Out-break, Distribution and Management of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith in Africa: The Status and Prospects

Out-break, Distribution and Management of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith in Africa: The Status and Prospects

Megersa Kebede1*, Tamiru Shimalis2
1Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bako Agricultural Research Center, P.O.BOX 03, Bako, Ethiopia
2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jima Agricultural Research Center, Jima, Ethiopia

American Journal of Agricultural Research

A review was made to highlight various research works done so far regarding to the introduction, distribution and managements of fall army worm in Africa. It has been reported that the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is an economically important pest native to tropical and subtropical America has recently invaded Africa there by causing substantial damage to maize and other crops. Accordingly, signals increased negative impacts on agricultural production and food security on the continent. Reports also suggested that this pest has already moved to at least 30 African countries. It was first detected in Central and Western Africa in early 2016 (Sao Tome and Principe, Nigeria, Benin and Togo) and from there proceeded further. Currently, in Africa the pest is causing huge damage to maize crop and has been estimated to 25-67% for maize in many countries. African continent provides favorable climatic conditions for a constant reproduction of the pest, which is expected to result in severe damage to high priority crops.  Various control methods, including cultural, chemical and mechanical have been adopted and practiced by farmers in many African countries. Large-scale eradication efforts are neither appropriate nor feasible. Thus, in near future gathering and analyzing experiences and best practices from other countries where the pest is native will help to design and test a sustainable fall armyworm management program for smallholders in Africa. Furthermore, in order to reduce negative impacts associated with inappropriate usage of insecticide, emphasize should be given to develop or adopt the management practices which is environmentally safe.

Keywords: Crop damages, Spodoptera frugiperda, management practices, prevalence in Africa, prospects

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:

Megersa Kebede, Tamiru Shimalis. Outbreak, Distribution and Management of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith in Africa: The Status and Prospects. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019,4:43.

