Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers Rate on Yield and Yield Components of Tef at Adola District, Guji Zone, in Southern Ethiopia
Yared Tesfaye*, Girma Teshome and Kabna Asefa
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, (OARI) Bore Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box.21, Guji-Bore, Ethiopia
An experiment was conducted at Adola District, Southern Ethiopia to investigate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus rates on yield and yield components of tef. Four rates of nitrogen (0, 46, 69, 92 kg ha-1) and five rates of phosphorus (0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg ha-1) were combined in 4×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data collected on phenology, growth and yield parameters were analyzed using SAS 9.2 computer software. Analysis of the results revealed that panicle length were highly significant (P<0.01) for the main effect of N. The maximum PL (37.94cm), were recorded at the highest rate of N (92kg ha-1). The interaction of the two fertilizers were also highly significant (P<0.01) for days to 90% maturity (DM) and grain yield (GY) and significantly (P<0.05) affected by number of total tiller (TT),number of productive tiller(NPT)and straw yield (SY).The highest DPE(37.71days) and DM (66.66 days), were obtained from unfertilized (control) treatments. On the other hand, maximum number of total tiller(4.14 per plant),number of productive tiller(3.74 per plant)were recorded from 46/92 kg ha-1 N with 92 kg ha-1 P. Highest straw yield (10676 kg ha-1) and LI (67.41%) were recorded at combined application of 92 kg N with 92 kg P ha-1 while maximum GY (1683kg ha-1) was obtained from combined application of 69 kg N with 69 kg P ha-1. However, the result of economic analysis showed that combined application of 69 kg N and 69 kg N ha-1 gave economic benefit of 46996.75ETB ha-1 with the marginal rate of return of 45585.38%. Therefore, use of 69 kg N and 69 kg P ha-1 can be recommended for production of tef in the study area and other similar agro-ecological conditions.
Keywords:Grain yield; Interaction effect; Partial budget analysis.
How to cite this article:
Yared Tesfaye, Girma Teshome and Kabna Asefa. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers Rate on Yield and Yield Components of Tef at Adola District, Guji Zone, in Southern Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019, 4:57.
1. Abeba T (2009). Material transfer agreements on Teff and Vernonia, Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources. Journal of Politics and Law 2: 77-89.
2. Abraha Arefaine (2013). Effects of Rates and Time of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] in Habro District, Eastern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
3. Alemayehu Assefa, Minale Liban, Tilahun Taddese, Abrham Marye (2006). Determination of optimum rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilization for tef (Eragrostis tef) production in different agro ecological areas of northwestern Ethiopia. Annual Regional Conference in Bahirdar.
4. Alemu Assefa,Tamado Tana, Jemal Abdulahi (2016). Effects of Compost and Inorganic NP Rates on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Teff (Eragrotisteff (Zucc.) Trotter) in GirarJarso District, Central Highland of Ethiopia (Journal of Fertilizers & Pesticides ISSN: 2471-2728)
5. Asefa F, Debela A, Mohammed M (2014). Evaluation of teff [Eragrostistef (Zuccagni) Trotter] responses to different rates of NPK along with Zn and B in Didessa district, southwestern Ehiopia. World Applied Sciences Journal 32: 2245-2249.
6. Asefa K (1991). Effects of some synthetic plant growth regulators on lodging and other agronomic and morphological characters of teff [Eragrostis tef, (Zucc.) Trotter]. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
7. Bekabil F, Befekadu B, Simons R, Tareke B (2011). Strengthening the Teff value chain in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Agricultural transformation Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
8. Bouyoucos, G. J, (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54:464–465.
9. CIMMYT (1988). From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual. Completely Revised Edition, Mexico, DF.,79 pp.
10. CSA (Central Statistics Agency). 2017. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Agricultural Sample Survey 2016/2017 (2009 E.C.) Vol. I. Report on Area and production of major Crops (Private peasant holdings ‘‘Meher’’ season), Statistical Bulletin 584, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
11. CSA (Central Statistics Agency) (2018). The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Agricultural Sample Survey 2017/2018 (2010 E.C.) Vol. I. Report on Area and production of major Crops (Private peasant holdings ‘‘Meher’’ season), Statistical Bulletin 586, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
12. Demeke M. and Di Marcantonio F, (2013). Analysis of Incentives and Disincentives for Tef in Ethiopia. Technical Notes Series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome.
13. Donald, L.S, (2004). Understanding and reducing lodging in cereals. Advances in Agronomy, 84: 217–271.
14. Ethio-SIS (Ethiopian Soil Information System) (2014). Soil Analysis Report. Agricultural Transformation Agency (Unpublished).
15. Fayera Asefa, Adugna Debela, Muktar Mohammed (2014). Evaluation of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter] Responses to Different Rates of NPK Along With Zn and B in Didessa District, Southwestern Ethiopia. World AppliedSciences Journal, 32 (11): 2245-2249.
