American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • VERTICAL LAYERS OF TITHONIA DIVERSIFOLIA FLAKES AMENDMENT IMPROVES PLANTAIN SEEDLING PERFORMANCE

    Plantain seedlings availability in sub-Saharan countries are very weak to support a high productivity level required. The plantain cultivation faces problem of the seedling’s unavailability in quantity and quality for intensification of this crop. The amendment of PIF substrate production with natural products could be an alternative to this problem. This study objective is to evaluate the effect of vertical layers of Tithonia diversifolia flakes on the performance of PIF plantain seedlings in terms of vegetative growth and susceptibility to black Sigatoka disease (BSD) in nursery. The vertical layer of T. diversifolia flakes amendment was introduced in the propagator in the presence of the control without amendment in controlled and uncontrolled conditions for shoots, then seedlings generation, followed by the evaluation of the vegetative growth parameters, the inoculation of the leaves with Mycosphaerella fijiensis and the pool of biomarkers evaluation. The treatment increases the germination rate, the number of shoots, the height and the diameter of shoots, the area of leaves as well as the seedlings roots, but also protects the seedlings against BSD up to about 56% compared to the controls. It also enhances the accumulation of proteins, polyphenols content and enzymes such as peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and glucanase. The dual role of the vertical layer of T. diversifolia flakes in seedling production as a biofertilizer and as a biopesticide was revealed in this research. Taking into account this bad herbs flakes as a tool for sustainable and green agriculture is an open door to poor peasants for their empowerment.

  • Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf): An Unconventional Desert protein rich supplement

    Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf) is not well known as a rich and sustainable source of protein for many people in the world. It emphasis on its broad food and non-food applications, nutritional values and health benefits. This research was carried out to meet the increasing demand of protein, alternative strategies and unconventional sources of protein for human and animal nutrition. This is probably the first research work which provides a comparative study between the protein content of ghaf leaves with different species of fish muscle protein. Fish muscle homogenate was prepared using ice cold distilled water. The muscle homogenate of Euthynnus affinis showed highest protein 137.5 mg/g. The other fishes muscle protein were Carangoides chrysophrys (43.33 mg/g), Lenthrinus lentjan (105 mg/g), Sardinella longiceps (104.17 mg/g), Pomacanthus maculosus (81.67 mg/g), Nemipterus japonicus (111.67 mg/g), Lutjanus ehrenbergi (99.17 mg/g), Gerres oyena (107.5 mg/g), Argyrops spinifer (100.83 mg/g), Terrapin jarboe (82.5 mg/g), Tilapia mossambica (54.72 mg/g). Ghaf tree is a keystone species having multiple beneficial uses from combating desertification and improving soil fertility in arid environments to being an essential food source, as well as a source of fuel, shelter and medicine for both humans and animal species. The Ghaf leaves extracts were tested for protein content analysis. The protein content in Ghaf leaves was found to be 88.61 mg/g. Thus, the research results revealed that Ghaf leaves has almost similar amount of protein as compared to fish muscle protein and can be used as protein supplement for growth and metabolism of body.

  • Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage

    Four Commercial corn hybrids included 3 white hybrids, single crosses (SC) Watania 4 (W4) and Watania 6 (W6) and three-way cross (TWC) Watania 11 (W11) and 1 yellow hybrid (SC) Watania 97 (W97) were cultivated at 30 thousand plants per feddan, harvested at 92 days, chopped and ensiled in plastic bags for 35 days. Results revealed that W6 showed the highest ear content (36.60%), W97 the highest stems content (52.47%) W11 had the highest leaves content (18.65%). Watania 11 showed higher CP content and W97 had higher CF and fiber fractions content, while W6 had higher contents of EE, NFE and NFC in comparison with the other hybrids. Gas production at different incubation times as well as gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (a), insoluble fraction (b) and soluble and insoluble fractions (a + b) as well as the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction (c) values were significantly (P

