Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
The Effect of N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the Germination of Raphanus sativus (Radish Plants)
Caimin Xi1 and James T. Zacharia2
1Adlai Stevenson High School, Illinois, 60069, USA
2Dar es Salaam University College of Education, P. O. Box 2329, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
DEET is one of the major chemical constituents of bug repellant with an estimated global use of 7 million liters in 2016. While there has been research concerning the health safety of bug repellent, research concerning its environmental impact is very limited. This study was designed to determine the impact bug repellent on the germination of plant seeds. The build-up of bug repellent found in water and soil was simulated by exposing radish seeds to various concentrations of repellent during the germination process. This two-phased experimental set up demonstrated a significant correlation between higher bug repellent concentrations and lower germination rates. Even in the group containing 0.01% concentration of repellent, only 60% of seeds germinated comparing to 93.3% in the control group on day 10. The differences in germination rates was found to be statistically significant (P=0.0025). The experimental groups with repellents also delayed the process of germination.
Keywords: N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET, Germination, Raphanus sativus, Radish Plants
How to cite this article:
Caimin Xi and James T. Zacharia.The Effect of N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the Germination of Raphanus sativus (Radish Plants). American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2018,3:18. DOI:10.28933/ajar-2018-02-1804
1. Katz, T. (2008). “Insect repellents: Historical perspectives and new developments”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 58 (5): 865–871.
2. Diep, F. (2014, June 4). Is DEET Safe To Use? Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.popsci.com/article/science/deet-safe-use
3. Explore Cornell – Home Gardening – Vegetable Growing Guides – Growing Guide. (2006). Retrieved December 19, 2016
4. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). R.E.D Facts about DEET (EPA Publication No. 738-F-95-010). United States Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (7508W).
5. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) DEET (EPA Publication No. 738-R-98-010). Unites States Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (7508W).
6. Gazette Network. (2016). Global body-worn insect repellent market value from 2014 to 2021, In Statista – The Statistics Portal.
7. Ddard, J., PhD. (2002), Health Risks and Benefits of Insect Repellents. Medscape
8. Schlager, N., Weisblatt, J., & Newton, D. E. (2006) N,N-Diethyl-3-Methyl-benzamide. Chemical Compounds. Detroit
9. President, B. S. (2016). U.S.: Usage of insect repellent 2013-2020 Statistic.
10. Sifferlin, A. (2013). Bugs Be Gone! What’s Really in Bug Spray | TIME.com.
11. Statista. (2016). U.S. population: Popular brands of insect repellent from 2013 to 2016. In Statista – The Statistics Portal
12. Weeks, J., Guiney, P., & Nikiforov, A. (2011). Assessment of the environmental fate and ecotoxicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management,8(1), 120-134. doi:10.1002/ieam.12
13. Thomas, C. Moore (1967), Kinetics of Growth Retardant and Hormone Interactions in Affecting Cucumber Hypocotyl Elongation’, Plant Physiol. 42, 677-684
14. Syed, Z.; and Leal, W. S (2008). “Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 105 (36): 13598–603.
15. Fox, Maggie; David Wiessler (2008). “For mosquitoes, DEET just plain stinks”. Washington. Reuters.
16. Grennan, Aleel K (2006). “Gibberellin Metabolism Enzymes in Rice”. Plant Physiology. 141 (2): 524–6.
17. Tsai F-Y.; Lin C.C.; Kao C.H. (1997). “A comparative study of the effects of abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate on seedling growth of rice”. Plant Growth Regulation. 21 (1): 37–42
18. Baldev, B. and Lang, A. (1965), Control of flower formation by growth retardants and gibberellin in Samolus parviflorus, a long-day plant. Am. J. Botany 52:40-17.
19. Dennis, D. T.,. Upper. C. D, and. West, C. A.. (1965), An enzymic site of inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis by Amo-1618 and other plant growth retardants. Plant Physiol. 40:948-52.
20. Ninnemann, H., Zeevaart, J. A. D., Kende, H. and Lang A.,(1964), The plant growth retardant CCC as inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in Fusarium mtioniliforrnc. Planta 61: 229-35.
21. Zeevaart, J. A. D. (1964). Effects of the growth retardant CCC on floral initiation and growth in Pharbitis nil. Plant Physiol. 39: 402-08.
22. Zeevaart, J. A. D. (1966), Reduction of the gibberellin content of Pharbitis seeds by CCC and after effects in the progeny. Plant Physiol. 41: 856-62.
23. Gerhard Leubner (2017), The Seed Biology Place, Royal Holloway University of London Press, London.