16. Getahun Dereje, Dereje Alemu, Tigist Adisu and Bekele Anbessa (2018). Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to Optimum Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rate Application in Assosa Zone, Benishangul Gumuz Region. Ethiopian. Journal. Agricultural. Science., 28(1) 81-94
17. Giday O, Gibrekidan H, Berhe T, (2014). Response of Teff (Eragrostis tef) to Different Rates of Slow Release and Conventional Urea Fertilizers in Vertisols of Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Adv Plants Agric Res 1(5): 00030. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2014.01.00030
18. Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L. and Nelson, W.L. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizer: an introduction to nutrient management Prentice Hall, New York, 499p.
19. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A, (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.P. 680.
20. Haftamu Gebretsadik, Mitiku Haile, Charles F., Yamoah (2009). Tillage Frequency, Soil Compaction and N-Fertilizer Rate Effects on Yield of Tef [EragrostisTef (Zucc) Trotter] in Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia Thesis presented to Mekelle University Ethiopia.
21. Hailu Hillette, Tekalign Mamo, Rikka Keskinen, Erik Karltun, Heluf Gebrekidan, Taye Bekele (2015). Soil fertility status and wheat nutrient content in Vertisol cropping systems of central highlands of Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security, 4(1): 19.
22. Jackson, M.L, (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis. Printice Hall. Ind, Englewood, Chiffs N.J. USA. 284p.
23. Kebebew Assefa (1991). Effect of some synthetic plant growth regulations on lodging. An M.Sc. thesis presented to the school of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. Pp.1-19.
24. Legesse Admassu (2004). Response of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to Phosphorus and Nitrogen Application in North Eastern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.71pp.
25. Mitiku Melaku (2008). Effect of Seeding and Nitrogen Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] at Adet North Western Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
26. Mulugeta Gezehagn (2003). Response of tef [Ergrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to applied nitrogen and phosphorus in Vertisols of Raya,Tigry. M.Sc. Thesis, Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia,60 pp.
27. Murphy, H.F. 1968. A report on fertility status and other data on some soils of Ethiopia.
28. Olsen, S., Cole, C., Watanabe, F., Dean, L, (1954). Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA Circular No.939, US Gov. Print. Office, Washington, D.C.
29. Sahlemedhin S, Taye B, (2000). Procedures for Soil and Plant Analysis. National Soil Research Center Technical. Paper 74.NFIA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
30. SAS (Statistical Analysis System) (2012). SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 9.4. SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC.
31. Seyfu Ketema (1993). Tef (Eragrosits tef), Breeding, agronomy, genetic resources, utilization and role in Ethiopian agriculture. Institute of Agricultural Research.
32. Seyfu Ketema (1983). Studies of lodging floral, biology, and breeding techniques in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter)]. Ph.D. Thesis presented to the school of graduate studies of University of London.
33. Seyfu Ketema (1993). Tef [Eragrostistef (Zucc.) Trotter]. Breeding, Genetic Resources, Agronomy, Utilization and Role in Ethiopian Agriculture. Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
34. Seyfu Ketema (1997). Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter]. Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected crops.12. International Plant Genetics Resources Institute(IPGRI), Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 50 pp.
35. Kebebew Assefa, Tams AR, Mooney SJ, Berry PM, (2004). The effect of lodging in cereals on morphological properties of the root-soil complex. 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, University of Sydney, Australia.
36. Tekalign Mamo, TekalignTadese & Aduayi E.A. 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis manual. Plant Science Division WorkingDocument 13, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
37. Tekalign Mammo, Teklu Erkossa, Balesh Tulema (2001). Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Research on Tef in Ethiopia. pp.199-200. In: Hailu Tefera, Getachew Belay and Mark Sorrels (eds.) Narrowing the Rift Tef Research and Development, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tef Genetics and Improvement,16-19 October, 2000. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
38. Tekalign Mamo, Teklu Erkossa, BaleshTulema (2000). Review of soil fertility and plant nutrition research conducted on tef. Proceeding of the International workshop tef genetics and improvement. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.pp.37-38
39. Teklay Tesfay , Girmay Gebresamuel (2016). Agronomic and Economic Evaluations of Compound Fertilizer Applications Under Different Planting Methods and Seed Rates of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] in Northern Ethiopia. Journal of the Dry lands 6(1): 409-422
40. Temesgen Kassahun (2001). The effect of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield traits of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter]. M.Sc. Thesis. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia pp.: 30-3650
41. Temesgen Kebede, 2012. Response of tef (Ergrostis tef Trotter) cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer rates in Menkeya District, North Shewa, and Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis, Haramaya University.
42. Tolosa S (2012). Effects of inorganic fertilizer types and sowing methods of variable.
43. Troeh, F. R. and Thompson, L. M. 1993. Soil sand soil fertility.
44. Vavilov, N.I, (1951). The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Chronica Botany, 13: 1-351.
45. Wakene Tigre, Walelign Worku, Wassie Haile (2014). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Bore District, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. American Journal of Life Sciences, 2(5): 260-266.
46. Walkley, A, Black, I. A, (1934). An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37: 29-37.