  • Comparison of Customary and Formal Tenure Systems in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State: A case of Assosa District

    Though the global trend is to manage land through formal systems, still there is debate among scholars on importance of customary tenure systems and its treatment in modern land formalization. The study done in the study area also indicates the contradicting debate on both tenure systems, whether customary land tenure activities should recognized as it is or selectively in modern land formalization. However, their argument was not after studying and comparing both tenure systems simultaneously, making major problem needed to be identified in this study. Therefore, the study in this thesis aimed to assess and compare customary and formal tenure systems. Both descriptive and explanatory case study type of research was used in this study. Similarly, both qualitative and quantities data were collected from primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were collected by using different data collection tools like interview question, In-depth-key informant interview, focal group discussion and field observation. The survey data obtained from 360 house hold heads were analyzed by using SPSS (IBM-21) in which descriptive cross-tabulation model was mainly used. To compare means of continues variables, one –way ANOVA and descriptive system were also used. The study findings from House hold survey indicate significant variation between formal and customary tenure systems at (P< 0.05) and (P 0.05);land related explanatory variables like land accessibility, defining right, ensuring tenure security, legalization of land transfer and conflict reduction and resolution; and Local farmers ‘perception on importance of modern land formalization -that was positive in formalized tenure and negative in customary tenure. These findings were triangulated with data collected with other tools. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends recognition of non formal customary tenure selectively in modern land formalization policies, rules, regulations and laws. For place where formalization coverage takes longer time to achieve, customary systems should have...

  • Extraction and Characterization of Oil and Cake from Neem Seed Kernels Collected from Hamelmalo Region

    The most researched tree, Neem (Azadirachta indicaA. Juss) is found to African countries including Eritrea(locally named as Miim).It has an important in the global context because neem seed, leaves, bark etc. are considered as biological pesticides against insect pests, nematodal infestations and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and storage pests in the agricultural crops without showing any harmful effects. In Eritrea, the usages of neem products are meager; hence this project projects the introduction of neem oil and cake as ecofriendly pesticide. Seeds of neem collected, de-husked and attained the kernels for the extraction of oil and cakes by cold press extraction method with the help of a devise that was made locally. About 5kg of neem kernels can be used once in this screwed devise which can be streamed 15% of oil and 4.25kg cake within 20-30 minutes. The physical and chemical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid content, iodine value and saponification values were determined as per the standard procedure to authenticate the pesticidal properties of neem oil. The organic acid contents of neem oil were also analyzed to verify their bioactive properties.

  • Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes

    Garlic production in most areas of Ethiopia especially in Amhara region is constrained by shortage of varieties, occasional ice storm raining, poor agronomic practice coupled with susceptibility to pests. Forty nine garlic genotypes were evaluated to determine magnitude of genetic variability for bulb yield and yield related traits in garlic accessions recently collected by Debreziet Agricultural Research center and Fogera National Rice Research and Training Center (FNRRTC) from different parts of Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out using 7×7 simple lattice design with two replications at FNRRTC in 2017/18. Data were collected for ten agronomic traits and analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p

  • Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention

    Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and the base of livelihood for the residents of East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The livelihood of the residents of East Hararghe Zone dependent on agriculture; however, the sector in the Zone is at subsistence level and efforts has been put to adapt and promote improved technologies that would help to boost production is not satisfactory. For the successful research and development intervention, analysis of the existing crop production system is crucial to understand the real situation. In this line, this study was with specific objectives of identifying crop production systems, and prioritizing major constraints in the study area.The study was used Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) tools such as household survey, focus group discussions, pair-wise ranking, and field observation. A total of 329 farm householders were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of PRA indicates that five major farming typologies:-Chat/Maize highland mixed farming system (CMHMFS), Sorghum/maize/cash crops midland mixed farming system (SMCMMFS), Coffee/maize mixed farming system (CMMFS), Sorghum/groundnut lowland mixed farming system (SGLMFS) and Agro pastoral/pastoral farming system (APPFS) were identified in the Zone. Results of PRA study revealed that the main crop production constraints were lack of improved varieties, shortage were identified as the first limiting factor followed by insect pests, shortage of improved seeds supply, erratic rainfall distribution, soil fertility declining and extension service availability in decreasing order of priority. Hence, there is need for research, development and institutional interventions to alleviate the identified constraints to crop production in the study area through holistic approach.

  • Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control

    Root rot and wilt diseases caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks faba bean plants in New valley Governorate, Egypt. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: salicylic Acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AA), humic acid (HA) and Bion was evaluated as faba bean seed soaking, compared to untreated control treatment under greenhouse and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, all the tested chemical inducers have no effect or little effect on linear growth of all tested pathogenic fungal isolates. On the other hand, all tested chemical inducers at different concentrations were decreased the root rot and wilt severity. Salicylic acid at 400 and Bion at 1000 ppm recorded the lowest root rot and wilt severity. All chemical inducers individually or in combination with R. leguminosarum significantly decreased root rot and wilt diseases under greenhouse and field conditions as well as increased total yield /feddan under field conditions. The combination between chemical inducers and R. leguminosarum more effective for controlling root rot and wilt diseases and increased seed yield/feddan than individually treatment. Application of SA and Bion + R. leguminosarum recorded the lowest percentage of root rot and wilt severity and the highest plant growth and yield parameter during both growing seasons.

  • Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties

    In the world wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit quality differences. Pakistan and Ethiopia are best examples of wheat producers found in different agro-climatic ranges. Grain protein percentage is an important component of grain quality. Protein contents measured by standard Kjeldahl method show a higher level than protein contents calculated from NIRS. Generally grain protein contents in wheat varies between 8% and 17%, depending on genetic make-up and on external factors associated with the crop. The Pakistan’s results regarding standard Kjeldahl analysis of protein reveals highest level of 11.2% protein in variety Bakhtawar-92, while Tatara, Watan, Bhakkar-01, Wafaq-01, Gandam-2002 and Chudry-97 contain 11.0% protein. The lowest value is present in Saleem-2000 (9.0%). Wheat grain quality of three bread wheat varieties namely Pavon 76, HAR 2501 and HAR 2536 grown in Arsi and Bale areas of Ethiopia were determined. The wheat varieties had a protein content of 10.60, 11.53 and 10.70%, respectively. Relatively, the wheat varieties collected from Ethiopia has higher amount of protein content compared to those of Pakistan wheat varieties. This variation may be due to method differences but not significant at 95% confidence level. This study is significant to further improve their nutritional excellence.

  • A Study on birds and fish Diversity, abundance and their Conservation Status of Bahire Giorgis Lake

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) variety named ‘Numan’ with the pedigree designation of ‘EH06007-2’ has been released by Kulumsa agricultural research centre in Ethiopia. The variety is best adapted to altitudes ranging between 1800 to 3000 m.a.s.l. areas of Ethiopia and similar agro-ecologies. The variety was developed through hybridization between F5 generation (EH99037-5) and exotic material (ILB1563) and resulted in breeder id designation of ‘EH06007-2’. It has been tested at Kulumsa, Asassa, Bokoji, Koffale, Holetta, Adadi, Jeldu, Adet, Shambu and Sinana, from 2012 to 2013 main cropping seasons. The seed weight of this variety is 36.5% heavier than the seed weight of the variety used as the standard check. Despite ‘Numan’ showed relatively (-2.77%) less seed yield advantage across a range of environments and years than the standard checks Dosha and Tumsa in the National Variety Trials based on most stability measurement parameters. However, this variety is the seed size and moderately resistant to the major faba bean diseases such as chocolate spot and rust, and it could be cultivated across a number of locations in the mid and high-altitude areas of Ethiopia for increasing productivity of the crop and important variety for foreign export.