1. Abrahams P., Beale T., Cock M., Corniani N., Day R., Godwin J., Murphy S., Richards G. and Vos J. ( 2017). Fall Armyworm Status. Impacts and control options in Africa: Preliminary Evidence Note, 14p.
2. Adamczyk JJ Jr, Leonard BR, Graves JB. (1999). Toxicity of selected insecticides to fall armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in laboratory bioassay studies. Fla Entomol, 82, 230-236.
3. All N. (1988). Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestations in no-tillage cropping systems. The Florida Entomologist, 71, 268-272.
4. Altieri MA, Funes-Monzote FR, Petersen P (2012). Agro ecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32, 1-13.
5. Altieri MA and Nicholls CI (2003). Soil fertility management and insect pests: Harmonizing soil and plant health in agro ecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research, 72, 203-211.
6. Andrews, K.L., (1980). The whorl worm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in central America and neighboring areas. Fla. Entomol., 63, 456–467.
7. Ashley TR, Wiseman BR, Davis FM, Andrews KL (1989). The fall armyworm: a bibliography. Florida Entomologist, 72, 152-202.
8. Badji, C. A.; Guedes, R. N. C. and Silva, A. A. (2002). Impact of deltamethrin on arthropods in maize under conventional and no-tillage cultivation. Crop Protec., 23 (11), 1031-1039.
9. Barfield, C. S., and T. R. Ashley. (1987). Effects of corn phenology and temperature on the life cycle of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomol, 70, 110-116.
10. B.M. Prasanna, Joseph E. Huesing, Regina Eddy, Virginia M. Peschke (eds). (2018). Fall Armyworm in Africa: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management, First Edition. Mexico, CDMX: CIMMYT.
11. B.M. Prasanna, Joseph E. Huesing, Regina Eddy, Virginia M. Peschke. (2018). Global experts release guide on Fall Armyworm management, a critical global security threat in Africa. http://www.usaid.gov/west-africa-regional
12. Brown ES, Dewhurst CF. (1975). The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. Bull Entomol Res, 65, 221-262. Doi: 10.1017/S0007485300005939
13. Bugg RL, Wäckers FL, Brunson KE, Dutcher JD, Phatak SC. (1991). Cool-season cover crops relay intercropped with cantaloupe: influence on a generalist predator, Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 84, 408-416.
14. CABI [Internet]. [Cited 2016 Jun 18] Available from: http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/
15. Cairns, J.E., Hellin, J., Sonder, K., Araus, J.L., MacRobert, J.F., Thierfelder, C., Prasanna, B.M., 2013. Adapting maize production to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa. Food secure, 5, 345–360.
16. Capinera, J. L. (1999). Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). EENY-098, University of Florida IFAS Extension, 6 pp, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN255
17. Chapman, J.W., Williams, T., Martinez, A.M., Cisneros, J., Caballero, P., Cave, R.D. (2000). Does cannibalism in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reduce the risk of predation? Behave. Ecol. Sociobiol, 48, 321–327.
18. Cook, S.M., Khan, Z.R and Pickett, J.A (2007). The use of ‘push–pull’ strategies in integrated pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 52, 375–400.
19. Cook D.R., Leonard, B.R., Gore, J., (2002). Field and laboratory performance of novel insecticides against armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Fla. Entomol., 87, 433–439.
20. Coolman RM, Hoyt GD (1993). Increasing sustainability by inter-cropping. Hort Technology, 3, 309-312.
21. Cruz, I. (1999). Damage of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in different maize genotypes cultivated in soil under three levels of aluminium saturation. Inter. J. Pest Manag., 45 (4), 293-296.
22. Cruz, I., Turpin, F.T. (1982). Effects of Spodoptera frugiperda on different growth stages of corn. Pesqu. Agropecu. Bras., 17, 355–359.
23. Dal Pogeto, M.H.F.A., Prado, E.P., Gimenes, M.J., Christovam, R.S., Rezende, D.T., Aguiar- Junior, H.O., Costa, S.I.A and Raetano, C.G. (2012). Corn yield with reduction of insecticidal spay against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctudae). J. Agron.., 11, 17–21.
24. De Almeida Sarmento, R., de Souza Aguiar, R.W., Vieira, S.M.J., de Oliveira, H.G and Holtz, A.M. (2002). Biology review, occurrence and control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn in Brazil. Biosci. J., 18, 41–48.
25. Dennis Rangi and Janny Vos. (2017). Fall Armyworm: Impacts and Implications for Africa. www.cabi.org
26. Fall Armyworm: Impacts and Implications for Africa. (2017). www.invasive-species.org/fawevidencenote
27. FAO (2018). Integrated management of the Fall Armyworm on maize: A guide for Farmer Field Schools in Africa
28. FAO (2017). Briefing note on FAO actions on fall armyworm in Africa. Visited on 2nd November. http://www.fao.org/emergencies/resources/documents/resourcesdetail/
29. Ferreira Filho JBS, Alves L, Gottardo L and Georgino M (2010). Dimensionamento docusto econo Ãmico representadopor Spodoptera frugiperda na cultura do milho no Brasil. 48 Congresso Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administrac Ë ão e Sociologia Rural, 21 pp.
