corn. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 53(5), 507-517.
33 Sylvester-Bradley R., Souto S. M. and Date R. A. (1990). Rhizosphere biology and nitrogen fixation of Centrosema. In Eds Centrosema: Biology, Agronomy, and Utilization. Schultze-Kraft, R. and Clements, R. J., CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical). 1990. Cali, Colombia. 668 p.
34 da Silva T.J.A., Duarte T.F., Sousa J.V.R., Bonfim-Silva E.M.B., Pacheco A.B. and de Sousa H.H.F. (2016). Soil moisture and water use efficiency in cotton plants grown in different spacings in the Brazilian Cerrado Region. Afric. J. Agric. Res., 11(8): 701-708.
35 Ngozi EA and Chidera VO. (2017). The effect of plant density on growth and yield of ‘NsukkaYellow’ aromatic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Afric. J. Agric. Res. 12(15): 1269-1272.
36 Ogbonna P.E., Orji K.O., Nweze N.J. and Opata P.I. (2015). Effect of planting space on plant population at harvest and tuber yield in taro (Colocasia esculenta L.). Afric. J. Agric. Res., 10(5), 308-316.
37 Ison R.L. (1984). Flowering of Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf, D. intortum cv. Greenleaf and Centrosema pubescens cv. Common. In: Proceedings of the Australian Seeds Researchers Conference. Gatton, Qld., Australia, p. 65-69.
38 Teitzel J.K. and Burt R.L. (1976). Centrosema pubescens in Australia. Trop. Grass. 10(1), 5-14.