30. Figueiredo, M. L. C.; Penteado-Dias, A. M.; Cruz, I. (2005). Danos provocados por Spodoptera frugiperda na produção de matéria seca e nos rendimentos de grãos, na cultura do milho. Sete Lagoas: Embrapa/CNPMS, 6 p. (Comunicado Técnico, 130)
31. Gallo, D. (2002). Entomologia agrícola. Piracicaba: FEALQ, 920 p.
32. Goergen, G., Kumar, P.L., Sankung, S.B., Togola, A and Tamò, M. (2016). First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new alien invasive pest in West and Central Africa. PLoS One, 11 (10), e0165632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0165632.
33. Guardian (2017). https://www. theguardian.com/global development professionals-network /2017/ may/ 16/ armyworms the hungry caterpillar threatening a global food crisis. [Accessed 5 October 2017]
34. Harrison, F. P. (1984a). Observations of the infestation of corn by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with reference to plant maturity. Florida Entomol., 67, 333-339.
35. Hay-Roe MM, Meagher RL, Nagoshi RN, Newman Y (2016). Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and a pasture field in Florida. Biological Control, 96, 46-56.
36. Hoballah ME, Degen T, Bergvinson D, Savidan A, Tamò C, Turlings TCJ (2004). Occurrence and direct control potential of parasitoids and predators of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize in the subtropical lowlands of Mexico. Forest Entomology, 6(1), 83-88.
37. Hruska, A. J. & Gould, F. (1997). Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea lineolata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Impact of larval population level and temporal occurrence on maize yield in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(2), 611-622.
38. Johnson, S.J., (1987). Migration and the life history strategy of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere. Insect Sci. Appli., 8, 543–549.
39. Kfir, R., Overholt, W.A., Khan, Z.R. and Polaszek, A (2002). Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stemborers in Africa. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 47, 701–731.
40. Khan, Z.R., Midega, C.A.O., Pittchar, J.O., Murage, A.W., Birkett, M.A., Bruce, T.J.A and Pickett, J.A (2014). Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push–pull innovation by 2020. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B, 369, 20120284.
41. Khan, Z.R., Midega, C.A.O., Bruce, T.J.A., Hooper, A.M., Pickett, J.A (2010). Exploiting phytochemicals for developing a push–pull crop protection strategy for cereal farmers in Africa. J. Exp. Bot., 61, 4185–4196.
42. Landis DA, Wratten SD, Gurr GM (2000). Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology, 45(1), 175-201.
43. Liu X, Chen M, Collins HL, Onstad DW, Roush RT, Zhang Q, Earle ED, Shelton AM (2014). Natural enemies delay insect resistance to Bt Crops. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e90366. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090366
44. Luginbill P, (1928). The Fall Armyworm. USDA Technical Bulletin, 34. 91 pp.
45. Macauley, H. (2015). Cereal crops: rice, maize, millet, sorghum, wheat: background paper. Conference on ‘Feeding Africa’ Dakar, Senegal, 21–23 October 2015. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Events/DakAgri2015/Cereal_Crops Rice Maize Millet Sorghum Wheat. [Accessed 5 October 2017]
46. Marino PC, Landis DA (1996). Effect of landscape structure on parasitoid diversity and parasitism in agro ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 6, 276-284.
47. Martin EA, Seo B, Park CR, Reineking B, Steffan-Dewenter I (2016). Scale-dependent effects of landscape composition and configuration on natural enemy diversity, crop herbivory, and yields. Ecological Applications, 26(2), 448-462.
48. Meagher RL, Nuessly GS, Nagoshi RN, Hay-Roe MM (2016). Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats. Biological Control. 95, 66-72.
49. Meagher RL, Nagoshi RN, Stuhl CS, Mitchell ER (2004). Larval development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on different cover crop plants. Florida Entomologist, 87, 454-460.
50. Morales H, Perfecto I, Ferguson B (2001). Traditional fertilization and its effect on corn insect populations in the Guatemalan highlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 84, 145–155.
51. Midegaa, C. A.O., Jimmy O. Pittchara, John A. Pickettb, Girma W. Hailua and Zeyaur R. Khana (2018). A climate-adapted push-pull system effectively controls fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in maize in East Africa. Crop Protection, 105, 10–15
52. Midega, C.A.O., Bruce, T.J., Pickett, J.A and Khan, Z.R (2015a). Ecological management of cereal stemborers in African smallholder agriculture through behavioral manipulation. Ecol. Entomol., 40 (1), 70–81.
53. Midega, C.A.O., Bruce, T.J.A., Pickett, J.A., Pittchar, J.O., Murage, A and Khan, Z.R (2015b). Climate-adapted companion cropping increases agricultural productivity in East Africa. Field Crops Res., 180, 118–125.
54. Midega, C.A.O., Nyang’au, I.M., Pittchar, J., Birkett, M.A., Pickett, J.A., Borges, M and Khan, Z.R (2012). Farmers’ perceptions of cotton pests and their management in western Kenya. Crop. Prot., 42, 193–201.
55. Murúa G, Molina-Ochoa J, Coviella C. (2006). Population dynamics of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its hymenopteran parasitoids in Northwestern Argentina. Florida Entomologist, 89, 175-182.
56. MuruÂa G, Virla E. (2004). Population parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lep: Noctuidae) fed on corn and two predominant grasses in Tucuman (Argentina). Acta Zool Mex., 20, 199-210.
57. Pair SD, Raulston JR, Sparks AN, Westbrook JK and Douce GK (1986). Fall armyworm distribution and population dynamics in the southeastern states. Fla Entomol., 69, 468-487.
58. P. Abrahams, T. Beale, M. Cock, N. Corniani, R.Day, J.Godwin, S. Murphy, G. Richards & J. Vos. (2017). Impacts and control options in Africa: Preliminary Evidence Note.
59. Pichersky E, Gershenzon J (2002). The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5(3), 237-243.
60. Pitre HN, Hogg DB. (1983). Development of the fall armyworm on cotton, soybean and corn. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 18, 187-194.
61. Pogue, M.A., (2002). World revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Mem. Am. Ent. Soc., 43, 1–202.
62. Pumariño L, Sileshi GW, Gripenberg S, Kaartinen R, Barrios E, Muchane MN, Midega C, Jonsson M (2015). Effects of agroforestry on pest, disease and weed control: A meta-analysis. Basic and Applied Ecology, 16, 573-582.
63. R Core Team, 2014. R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/.
64. Riggin, T. M., K. E. Espelie, B. R. Wiseman and D. J. Isenhour. (1993). Distribution of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) parasitoids on five corn genotypes in South Georgia. Florida Entomol., 76, 292-302.
65. Roger Day, Phil Abrahams, Melanie Bateman, Tim Beale, Victor Clottey, Matthew Cock, Yelitza Colmenarez, Natalia Corniani, Regan Early1 Julien Godwin, Jose Gomez, Pablo Gonzalez Moreno, Sean T. Murphy, Birgitta Oppong-Mensah, Noah Phiri, Corin Pratt, Silvia Silvestri and Arne Witt. (2017). Fall Armyworm: Impacts and Implications for Africa. www.pestoutlook.com.
66. Rose DJW, Dewhurst CF and Page WW (2000). The African armyworm handbook. 2nd ed. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich
67. Sarmento RA, Aguiar RWS, Aguiar Rass, Vieira SMJ, Oliveira HG, Holtz AM (2002). Revisão da biologia, ocorrência e controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) em milho no Brasil. Biosci J., 18, 41-48.
68. Sekul A A, Sparks AN (1976). Sex attractant of the fall armyworm moth. USDA Technical Bulletin, 1542. 6 pp.
69. Simmons, A. M. 1992. Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures and humidities on the survival of Spodoptera frugiperda pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomol, 76, 333-340.
70. Sparks AN (1979). A review of the biology of the fall armyworm. Florida Entomologist, 62, 82-87.
71. Stokstad E. (2017). New crop pest takes Africa at lightning speed. Science 356 (6337), 473- 474. [Doi: 10.1126/science.356.6337.473
72. Tinoco, R and Halperin, D (1998). Poverty, production and health: inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase through occupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Chiapas, México. Arch. Environ. Health, 53, 29–35.
73. Ratnadass A, Fernandes P, Avelino J, Habib R (2011). Plant species diversity for sustainable management of crop pests and diseases in agro ecosystems: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32, 273-303.
74. Rivers A, Barbercheck M, Govaerts B, Verhulst N (2016). Conservation agriculture affects arthropod community composition in a rainfed maize-wheat system in central Mexico. Applied Soil Ecology, 100, 81-90.
75. Rossi CE et al. (1987). Influência de diferentes adubações em milho sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidóptera: Noctuidade). Ecossistema, 12, 88-101. 1987.
76. Stevenson PC, Kite GC, Lewis GP, Forest F, Nyirenda SP, Belmain SR, Sileshi GW, Veitch NC (2012). Distinct chemotypes of Tephrosia vogelii and implications for their use in pest control and soil enrichment. Phytochemistry, 78, 135-146.
77. Tillman GM, Schomberg H, Phatak S, Mullinix B, Lachnicht S, Timper P, Olson D (2004). Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97, 1217-1232.
78. Tscharntke, T, Karp, DS, Chaplin-Kramer, R, Batáry, P, De Clerck, F, Gratton, C Larsen, A (2016). When natural habitat fails to enhance biological pest control–Five hypotheses. Biological Conservation, 204, 449-458.
79. Van den Berg J, Van Rensburg JBJ (1991). Infestation and injury levels of stem borers in relation to yield potential of grain sorghum. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 8, 127– 131.
80. Veres A, Petit S, Conord C, Lavigne C (2013). Does landscape composition affect pest abundance and their control by natural enemies? A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 166, 110-117.
81. Wyckhuys KAG, O’Neil RJ (2007) Influence of extra-field characteristics to abundance of key natural enemies of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in subsistence maize production. International Journal of Pest Management, 53, 89-99.
82. Wyckhuys KAG, O’Neil RJ (2006) Population dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and associated arthropod natural enemies in Honduran subsistence maize. Crop Protection, 25, 1180–1190.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.